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A

ABUSE OF DISCRETION 

Appellate court’s review for 

§ 102, Note. Purpose and Construction

§ 413(a) , Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Bowden evidence

§ 1107 , Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Character evidence 

§ 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case 

§ 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts 

Courtroom experiments and demonstrations

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Discharge of juror during trial 

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment 

Evidence of sexual behavior or sexual reputation 

§ 412(a), Note. Prohibited Uses 

Evidence of similar occurrences

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Exclusion as sanction 

§ 103(g), Note. Exclusion as Sanction 

Expert witness testimony 

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses 

First complaint doctrine 

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint 

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis 

Opening statements 

§ 1113(a)(1), Note. Purpose 

Peremptory challenges

§ 1116(b)(1), Note . Stage One: Prima Facie Case of Unlawful Discrimination

§ 1116(c), Note . Overruling the Objection

Scope of cross-examination

§ 611(b)(2), Note . Bias and Prejudice

Sequestration of witnesses

§ 615, Note . Sequestration of Witnesses

Statistical summaries of compilations of raw data

§ 803(17), Note . Statements of Facts of General Interest

ABUSE PREVENTION ACT PROCEEDINGS 

§ 1106. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings 

ACCUSED 

See DEFENDANT

ADJUDICATIVE FACTS 

§ 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts 

ADMISSIBILITY 

Additional reports of sexual assault 

§ 413(b). Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis 

Authentication or identification as precedent of 

§ 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence 

Blood alcohol/breathalyzer tests, refusal of 

§ 511(a)(2), Note. Refusal Evidence 

§ 801(a), Note. Statement 

Character evidence 

§ 404 . Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts 

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character 

§ 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness 

§ 803(21). Reputation Concerning Character 

Character trait 

§ 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts 

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character 

Collateral source payments

§ 411 , Note. Insurance

Compromise 

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Computer simulations

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Conduct, prior sexual 

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law) 

Conduct, specific instances 

§ 405(b). By Specific Instances of Conduct 

§ 608(b). Specific Instances of Conduct 

Confessions

§ 801(d)(2)(A) , Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Copies 

§ 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule) 

§ 1003. Admissibility of Duplicate 

§ 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content 

§ 1005. Official Records 

Courtroom experiments and demonstrations

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons 

Crimes 

§ 404(b) . Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts 

Curative

§ 106(b) . Curative Admissibility

Depositions and affidavits

§ 801(d)(1)(A), Note . A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Determination of 

§ 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

§ 104. Preliminary Questions 

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons 

Evidence not admissible against other parties or for other purposes

§ 105 . Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes

Evidence of insurance

§ 411 . Insurance

Expert testimony 

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses 

§ 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts 

§ 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue 

§ 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion 

§ 706. Court-Appointed Experts 

Expressions of sympathy 

§ 409. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical and Similar Expenses 

Extrapolation evidence

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Eyewitness identification

§ 1112 . Eyewitness Identification

First complaint 

§ 413(a). Admissibility of First Complaint 

Habit 

§ 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual 

Hearsay 

Article VIII, Intro. Hearsay

§ 801. Definitions 

§ 802. The Rule Against Hearsay 

§ 803. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial 

§ 804 . Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable 

§ 805. Hearsay Within Hearsay 

§ 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant 

§ 807 . Residual Exception

§ 1101(c)(3) , Note. Certain Other Proceedings

§ 1103 . Sexually Dangerous Person Proceedings

Irrelevant evidence 

§ 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence 

Limited admissibility 

§ 105. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes 

Medical and hospital bills 

§ 411, Note. Insurance 

§ 803(6)(C), Note. Medical and Hospital Services 

§ 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills and Reports 

Medical and hospital records 

§ 803(6)(A), Note . Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

§ 803(6)(B). Hospital Records 

§ 902(k). Certified Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Treatment and Medical History 

Medical reports

§ 803(6)(C), Note . Medical and Hospital Services

Mortality tables 

§ 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports 

Negotiations 

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Offers to compromise 

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Photographs of victim

§ 403, Note . Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Pleas 

§ 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements 

Prior statements of witnesses

§ 613 . Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

Relevant evidence 

§ 401. Test for Relevant Evidence 

§ 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence 

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons 

Remedial measures 

§ 407. Subsequent Remedial Measures 

Reports and records in child protective cases

§ 1115 . Evidentiary Issues in Care and Protection and Termination of Parental Rights Cases

Role of judge 

§ 104(a). In General 

Similar occurrences, evidence of

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Statutes limiting 

§ 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence 

Summaries 

§ 1006. Summaries to Prove Content 

Suppressed statements, for impeachment

§ 511(d) , Note. Use of Suppressed Statements

Test for 

§ 104. Preliminary Questions 

Ultimate issue testimony 

§ 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue 

Writing or object used to refresh memory

§ 612(b) . Admissibility

ADMISSIONS 

Adoptive admission 

§ 801(d)(2)(B), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement 

Binding 

§ 611(g)(1), Note. Form and Effect 

By conduct 

§ 801(d)(2)(B), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement 

By silence 

§ 801(d)(2)(B), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement 

Defined, criminal case 

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement 

Evidentiary

§ 611(g)(1), Note . Form and Effect

Inconsistent statements by prosecutor 

§ 801(d)(2)(D), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement 

Joint venture 

§ 801(d)(2)(E), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement 

Judicial 

§ 611(g)(1), Note. Form and Effect 

Made on face of settlement documents 

§ 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Nonbinding 

§ 611(g)(1), Note. Form and Effect 

Of liability 

§ 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

 § 409(a) . Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

Party-opponent 

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay 

§ 801(d)(2), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement 

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement 

§ 801(d)(2)(D), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement 

§ 804(b)(3) , Note. Statement Against Interest

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

§ 1115(d)(1), Note. Statements Not Related to Sexual Abuse 

To sufficient facts

§ 410 . Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note . An Opposing Party’s Statement

