Paper is one of the most utilized products in the world for business as well as individual activities. Contrary to the optimistic prediction of years ago that improvements in electronic technologies would eventually render a "paperless" society, the use of paper products has been ever increasing. As a result, it is not surprising that the impact of manufacturing, processing and using such an enormous quantity of wood pulp has a huge impact on the environment and public health of the planet.
According to the third party certification organization, Green Seal, the pulp & paper industry ranks first in use of industrial process water, third in toxic chemical releases and fourth in emissions of air pollutants known to impair respiratory health. Some of the consequences associated with these operations include deforestation of large wooded areas, including old growth endangered forests and rainforests; an acceleration of climate change conditions; environmental pollution of air and water, and an increase in waste materials.
Recognizing this fact, many governments and institutions are now using post-consumer recycled content papers for office, janitorial, and foodservice operations, and when possible, replace virgin wood paper products with tree-free alternatives such as kenaf or bamboo. Unbleached paper products and items bleached without the use of chlorine or chlorine derivatives are also preferable.
Since 1994, Massachusetts has only purchased office paper and envelopes with a minimum post-consumer recycled content of 30% (unless a particular paper type is only available with a lesser percentage) and other janitorial and foodservice papers that meet federal recycled content standards. In addition, 50% and 100% post-consumer content are available on the state contract as well as various tree-free options. The quality, performance and availability of the products are equal to their virgin counterparts. Although recycled content paper can be slightly more expensive than the virgin paper at the time of purchase (often depending on the volume of the purchase), experience indicates that recycled paper is eventually less expensive when considering long term impacts and life cycle cost of the product.
The manufacturing process utilized by the pulp and paper industry promotes a significant impact to the environment and public health. From the practices employed in obtaining virgin pulp to the chemicals used in production and finally, the output of solid and hazardous waste, should be taken into consideration when purchasing any type of paper product. Some of these impacts include:
Deforestation and Resource Deprivation
Trees may be renewable, but old-growth forest plant and animal habitats and ecosystems are often not renewable because of the complex ecological balance which was built over thousands, even millions, of years. The practice of continuous large-scale logging accelerates deforestation and leads to global warming, and eventually affects forest resources for future generations.
According to Dolphin Blue, forest cover has decreased to 4-6% in the last 200 years. Commercial logging of tropical forest doubled since 1960, and wood consumption has tripled during the 20 th century, causing deforestation at staggering rates. For example, an area the size of Connecticut is being clear-cut in the North American Boreal Forest each day. According to the estimate of Dolphin Blue, one ton (40 cartons) of uncoated virgin printing and office paper requires 24 trees; newsprint production requires 12 trees. [In the U.S., about 30% of the timber harvested is used to make paper products (Green Seal)].
Toxic Pollution and Health Implications
Many toxic chemicals are used in paper making, especially toxic solvents and chlorine compounds used to bleach and delignify pulp. Additional toxins are used as biocides to prevent bacterial growth in the pulp and finished paper products. According to Green Seal, the paper manufacturing industry releases 1.5 trillion gallons of wastewater contaminated with organochlorine compounds each year. The chlorine and/or chlorine derivatives that are used for bleaching create organochlorines as by-products, which are considered dioxins, or substances that can cause cancer and create other reproductive disorders, as well as impacts to developmental and the immune system. Organochlorines, persist in the environment indefinitely, traveling long distances and accumulating up through the food chain.
Pulp and paper mills are large sources of standard air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide and particulates, volatile organic compounds, nitrous oxides, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide. These contribute to ozone warnings, acid rain, climate change and respiratory problems and have a detrimental effect on plant and aquatic life.
Water and Energy Consumption
Paper making uses a great deal of water, which can diminish groundwater supplies and it is very energy intensive. The process often draws large amounts of electricity from public utilities, sometimes requiring mills to build their own power plants. In fact, making one ton of paper by burning fossil fuels uses more than 680 gallons of oil and 10,601 kilowatt hours of electricity as well as releases greenhouse gases and other hazardous pollutants into the air. In addition, the process represents various hidden damages due to fuel extraction at the source (oil drilling, oil spills, coal mining, pipelines, transmission lines, etc.)
According to EPA's 2005 report, paper and paperboard products represent 34%, or the largest component of all Municipal Solid Waste. Although the recycling rate of paper has increased in recent years, an estimated 50% of waste paper still ends up in the waste stream annually, contributing to expanded landfills, increased incineration and air, water, and soil contamination.
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Recycled office and janitorial paper products can be manufactured to the same quality and performance standards as paper from virgin pulp. This has not always been true. In the earlier stages of development, recycled fiber was simply substituted for virgin fiber without re-engineering the manufacturing processes and some of the papers manufactured under these conditions did not perform as well as the virgin paper. Since then, the market has evolved and most manufacturers are now producing many varieties of high-quality, cost-competitive recycled paper.
