GIS for Communities – Questions and Answers
What is a GIS?
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system to manage and to display digital mapping. A GIS stores the shape of individual map features (a street segment, a parcel of land) along with descriptive information (often called feature “attributes”). In a GIS map of streets, the shape of each segment is stored along with the street name, and the segment can be located, queried or labeled using that name; a parcel of land will be linked to one or more tax records which can tell you the owner, valuation, use or any other attribute.
It’s important to think of a GIS as a whole system including the following:
- computers, plotters and other hardware;
- commercial GIS software (ESRI is the state standard) and possibly customized applications;
- digital data – mapping of features like roads, boundaries, parcels, aerial photos;
- trained staff who manage the system and support end-users
GIS technology can provide cities and towns with significant benefits: greater transparency and access by citizens; more effective asset management; improved delivery of services; the ability to visualize current status and to plan for future projects.
Does the state have a GIS?
MassGIS is the state GIS – officially called the Commonwealth's Office of Geographic Information, located within the Information Technology Division (ITD) which is part of Administration and Finance. The state legislature has designated MassGIS as the state agency responsible for the collection, storage and dissemination of geographic data. The MassGIS home page is here with links to resources. MassGIS has built a comprehensive, statewide GIS data warehouse which is used by state agencies, cities and towns, businesses, schools, non-profits and by the general public. Mapping currently available from MassGIS includes streets, surface water bodies and wetlands, elevation, aerial photos, schools, tax maps, roof outlines for all structures and much more. In addition, MassGIS has the mandate to coordinate GIS activity within the Commonwealth and to set standards for geographic data . MassGIS staff get input from the Massachusetts Geographic Information Council (MGIC) which includes representatives from state, regional, and local government.
How can my town get a GIS up and running?
Right now, without any investment, municipal staff and the general public can access mapping of municipal layers through an on-line GIS “viewer” called MuniMapper (think Google Maps, but with dozens of map layers of interest to municipal staff). This is offer is open to any city or town, and this link brings you to a town that has posted this on their website and has provided some local zoning data. Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org to sign up. The next level of use would be a trained user with actual GIS desktop software – MassGIS manages a statewide master contract for procuring ESRI ArcGIS software, which is the state standard. Starting with available data from MassGIS, a GIS staff person can create new layers, geocode town lists (pinpoint geographic locations from addresses), produce customized maps and perform analyses that combine the power of mapping and other data. One person can provide basic GIS maps and services to multiple departments. In many cases, setting up a GIS will initiate a process of data sharing between departments that can dramatically increase productivity and improve the level of services to the public. A more comprehensive strategy integrates GIS into municipal software for permit tracking and assessing; this approach can greatly enhance municipal government workflows. Finally, putting a community’s GIS on-line is a cost-effective and user-friendly way to provide citizens access to GIS information either from the state or additional community-specific mapping like permit locations, municipal infrastructure or zoning maps. MuniMapper can accomplish this or there are several commercial outfits that perform this work, as well..
Last Updated 4/9/2013
This standard for spatial accuracy and detail of assessor parcel mapping and related attribute information is for developing digital versions of assessor’s property maps for use in planning, property assessment, and map display. Version 2.1, Released May 2012
This standard applies to CADD files submitted as part of development review; if implemented by a municpality, the standard makes it easier to use these CADD files for updating municipal GIS databases.
This document by the Open Data Consortium is a helpful and thorough review of the issues in GIS data distribution; it also includes a model policy. NOTE: Before being used, the model policy language MUST be reviewed for compliance with the Massachusetts Public Records Law .
A selection of disclaimers being used on printed maps and for on-line mapping sites.
ESRI and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts signed a Master Service Agreement ("state blanket contract") under which all political subdivisions of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts can purchase products and services from ESRI.
The regional planning agencies in Massachusetts each have one or more GIS staff. Depending on the type and size of the project, RPA GIS staff may be able to provide GIS services to municipalities. Acquiring services in this manner is consistent with state law covering municipal procurements [see MGL Chapter 30B, Section 1(b)(3)]. Contact your RPA to discuss your options.
MassGIS Guide to GIS service providers on State Master Services Agreement TS43TechSpec and ITS43SolProv.