Vicarious admissions 

§ 801(d)(2)(D), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement 

ADVERSE INFERENCE 

Abuse prevention and harassment prevention proceedings 

§ 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Claim of privilege

§ 525 . Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege

Consciousness of guilt or liability 

§ 1110(c). Rebuttal 

Failure to call witness 

§ 1111. Missing Witness 

Generally 

§ 525. Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege 

Missing witness 

§ 1113(b)(3)(A) , Note. Improper Argument

Parent claiming Fifth Amendment privilege child protective cases

§ 1115(e)(3), Note . Parents Called by Adverse Party

Privilege against self-incrimination 

§ 511(b), Note. Privilege of a Witness 

§ 525(b) . Criminal Case

Psychotherapist-patient privilege 

§ 503(c). Effect of Exercise of Privilege 

ADVERSE PARTY 

Calling of parents by in child protective cases

§ 1115(e)(3) . Parents Called by Adverse Party

Entitlement to writing used by witness to refresh memory 

§ 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory 

Interrogation of 

§ 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence 

Notice of intent to use treatise to impeach witness 

§ 803(18). Learned Treatises 

Permission to use another part of admitted statement or record 

§ 106(a). Remainder of Writings or Recorded Statements 

ADVERSE WITNESS 

Impeachment of

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness 

Leading questions to examine

§ 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence 

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(a), Note . In General

AFFIRMATION OR OATH 

§ 603. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully 

ANCIENT DOCUMENTS 

§ 803(16). Statements in Ancient Documents 

§ 901(b)(8). Evidence About Ancient Documents 

APPELLATE REVIEW 

§ 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

APPLICABILITY, EVIDENTIARY SECTIONS 

§ 1101. Applicability of Evidentiary Sections 

ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE 

Adverse inference from, civil case 

§ 525(a). Civil Case 

Burden of proving

§ 502, Note . Attorney-Client Privilege

Corporations and shareholders 

§ 502(c), Note. Who May Claim the Privilege 

Defined

§ 502 , Note. Attorney-Client Privilege

Definition of terms used regarding 

§ 502(a) . Definitions

Derivative attorney-client privilege

§ 502(a)(5) , Note. Definitions

Exceptions 

§ 502(d). Exceptions 

General rule 

§ 502(b). General Rule of Privilege 

Jointly represented clients

§ 523(a), Note . Who Can Waive

Law firms and clients 

§ 502(c), Note. Who May Claim the Privilege 

Not self-executing

Article V, Intro. (c) . Most Privileges Are Not Self-Executing

Waiver 

§ 523(a), Note . Who Can Waive

§ 523(b)(2), Note. Conduct Constituting Waiver 

§ 523(c)(2), Note. Conduct Not Constituting Waiver 

Who may claim 

§ 502(a) . Definitions

§ 502(c). Who May Claim the Privilege 

Work-product doctrine

§ 502(d)(6), Note . Public Officer or Agency

AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION 

Generally 

§ 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence 

Of ancient documents 

§ 901(b)(8). Evidence About Ancient Documents 

Of electronic or digital communication 

§ 901(b)(11). Electronic or Digital Communication 

Of handwriting 

§ 901(b)(2). Nonexpert Opinion About Handwriting 

§ 901(b)(3), Note. Comparison by an Expert Witness or the Trier of Fact 

Of process or system 

§ 901(b)(9) . Evidence About a Process or System 

Of public records or reports 

§ 901(b)(7). Evidence About Public Records 

Of signature 

§ 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony 

Of telephone conversation 

§ 901(b)(6). Evidence About a Telephone Conversation 

Of voice 

§ 901(b)(5). Opinion About a Voice 

Self-authentication 

§ 902. Evidence That Is Self-Authenticating

B

BAPTISMAL CERTIFICATES 

§ 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates 

BATTERED WOMAN SYNDROME

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

BEHAVIOR, PAST 

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law) 

BENEVOLENT STATEMENTS 

§ 409. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical and Similar Expenses 

BEST EVIDENCE RULE (REQUIREMENT OF ORIGINAL) 

Admissibility of other evidence of contents 

§ 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content 

Admissions of parties 

§ 1007. Testimony or Statement of Party to Prove Content 

Applicability of 

§ 1001(a), Note. Writings and Records 

§ 1002, Note . Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

Duplicates 

§ 1003. Admissibility of Duplicates 

Electronic records 

§ 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule) 

Official records 

§ 1005. Official Records 

Originals, requirement of 

§ 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule) 

Role of judge and fact finder 

§ 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder 

Summaries 

§ 1006. Summaries to Prove Content 

Writings/records defined 

§ 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article 

BIAS 

Cross-examination to show 

§ 611(b)(2). Bias and Prejudice 

§ 613(a)(4), Note. Collateral Matter 

Extrinsic proof to show 

§ 613(a)(4), Note. Collateral Matter 

Of complainant 

§ 412(b)(3), Note. Exceptions 

Of expert witness 

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument 

Of judge in questioning witness 

§ 614(b), Note. Examining by Court 

Of juror 

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment 

§ 1116(a) . General Principles

Of spouse testifying against his or her spouse 

§ 504(b)(2). Exceptions, (H) 

Of witness 

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

§ 411. Insurance 

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint 

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime 

§ 611(b)(2), Note. Bias and Prejudice 

§ 613(b)(2). Exception 

§ 801(d)(1)(B), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement 

§ 803(3)(B) , Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

BLOOD ALCOHOL/BREATHALYZER TESTS 

Admission of 

§ 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records 

Evidence regarding accuracy

§ 611(f), Note . Reopening

Expert testimony 

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses 

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony 

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony 

Failure to take properly as evidence 

§ 511(a)(2), Note. Refusal Evidence

Reference to, in opening statement

§ 1113(d), Note . Duty of the Court

Refusal as evidence

§ 511(a)(2), Note . Refusal Evidence

§ 801(a), Note. Statement 

 

BOUNDARIES, REPUTATION CONCERNING 

§ 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History 

BOWDEN DEFENSE 

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence 

§ 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence 

BUSINESS RECORDS 

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony 

§ 803(6). Business and Hospital Records 

§ 803(6)(A), Note . Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

§ 902(i), Note. Commercial Paper and Related Documents 

§ 1115(b)(5). Police Reports

C

CARE AND PROTECTION CASES

§ 1115 . Evidentiary Issues in Care and Protection and Termination of Parental Rights Cases

CERTIFICATES

Attested to by experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Death certificate

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

§ 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports

From registry of motor vehicles

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Of baptism

§ 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

Of copy of official/public record

§ 901(b)(7)(B), Note . Copies

§ 901(b) . Domestic Official Records Not Under Seal

§ 901(c) . Foreign Official Records

§ 1005(a)(1) , Domestic

§ 1005(a)(2) , Foreign

Of drug analysis

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Of marriage

§ 803(9), Note . Public Records of Vital Statistics

§ 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

§ 804(b)(7), Note. Religious Records

Of working firearm

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2) . Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Prima facie evidence

§ 302(c), Note. Prima Facie Evidence

CHAIN OF CUSTODY

§ 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

CHARACTER EVIDENCE

Admissibility of

§ 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character

§ 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

§ 803(21). Reputation Concerning Character

Essential element

§ 405(b). By Specific Instances of Conduct

For truthfulness

§ 404(a)(3). Exceptions for a Witness

Generally

§ 404(a). Character Evidence

Of defendant

§ 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case, (A)