In fact, according to studies done by the USEPA, using recycled fiber is actually cheaper than harvesting and processing virgin fiber and can save 22-64% of energy costs over virgin paper production. Considering that there is a substantial amount of paper still left in the waste stream, the potential for much greater savings remains, especially in high-grade printing and writing papers that may contain only 10% post-consumer waste. Some other benefits to purchasing recycled content paper products include the following (links to the information sources referenced below are provided under the "Related Links" bullet at the end of this page):
- Primary resources conservation - 1 ton of 30% post-consumer content copier paper (or tree-free materials such as kenaf) saves 7.2 trees, and 12 trees for 50% (Source: Dolphin Blue)
- Water and energy conservation (in the production system) - Using 1 ton of 100% recycled paper saves 4,100 kwh of energy and 7,000 gallons of water (Source: Conservatree)
- Air/ water/ soil pollution prevention - Choosing paper products that are manufactured without any chlorine compounds in their current production cycle, such as Process Chlorine Free (PCF) and Totally Chlorine Free (TCF), are preferred over Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) which substitutes chlorine derivatives (primarily chlorine dioxide) in the bleaching process. Also, using 1 ton of 100% recycled paper keeps more than 60 pounds of pollution out of the air (Source: Conservatree)
- Waste prevention - Reducing the volume of paper going into the waste stream also reduces air pollution from incineration and saves landfill space. 1 ton of recycled paper saves 3 cubic yards of land fill space (Source: Green Seal)
- Global warming prevention - Reducing waste paper products going into combustors serves to limit the emission of greenhouse gases and work toward mitigating climate change conditions.(Source: USEPA)
In Fiscal Year 2006, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts purchased an estimated $21,137,700.07 worth of recycled content paper products, including the paper types mentioned above as well as various printed materials and lottery tickets (made with a minimum of 10% post-consumer content). Using the environmental benefits calculator (EnviroCalc) developed by the Massachusetts EPP Program, the following benefits were recorded for FY2006:
For example, it estimated copy papers and envelopes with the recycled content of 30% saved 13,752 cubic yards of landfill space and 64,253 million BTU of energy, reduced CO 2 emission by 15,746 tons, and conserved 54,337 trees.
Weight of Material Recycled
Annual solid waste generation of 2,032 households
544acres of wood plantation
Landfill space savings
13,752 cubic yards
688 loaded garbage trucks
64,253 million BTU
Energy content of 11,078 barrels of oil
Carbon dioxide emissions
Annual tailpipe emissions of 3,092 cars
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Contract Summary and Specifications:
- Contract #: OFF19
- Contract Title: Office Supplies, Recycled Paper and Envelopes
OFF19 includes three categories of the most common office products: office supplies (Category 1), various types of office papers (Category 2) and envelopes (Category 3) under one contract. The intent is to allow users to purchase all of their office administrative needs utilizing one contract which should simplify and reduce the administrative cost with processing orders from the initial request through the payment process. The majority of the paper products in Category 1 and all of the products in Categories 2 and 3are required to meet minimum post-consumer recycled content standards that meet or exceed the federal standards. Those recycled content percentages are outlined in the contract. For guidance on how to access the contract via the website, see the directions below. For guidance on how to purchase from the contract, see the OSD Update # 06-07A.
All the contract specifications for the various categories can be found in the OFF19 (RFR) Contract Terms and Conditions document on the Comm-PASS site. The specifications directly related to environmental issues are located on pages 17-22. For convenience, the OFF19 environmental specifications are provided via this link.
International Paper - Xpedx - Category 2 Recycled Paper
- Contact: Richard Glennon, Contract Manager
- Phone: 978-988-8604 Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Lindenmeyr Munroe - Category 2 Recycled Paper
- Contact: Timothy Goldberg, Sales Representative
- Phone: 800-237-2737x351 Email: email@example.com
Bay State Envelope - Category 3 Recycled Plain and Printed Envelopes
- Contact: Mandi Razukiewicz, Customer Service
- Phone: 508-337-8900x127 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Worcester Envelope Company - Category 3 Recycled Plain and Printed Envelopes
- Contact: Rachel Blum, Contract Manager
- Phone: 774-272-3015 Email: email@example.com
Accessing the Massachusetts State Contract
To access the contract details and pricing on the Commonwealth's website, the Procurement Access and Solicitation System (Comm-PASS), it is recommended that you search the site using the following steps:
- www.comm-pass.com (Home page)
- Front page of Comm-Pass select search for contracts link,
- Search page - input OFF19 in the document number box and click search,
- Sentence Link - Click on the sentence link at the top of the search page and the contract title will appear,
- Click on the eyeglasses at the end of the active contract name,
- Click on the Terms Tab for additional contract information or click on the Vendor Tab to view the list of Contractors,
- Click on the " eyeglasses" for all Contractors to expand the view and at the bottom of the expanded view page are the approved cost files for all products offered by that vendor.
- EPA Municipal Solid Waste - Paper and Paper Products: http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non- hw/muncpl/paper.htm; http://www.epa.gov/garbage/facts.htm;
- New American Dream: http://www.newdream.org/procure/products/paper.php
- 3. Conservatree.Org: http://www.conservatree.org/
- 4. Dolphin Blue: http://www.dolphinblue.com/whybuy.html
- 5. Green Seal, Choose Green Report: http://www.greenseal.org/resources/reports.cfm