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character

§ 608(a), Note. Reputation Evidence

Of victim

§ 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

Of witness

§ 404(a)(3). Exceptions for a Witness

§ 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Other crimes, wrongs, or acts

§ 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

Proof of character

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character

Reputation

§ 405(a). By Reputation

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

CHARACTER TRAIT

Admissibility

§ 404(a). Character Evidence

Defendant

§ 608(a), Note . Reputation Evidence

Essential element

§ 405(b). By Specific Instances of Conduct

Proof

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character

Reputation as evidence of

§ 405(a). By Reputation

CHILD ABUSE

Department of Children and Families (DCF) reports

§ 1115(b)(2)(A), Note. G. L. c. 119, § 51A, Reports

Drug and alcohol treatment records

§ 1115(b)(3) . Drug and Alcohol Treatment Records

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

§ 503(d)(7). Child Abuse or Neglect

Religious privilege

§ 510(c). Child Abuse

Sexual abuse

§ 503(d)(7). Child Abuse or Neglect

§ 803(24). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Proceeding to Place Child in Foster Care

§ 1115(d). Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

Spousal disqualification

§ 504(b)(2). Exceptions, (D)

Spousal privilege

§ 504(a)(3). Exceptions

CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE

Of authenticity or identity of an item

§ 901(a), Note. In General

Of declarant’s guilt

§ 804(b)(3), Note. Statement Against Interest

Of declarant’s state of mind

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

Of identity of person

§ 901(b)(5), Note. Opinion About a Voice

Of nature of a place or a thing

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

CIVIL CASES

Abuse of discretion

§ 102, Note . Purpose and Construction

Claims of privilege

§ 525(a) . Civil Case

Closing argument

§ 1113(b). Closing Argument

Compromise offers and negotiations

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Consciousness of liability

§ 1110(b). Civil Cases

Disclosure of facts/data by expert witness

§ 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Expert testimony, basis of

§ 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Expert witnesses

§ 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

§ 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

§ 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

§ 706. Court-Appointed Experts

Expressions of sympathy

§ 409(a). Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

Industry and safety standards

§ 414. Industry and Safety Standards

Inferences

§ 301(b) . Inferences

§ 511(b) , Note. Privilege of a Witness

§ 525(a) . Civil Case

Judicial admissions

§ 611(g)(1) , Note. Form and Effect

Judicial notice

§ 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

§ 202. Judicial Notice of Law

Jury exposure to extraneous material

§ 606(b), Note . During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Opening statement

§ 1113(a). Opening Statement

Peremptory challenges of potential jurors

§ 1116 . Peremptory Challenges of Potential Jurors

Presumptions

§ 301(d). Presumptions

Prima facie evidence

§ 301(c). Prima Facie Evidence

Privilege against self-incrimination

§ 511(b) . Privilege of a Witness

Scope of cross-examination

§ 611(b)(1), Note. In General

Sequestration of witnesses

§ 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Spoliation or destruction of evidence

§ 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Spousal disqualification

§ 504(b)(1) . General Rule

Statements of facts of general interest

§ 803(17). Statements of Facts of General Interest

Statutory hearsay exceptions

§ 804(b)(5). Statutory Exceptions in Civil Cases

Ultimate issue

§ 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Views

§ 1109. View

CLOSING ARGUMENT

Asking jurors for justice for victim

§ 1113(b)(3)(C) , Note. Improper Argument

Asking jurors to use common sense, apply common experience

§ 1113(b)(1), Note. Critical Stage

Attacking credibility

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Burden of proof

§ 1113(b)(3). Improper Argument, (E)

Collateral sources/outside source of compensation

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note. Improper Argument

Commenting on criminal defendant’s silence or testimony

§ 1113(b)(2), Note . Permissible Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Commenting on defendant’s courtroom appearance or conduct

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Commenting that witness has no motive to lie

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Critical stage of trial

§ 1113(b)(1). Critical Stage

Denigrating of constitutional rights

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Improper argument

§ 1113(b)(3). Improper Argument

Improper vouching

§ 1113(b)(3)(B), Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Jurors

§ 1113(b)(1), Note. Critical Stage

§ 1113(b)(2). Permissible Argument

§ 1113(b)(3). Improper Argument

Measures to prevent improper argument

§ 1113(d), Note . Duty of the Court

Missing witness, arguments concerning

§ 1111(a), Note. Argument by Counsel

§ 1113(b)(3)(A) , Note. Improper Argument

Misstatements of law

§ 1113(b)(3). Improper Argument, (E)

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Misstating evidence

§ 1113(b)(2), Note. Permissible Argument

§ 1113(b)(3). Improper Argument, (A)

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note. Improper Argument

Permissible argument

§ 1113(b)(2). Permissible Argument

Prearrest silence, use of for impeachment purposes

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Reading from or quoting transcript or stipulation

§ 1113(b)(2), Note. Permissible Argument

Reference to damages

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Reference to evidence as uncontradicted or uncontested

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note . Improper Argument

Reference to facts not in evidence

§ 1113(b)(2), Note. Permissible Argument

§ 1113(b)(3). Improper Argument, (A)

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note. Improper Argument

Reference to plea agreement

§ 1113(b)(3)(B), Note. Improper Argument

Reference to view

§ 1113(b)(1), Note. Critical Stage

Resort to stereotypes

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Responses to improper argument

§ 1113(d), Note. Duty of the Court

Retaliatory reply

§ 1113(b)(2), Note. Permissible Argument

Shifting the burden of proof

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Statements concerning role of jury

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Time allowed

§ 1113(b), Note . Closing Argument

Use of chalks

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note. Improper Argument

Use of evidence admitted for a limited purpose

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note. Improper Argument

Use of props

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note. Improper Argument

Use of rhetorical questions

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

COLLATERAL SOURCE RULE

§ 411, Note. Insurance

COMMON INTEREST DOCTRINE

§ 502(b), Note. General Rule of Privilege

COMMUNICATIONS, PRIVILEGED

See PRIVILEGES AND DISQUALIFICATIONS

COMPETENCY OF WITNESS

Court, discretion of

§ 601(c). Preliminary Questions

Court personnel

§ 605. Competency of Judge as Witness

Criminal defendant

§ 511(a)(3), Note . Compelled Examination

§ 601, Note. Competency

Expert

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

§ 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

§ 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

General rule

§ 601. Competency

Judge

§ 605. Competency of Judge as Witness

Juror

§ 606. Juror’s Competency as a Witness

Mental capacity

§ 601. Competency

Minor

§ 601. Competency

§ 610 , Note. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

COMPLETENESS, WRITTEN AND ORAL

§ 106. Doctrine of Completeness

COMPROMISE

Admissibility

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Negotiations

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

§ 409(b). Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

Offers to

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

§ 409(b). Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

CONDUCT

Habit

§ 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

Of defendant

§ 1110(a). Criminal Cases

Of trial

§ 611(a). Control by the Court

Of witness

§ 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Past behavior

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Personal knowledge of

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character

Routine practice as evidence of inadmissible conduct

§ 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

Sexual, prior

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Specific instances

§ 405(b). By Specific Instances of Conduct

§ 608(b). Specific Instances of Conduct

CONFESSIONS

Admissibility of

§ 104(c). Conducting a Hearing So That the Jury Cannot Hear It

§ 402, Note . General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

§ 801(d)(2)(A) , Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Allied mental health or human services professional privilege

§ 508(d) . Mental Health Counselor Exception, (2)

Of joint venturer

§ 801(d)(2)(E), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

§ 503(d)(2) . Court-Ordered Psychiatric Exam

Religious privilege

§ 510(b). Privilege

§ 510(c). Child Abuse

Social worker–client privilege

§ 507(c). Exceptions, (2)

Unrecorded

§ 511(a)(1) , Note. Custodial Interrogation

CONFRONTATION CLAUSE

Admission of party-opponent

§ 801(d)(2)(A) , Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Applicability of

Article VIII, Intro. Hearsay

Availability of declarant

§ 803, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial

§ 804, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Certificates

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Dying declarations

§ 804(b)(2) , Note. Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

Excited utterances of declarant who is not a witness at trial

§ 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Expert testimony

§ 703, Note, Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Forfeiture of, by wrongdoing 

§ 804(b)(6) , Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

Massachusetts law versus Federal law

§ 703, Note, Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (c). Massachusetts Law Versus Federal Law

Out-of-court statements

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 804 , Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Prior recorded testimony

§ 804(b)(1), Note. Prior Recorded Testimony

Privileged communications

§ 506(b). Privilege

§ 523(c)(1), Note. Conduct Not Constituting Waiver

Records and reports

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

§ 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

§ 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports

Safety concerns of witness

§ 501, Note. Privileges Recognized Only as Provided

Scope of cross-examination

§ 611(b)(1), Note. In General

Sequestration of defendant

§ 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Sexual offender registry records

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Spousal disqualification

§ 504(b)(2)(H), Note. Exceptions

Statements of nontestifying codefendant

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

State-of-mind evidence

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

Testimonial versus nontestimonial statements

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1). Testimonial Versus Nontestimonial; the Primary  Purpose Test

Testimony from witness outside defendant’s presence

§ 509(b), Note . Surveillance Location

Waiver of right to confrontation

§ 703, Note, Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (d). Waiver of Right to Confrontation

CONSCIOUSNESS OF GUILT

Arguing during closing argument

§ 1113(b)(2), Note . Permissible Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(A) , Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Conduct that may be offered as evidence

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Conduct that may not be offered as evidence

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Facts included in trial testimony but not in pretrial statement

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

False statements of defendant

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Generally

§ 1110(a). Criminal Cases

Jury instruction

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Rebuttal evidence

§ 1110(c). Rebuttal

Testimonial nature of evidence

§ 511(a)(2), Note. Refusal Evidence

Use of defendant’s prearrest conduct or silence

§ 801(d)(2)(B), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

CONSCIOUSNESS OF INNOCENCE

§ 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

CONSCIOUSNESS OF LIABILITY

Arguing during closing argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(A) , Note. Improper Argument

Conduct that may be offered as evidence

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Generally

§ 1110(b). Civil Cases

Jury instruction

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Rebuttal evidence

§ 1110(c). Rebuttal

CONTENTS OF WRITINGS, PROOF

Best evidence rule

§ 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

Copies

§ 1003. Admissibility of Duplicates

Other evidence

§ 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content

Summaries

§ 1006. Summaries to Prove Content

Testimony

§ 1007. Testimony or Statement of Party to Prove Content

CONVICTION

As evidence of character

§ 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

§ 405(a), Note. By Reputation

Definition of, for purpose of impeachment

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Due process clause

§ 302(a), Note. Scope

§ 302(d)(1), Note. Presumptions

Evidence of

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Impeachment of witness by use of

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

§ 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Prior convictions of complainant

§ 412(b)(3), Note. Exceptions

Prior convictions of defendant

§ 103(f), Note. Motions in Limine

§ 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

§ 803(22). Judgment of a Previous Conviction

Proof of

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Restitution after

§ 1114(a), Note. Nature and Extent of Remedy

Role of prosecutor in obtaining

§ 1113(b)(2) , Note. Permissible Argument

Use of in sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(b)(1) . Hearsay That Is Admissible

Wrongful convictions

§ 1112(a), Note. Eyewitness Identification Generally

§ 1113(b)(2), Note. Permissible Argument

COPIES, ADMISSIBILITY OF

§ 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

§ 1003. Admissibility of Duplicate

§ 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content

§ 1005. Official Records

COURT

Appointment of experts

§ 706. Court-Appointed Experts

Calling of witnesses by

§ 614(a). Calling

Closing arguments

§ 1113(d). Duty of the Court

Court-appointed experts

§ 706. Court-Appointed Experts

Directing an offer of proof be made

§ 103(c). Court’s Statement About the Ruling; Directing an Offer of Proof

Discretion

§ 102, Note. Purpose and Construction

§ 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

§ 521(b), Note. Privilege

§ 522, Note. Interpreter-Client Privilege

§ 601. Competency

§ 611(e). Scope of Subsequent Examination

§ 611 (f) . Reopening

§ 614(d) . Examining by Jurors

§ 803(17). Statements of Facts of General Interest

§ 901(b)(3), Note. Comparison by an Expert Witness or the Trier of Fact

§ 1109(a) . Availability

§ 1113(a)(2) . Directed Verdict, Finding of Not Guilty, or Mistrial

§ 1115(b)(2)(D) . DCF Social Worker Investigation Reports

Examining of witness by

§ 614(b). Examining by Court

Expert testimony, discretion as to

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Function

§ 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder

Opening statements

§ 1113(d). Duty of the Court

Reopening case, discretion to

§ 611(f). Reopening

Statement about evidence, objection, or ruling

§ 103(c). Court’s Statement About the Ruling; Directing an Offer of Proof

COURTROOM EXPERIMENTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

CREDIBILITY OF WITNESS

Attacking credibility

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Attorney commenting on, in closing argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(B), Note . Improper Argument

Collateral source payments and

§ 411, Note. Insurance

Complainant/alleged victim

§ 411(a), Note . Prohibited Uses

§ 413 . First Complaint of Sexual Assault

§ 1113(b)(3)(C) , Note. Improper Argument

Cross-examination on

§ 611(b)(1). In General

Defendant

§ 104(d) . Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 1101(d) , Note. Motions to Suppress

§ 1113(b)(3)(A) , Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(E) , Note. Improper Argument

Disputes as to

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Evidence relevant to

§ 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

Experts

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Impeachment of

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

§ 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

§ 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 801(d)(1)(A), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Improper vouching

§ 704 , Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

§ 1113(b)(3)(B), Note. Improper Argument

No motive to lie

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Offers to compromise and

§ 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

On preliminary question of fact

§ 104(a) , Note. In General

Opinion of other witness

§ 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

§ 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

§ 1101(c)(3), Note. Certain Other Proceedings

§ 1115(c)(1), Note. Court Investigation Reports

§ 1115(e)(7), Note. Experts

Personal opinion of attorney about

§ 1113(b)(3). Improper Argument, (B)

Prior inconsistent statements and

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 801(d)(1)(A), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Recent contrivance and

§ 613(b), Note. Prior Consistent Statements

Rehabilitation of

§ 801(d)(1)(B) , Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Religious beliefs and

§ 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

Trier of fact as judge of

§ 601(c). Preliminary Questions

Witness cooperation agreements and

§ 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

CRIMES

Conviction of

§ 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

§ 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Crime-fraud exception

§ 502(d)(1). Furtherance of Crime or Fraud

Evidence of other

§ 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

§ 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Evidence third-party committed

§ 1105 . Third-Party Culprit Evidence

Restitution

§ 1114 . Restitution

Violation of G. L. c. 209A order punishable as

§ 1106, Note . Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceeding

CRIMINAL CASES

Abuse of discretion

§ 102, Note . Purpose and Construction

Access to third-party records

Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records  from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases

§ 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Admissibility of records

§ 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

§ 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports

Admission of party-opponent

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Certificates

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Character evidence of accused

§ 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case, (A)

Confrontation clause (see CONFRONTATION CLAUSE)

Consciousness of guilt (see CONSCIOUSNESS OF GUILT)

Consciousness of innocence

§ 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Disclosure of facts, data by expert witness

§ 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Excited utterance, confrontation of

§ 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Exclusion of witnesses

§ 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Expert testimony, basis of

§ 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Expert witnesses

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Identity of informer

§ 509(a) . Identity of Informer

Identity of protected witness

§ 509(c) . Protected Witness

Inadequate police investigation

§ 1107. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Inferences

§ 302(b). Inferences

Judicial notice of facts

§ 201 . Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

Judicial notice of law

§ 202. Judicial Notice of Law

Missing witness

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

Out-of-court statements

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 804, Note . Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Presumptions

§ 302(d). Presumptions

Prima facie evidence

§ 302(c). Prima Facie Evidence

Rebuttal evidence

§ 611(d). Rebuttal Evidence

Reopening

§ 611(f), Note. Reopening

Restitution

§ 1114. Restitution

Scope of cross-examination

§ 611(b)(1), Note. In General

Sexual assault cases (see SEXUAL ASSAULT )

Spoliation or destruction of evidence

§ 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Statements against interest

§ 804(b)(3), Note . Statement Against Interest

Stipulations

§ 611(g). Stipulations

Substantial risk of a miscarriage of justice

§ 103(e). Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice in Criminal Cases

Suppressed statement used to impeach

§ 511(d) . Use of Suppressed Statements

Suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

§ 612(b)(3). Suppressed Statement

Third-party culprit

§ 807 . Residual Exception

§ 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

§ 1107 , Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Third-party records

§ 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Ultimate issue opinion

§ 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Unavailable witness

§ 804(a)(4), Note . Criteria for Being Unavailable

Views

§ 1109. View

Work-product doctrine

§ 502(d)(6) , Note. Public Officer or Agency

CROSS-EXAMINATION

Abuse prevention and harassment prevention proceedings

§ 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Bias

§ 611(b)(2). Bias and Prejudice

By court

§ 614(b) . Examining by Court

Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

§ 1115(b)(2)(B), Note. G. L. c. 119, § 51B, Investigation Reports

§ 1115(b)(2)(D). DCF Social Worker Investigation Reports

§ 1115(c)(1), Note. Court Investigation Reports

§ 1115(d)(1), Note. Statements Not Related to Sexual Abuse

§ 1115(e)(2), Note. Foster/Preadoptive Parents

§ 1115(e)(3). Parents Called by Adverse Party

Character witness

§ 405(a). By Reputation

Complainant in sexual assault case

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Confrontation clause (see CONFRONTATION CLAUSE)

Conviction of crime

§ 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Defendant

§ 104(d). Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

§ 511(c)(1). Waiver by Defendant’s Testimony

Defendant’s character witness

§ 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

Defendant’s right to in criminal cases

Article VIII, Intro. (a) . Confrontation Clause and Hearsay in Criminal Cases

Exclusion of evidence

§ 103(a)(2), Note. Preserving Claim of Error

Expert witness

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

§ 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

§ 803(18)(B) , Note. Use in Cross-Examination of Experts

Eyewitness

§ 1112(d). Testimony of Third-Party Observer

Fairness to Commonwealth

§ 611(b)(1), Note. In General

For impeachment purposes

§ 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

§ 405(a). By Reputation

§ 511(d) . Use of Suppressed Statements

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Leading questions

§ 611(c). Leading Questions

Limitation on, of experts

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

§ 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Limits on length of

§ 611(a) , Note. Control by the Court

Meaningful opportunity for

§ 703 , Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Mode and order of examining witnesses

§ 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

Prior statements

§ 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

§ 801(d)(1). A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement, (A)

Reasonable basis for

§ 611(b)(1), Note. In General

Recross-examination

§ 611(e). Scope of Subsequent Examination

Regarding facts or data underlying expert opinion

§ 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3) . Expert Testimony

Regarding object or writing used to refresh memory

§ 612(a)(2). Production and Use

Restitution hearing

§ 1114(b). Procedural Requirements

Scope of

§ 104(d), Note. Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 412(b)(3) , Note. Exceptions

§ 511(c)(1), Note. Waiver by Defendant’s Testimony

§ 611(b). Scope of Cross-Examination

§ 611(e). Scope of Subsequent Examination

Sexual assault counselor

§ 506(b). Privilege

Sexual behavior or sexual reputation

§ 412(b)(3) , Note. Exceptions

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(a), Note . In General

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

Unavailable declarant

§ 804(a)(1), Note . Criteria for Being Unavailable

§ 804(b)(1) . Prior Recorded Testimony

§ 804(b)(8)(C) . Reliability of Statement

§ 804(b)(9)(C) . Reliability of Statement

CUMULATIVE EVIDENCE

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

CURATIVE ADMISSIBILITY

§ 106(b). Curative Admissibility

CURATIVE INSTRUCTIONS

§ 103(a), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error.§ 1113(c), Note. Objections

§ 1113(c) . Objections

D

DAMAGES

Admissibility of collateral source payments in determining

§ 411, Note. Insurance

Admissibility of evidence of damages sought

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Admissibility of medical report of deceased physician in determining

§ 804(b)(5)(D). Reports of Deceased Physicians in Tort Actions

Admissibility of settlement with another defendant in determining

§ 411, Note. Insurance

For breach of doctor-patient confidentiality

Article V, Intro. (f)(1). Patient Medical Information

Mitigation of

§ 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Reference to damages during closing argument

§ 1113(b)(2). Permissible Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(d), Note. Duty of the Court

DECLARANT

Availability

Article VIII, Intro. (b). Confrontation Clause Inapplicable

§ 803. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial

§ 804. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Care and protection case reports

§ 1115(c)(1), Note . Court Investigation Reports

Credibility, attacking or supporting

§ 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Defined

§ 801(b). Declarant

Motive of

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1)(B). The Formality of the Statements and  the Actions of the Parties Involved

Multiple out-of-court declarants

§ 805 , Note. Hearsay Within Hearsay

Statements to law enforcement agent

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1)(A). Whether an Emergency Exists

State of mind of

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

Third-party testimony of

§ 1112(d), Note. Testimony of Third-Party Observer

DEFENDANT

Admissibility of postarrest, post-Miranda silence

§ 511(a)(1), Note. Custodial Interrogation

Admission/adoption by silence

§ 801(d)(2)(B), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Blood alcohol tests and refusal of

§ 511(a)(2), Note. Refusal Evidence

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

§ 801(a), Note. Statement

§ 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

Blood sample-DNA match

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Burden of proof and

§ 302(a) , Note. Scope

§ 302(d) . Presumptions

Challenges to the sufficiency of an affidavit

§ 509(a), Note . Identity of Informer

Character of

§ 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character

§ 608(a), Note. Reputation Evidence

Closing argument

§ 1113(b), Note. Closing Argument

Claim of privilege

§ 525(b) . Criminal Case

Competency of

§ 511(a)(3), Note. Compelled Examination

§ 601, Note. Competency

Consciousness of guilt

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 1110(a). Criminal Cases

Consciousness of innocence

§ 410 , Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Courtroom appearance and conduct

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Criminal responsibility examination

§ 511(a)(3), Note. Compelled Examination

Cross-examination of

§ 104(d). Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

Custodial interrogation

§ 511(a)(1) , Note. Custodial Interrogation

Denial of

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Denigration of constitutional rights

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Entrapment defense

§ 509(a), Note . Identity of Informer

Ethnic or racial bias against

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or  Indictment

Eyewitness identification of

§ 1112. Eyewitness Identification

Failure to call witness

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

Impeachment of

§ 104(d), Note . Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 511(d) . Use of Suppressed Statements

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note . Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

§ 1101(d), Note . Motions to Suppress

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note . Improper Argument

Intent of

§ 503(d)(3), Note. Patient Raises the Issue of Own Mental or Emotional  Condition as an Element of Claim or Defense

Lack of criminal responsibility

§ 302, Note . Criminal Cases

Lost or destroyed evidence and

§ 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Martin hearing, presence at

§ 511(b), Note. Privilege of a Witness

Mental or emotional condition of

§ 503(d)(3), Note. Patient Raises the Issue of Own Mental or Emotional  Condition as an Element of Claim or Defense

Opening statement of

§ 103(a), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error.§ 1113(a), Note. Opening Statement

§ 1113(a), Note. Opening Statement

§ 1113(a)(1) , Note. Purpose

Pleas

§ 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

Prearrest silence

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note . Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Presumption of sanity

§ 302, Note . Criminal Cases

Presumptions, generally

§ 302(d). Presumptions

Privilege against self-incrimination

§ 511. Privilege Against Self-Incrimination

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

§ 503(d)(3), Note . Patient Raises the Issue of Own Mental or Emotional Condition as an Element of Claim or Defense

Refusal to take test or supply police with real or physical evidence

§ 511(a)(2), Note. Refusal Evidence

Restitution by

§ 1114. Restitution

Right not to testify

§ 104(d). Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 525(b). Criminal Case, (1)

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Right to confront witnesses (see CONFRONTATION CLAUSE )

Right to fair trial

§ 413(a), Note . Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 1116(a), Note . General Principles

Right to offer evidence

§ 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

Right to present complete defense

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 412(b)(3), Note . Exceptions

Right to trial by jury

§ 201(c), Note. When Taken

§ 1116(a), Note . General Principles

Sequestration of

§ 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Statements made at suppression hearings

§ 104(d), Note . Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 1101(d), Note. Motions to Suppress

Statements made during competency examination

§ 511(a)(3) . Note. Compelled Examination

Substantial risk of a miscarriage of justice and

§ 103(e), Note. Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice  in Criminal Cases

Suppressed statements, use of

§ 511(d) . Use of Suppressed Statements

Testimony of

§ 104(d). Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note . An Opposing Party’s Statement

Third-party culprit evidence

§ 807 . Residual Exception

§ 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

§ 1107 , Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Unfair prejudice and

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

View, presence at

§ 1109(b) . Conduct

Voluntariness of statement

§ 104(a), Note. In General

§ 511(a)(1) , Note. Custodial Interrogation

§ 511(d), Note . Use of Suppressed Statements

Waiver of right to confrontation

Article VIII, Intro. (d). Waiver of Right to Confrontation

Witness cooperation agreements

§ 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

DEFINITIONS

Declarant

§ 801(b). Declarant

Hearsay

§ 801(c). Hearsay

Original/duplicate

§ 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article

Records

§ 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article

Relevant evidence

§ 401. Test for Relevant Evidence

Statement

§ 801(a). Statement

Victim, for purposes of rape-shield law

§ 412(d). Definition of “Victim”

Writings

§ 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article

DELIBERATIONS

Of judge

§ 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege

Of jury

§ 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

§ 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

§ 1113(d), Note. Duty of the Court

§ 1116(a), Note . General Principles

Of  legislator

Article V, Intro. (h)(2). Legislative Deliberation Privilege

Of medical peer review committee

§ 513(b)(1). Proceedings, Reports, and Records of Medical Peer Review  Committee

§ 513(d). Testimony Before Medical Peer Review Committee

DESTRUCTION OF EVIDENCE

As evidence of consciousness of guilt

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

As evidence of consciousness of liability

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Exclusion of other evidence as sanction

§ 103(g), Note. Exclusion as Sanction

Judge’s discretion to impose sanctions

§ 1102. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

DETERMINATIONS

Admissibility

§ 105. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties  or for Other Purposes

§ 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

Preliminary

§ 104. Preliminary Questions

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

§ 901(b)(11). Electronic or Digital Communication

DIRECT EXAMINATION

Cross-examination not limited to scope of

§ 511(c)(1), Note. Waiver by Defendant’s Testimony

§ 611(b)(1) . In General

§ 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Denial of

§ 103(a)(2), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error 

Leading questions

§ 611(c). Leading Questions

Limits on length of

§ 611(a) , Note. Control by the Court

Manner and order of

§ 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting  Evidence

Of expert witnesses

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

§ 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

On plea agreement

§ 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

Prior consistent statements during

§ 613(b), Note. Prior Consistent Statements

Redirect examination (see REDIRECT EXAMINATION )

Testimony about prior criminal conviction during

§ 607, Note. Who May Impeach a Witness

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Using treatise to bolster

§ 803(18)(b), Note . Use in Cross-Examination of Experts

DISCLOSURE OF FACTS, EXPERT WITNESS

§ 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

DISCOVERY

Electronic

§ 523(c)(2), Note. Conduct Not Constituting Waiver

Inadvertent disclosure during

§ 523(c)(2), Note. Conduct Not Constituting Waiver

Of communications between allied mental health professional and client

§ 508(e). Exception

Of communications between domestic violence counselor and victim

§ 505(b). Privilege

§ 505(c). Exception

Of communications between psychotherapist and patient

§ 503(d)(8). Exception

Of communications between sexual assault counselor and victim

§ 506(b). Privilege

§ 506(c). Exception

Of communications between social worker and client

§ 507(c). Exceptions, (9)

Of documentation of basis of expert’s opinion

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Of identity and location of protected witness

§ 509(c). Protected Witness, (1)

Of investigatory information of law enforcement

§ 515, Note. Investigatory Privilege

Of medical peer review committee proceedings, reports, and records

§ 513(b). Privilege

§ 513(c). Exceptions

Of sealed criminal record

§ 609 , Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Of tax returns

§ 519. State and Federal Tax Returns

Of third-party records

§ 1108, Note. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal  Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Of trade secrets

§ 517, Note. Trade Secrets

Pretrial discovery

§ 1108, Note. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal  Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Reciprocal discovery process for criminal responsibility examinations

§ 511(a)(3), Note . Compelled Examination

Rising cost of

§ 523(c)(2), Note. Conduct Not Constituting Waiver

Using cross-examination for

§ 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Violation of a discovery rule

§ 103(g). Exclusion as Sanction

Work-product doctrine

§ 502(d)(6), Note. Public Officer or Agency

DNA

Analysts

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3) . Expert Testimony

Collection of samples

§ 703 , Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3) . Expert Testimony

§ 1105, Note . Third-Party Culprit Evidence

Distinction between nonexclusion and inconclusive

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Expert testimony regarding

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Inconclusive results

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

“Likelihood ratios”

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Match

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1) . Testimonial Versus Nontestimonial; the Primary Purpose Test

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Nuclear DNA analysis

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Profiles

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Substitute analyst

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Testing process

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

DOCUMENTS

Affecting interest in property, records of

§ 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

Affecting interest in property, statements in

§ 803(15). Statements in Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

Ancient

§ 803(16). Statements in Ancient Documents

§ 901(b)(8). Evidence About Ancient Documents

Attorney-client privilege

§ 523(c)(2), Note . Conduct Not Constituting Waiver

Confidentiality statutes regarding

Article V, Intro. (f)(5) . Certain Documents, Records, and Reports

Department of Children and Families documents

§ 1115(b)(2)(B), Note. G. L. c. 119, § 51B, Investigation Reports

§ 1115(b)(2)(C), Note. DCF Service Plans, Affidavits, Foster Care  Review Reports, Case Review Reports, and Family Assessments

Discovery 

§ 502(d)(6), Note. Public Officer or Agency

§ 523(c)(2), Note . Conduct Not Constituting Waiver

Foreign public

§ 902(c). Foreign Official Records

Held by State agency

§ 502(d)(6), Note. Public Officer or Agency

Impounding versus sealing

Article V, Intro. (e). Impounding Versus Sealing

In sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103, Note. Proceedings

Of medical peer review committee

§ 513 . Medical Peer Review Privilege

Of third-party

§ 1108, Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal  Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

§ 1108(a). Filing and Service of the Motion

§ 1108(b),   The Lampron Hearing and Findings (1)

§ 1108(b), Note. The Lampron Hearing and Findings

Public records

§ 901(b)(7) . Evidence About Public Records

Requirement of original (best evidence rule)

§ 1002 . Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

Settlement documents

§ 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Summaries of

§ 1006, Note. Summaries to Prove Content

Tax returns

§ 519 . State and Federal Tax Returns

Work-product doctrine

§ 502(d)(6), Note . Public Officer or Agency

Writings and records

§ 1001(a). Writings and Records

E

ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION

§ 901(b)(11). Electronic or Digital Communication

§ 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

ENTRAPMENT DEFENSE

§ 509(a) , Note. Identity of Informer

E-MAIL

§ 901(b)(11), Note. Electronic or Digital Communication

§ 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

EVIDENCE

Abuse

§ 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Admissibility (see ADMISSIBILITY )

Ballistics identification

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Battered woman syndrome

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Best evidence rule (see BEST EVIDENCE RULE )

Blood alcohol tests and refusal of

§ 511(a)(2), Note. Refusal Evidence

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

§ 801(a), Note. Statement

§ 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

Character

§ 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character

Character trait

§ 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character

Circumstantial (see CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE )

Competent

§ 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

Computer simulations

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Concealment of evidence

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

Consciousness of guilt

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 1110(a). Criminal Cases

Consciousness of innocence

§ 410 , Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Consciousness of liability

§ 1110(b). Civil Cases

Constitutional considerations

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

Courtroom experiments and demonstrations

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Credibility of

§ 104. Preliminary Questions

Criminal profile evidence versus character evidence

§ 404(a), Note . Character Evidence

Cumulative

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Destruction of

§ 103(g), Note. Exclusion as Sanction

§ 1102. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Discovery (see DISCOVERY )

DNA (see DNA )

Exclusion of (see EXCLUSION OF EVIDENCE)

Expert (see EXPERT TESTIMONY; EXPERT WITNESSES)

Expressions of sympathy as

§ 409. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical  and Similar Expenses

Extrapolation to determine weight of drugs

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Extrinsic

§ 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

§ 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

§ 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

Fingerprint identification

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Firearm/ballistics identification

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

First complaint

§ 413.  First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Forensics

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Guidelines, scope of

§ 102. Purpose and Construction

Inadequate police investigation

§ 1107. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Industry and safety standards

§ 414. Industry and Safety Standards

Material

§ 104. Preliminary Questions

Medical malpractice actions

§ 409(c). Medical Malpractice Claims

“Missing”

§ 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

§ 1111(a), Note. Argument by Counsel

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

Nonverbal conduct

§ 801(a) . Statement

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

Offered for nonhearsay purpose

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

Other crimes, wrongs, or acts

§ 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

Prejudicial

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Presentation of

§ 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

Probative value

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Rebuttal (see REBUTTAL )

Relevant

§ 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof§ 104(b). Relevance That Depends on a Fact

§ 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

§ 401. Test for Relevant Evidence

§ 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Retrograde extrapolation to estimate blood alcohol content

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Routine practice

§ 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

SAIN evidence/Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

§ 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

Scope of

§ 104. Preliminary Questions

Sexual behavior or reputation

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Similar occurrences

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Spoliation of

§ 1102. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Suppression of (see SUPPRESSION )

Third-party culprit

§ 807 . Residual Exception

§ 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

§ 1107 , Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Unnecessarily time consuming

    § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Weight of (see WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE )

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES

See CROSS-EXAMINATION ; DIRECT EXAMINATION

EXCEPTIONS, HEARSAY RULE

See HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS

EXCITED UTTERANCE

§ 803(2).  Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

EXCLUSION OF EVIDENCE

As sanction

§ 103(g) . Exclusion as Sanction Discretion of trial judge

§ 102,  Note. Purpose and Construction§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 702,  Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Cumulative evidence

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Discretion of trial judge

§ 102 , Note. Purpose and Construction

§ 103 . Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

§ 401 , Note. Test for Relevant Evidence

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 412(b)(3) , Note. Exceptions

§ 413(a) , Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Evidence of insurance

§ 411. Insurance

Expert testimony

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 703, Note . Bases of Opinion Testimony

Exploitation of by counsel

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note. Improper Argument

Expressions of opinion, evaluation, or judgment from official records

§ 1115(b)(2)(B), Note. Department of Children and Families (DCF)  Records and Report

General rule

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Nonverbal conduct

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

Offered for impeachment

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note. Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic  Evidence

Prior bad acts/convictions

§ 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Reasons for

§ 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Rulings on

§ 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(b) . Proceedings

Specific instances of complainant’s sexual conduct

§ 412(b)(3) , Note. Exceptions

Statements made during plea negotiations

§ 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

Subsequent remedial measures

§ 407(a), Note . Routine Practice of a Business

Testimony regarding behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

§ 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Third-party culprit evidence

§ 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

Under first complaint doctrine

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Unnecessarily suggestive identifications

§ 1112(a), Note. Eyewitness Identification Generally

Voice identification

§ 901(b)(5), Note. Opinion About a Voice

EXCLUSION OF WITNESSES

§ 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

EXPERT TESTIMONY

Ballistics identification

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Basis of

§ 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3) . Expert Testimony

Battered woman syndrome

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

§ 704 , Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Blood alcohol tests

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Blood sample-DNA match

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

§ 1115(e)(7). Experts

Certitude of

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Confrontation of

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Development of adolescent brain

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Disclosure of facts, data

§ 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3) . Expert Testimony

Discretion of court

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Exclusion of, as sanction

§ 103(g), Note . Exclusion as Sanction

Extrapolation to determine weight of drugs

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Eyewitness identification

§ 1112(e). Expert Testimony

Fingerprint identification

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Firearm/ballistics identification

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Five foundation requirements

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Forensics

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Illustrations

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Inaccurate forensic analysis

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

On lack of criminal responsibility/competency

§ 302, Note . Criminal Cases

§ 511(a)(3). Note . Compelled Examination

On possibility

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

On tests performed and data collected by others

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Reliability of

§ 103(f), Note. Motions in Limine

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Retrograde extrapolation to estimate blood alcohol content

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(a), Note . In General

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

§ 1103(b)(1), Note . Hearsay That Is Admissible

Substituted experts

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Termination of parental rights and care and protection cases

§ 1115(e)(7). Experts

Ultimate issue

§ 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

EXPERT WITNESSES

Certitude of opinion

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Competency

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Court-appointed

§ 706. Court-Appointed Experts

Cross-examination of

§ 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Exclusion of

§ 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Failure to consult or present

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Failure to seek funds for

§ 706, Note . Court-Appointed Experts

Inaccurate forensic analysis by

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

In medical malpractice actions

§ 409(c). Medical Malpractice Claims

Method used by

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Opinions (see OPINIONS, EXPERT WITNESSES )

Personal knowledge of

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

§ 705 , Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3) . Expert Testimony

Qualifications

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Role of

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Reliability of testimony

§ 103(f), Note . Motions in Limine

Substituted experts

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Testimony of (see EXPERT TESTIMONY)

EXPRESSIONS OF SYMPATHY

§ 409. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical  and Similar Expenses

EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION

Expert testimony concerning

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 1112(e). Expert Testimony

Generally

§ 1112(a). Eyewitness Identification Generally

In-court identification

§ 1112(c). In-Court Identification

Jury instruction

§ 1112(f). Jury Instruction

Lineups

§ 1112(b)(2). Lineup

Out-of-court identification

§ 1112(b). Out-of-Court Identification

Photographic array

§ 1112(b)(1). Photographic Array

Showup

§ 1112(b)(3). Showup

§ 1112(c), Note. In-Court Identification

Testimony of third-party observer

§ 801(d)(1)(C), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

§ 1112(d). Testimony of Third-Party Observer

F

FACTS

Adjudicative

§ 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

Judicial notice of

§ 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

Preliminary finding of

§ 104(a), Note. In General

Underlying expert opinion

§ 705 . Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion 

FAMILY RECORDS

§ 803(13). Family Records

FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

FIREARM/BALLISTICS IDENTIFICATION

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

FIREARM, DEFENSE OF LICENSE

§ 302, Note . Criminal Cases

FIRST AGGRESSOR (SELF-DEFENSE)

§ 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case, (B)

FIRST COMPLAINT OF SEXUAL ASSAULT

Admissibility of

§ 103(f), Note. Motions in Limine

§ 413(a). Admissibility of First Complaint

Admissibility of additional reports

§ 413(b) . Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Applicability of doctrine

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Determining first complaint witness

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Identifying

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Impeachment of first complaint witness

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Limiting jury instruction regarding

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Role of trial judge

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

SAIN evidence/Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

§ 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

Scope of doctrine

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Substitution of first complaint witness

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

FOREIGN OFFICIAL RECORDS, AUTHENTICATION

§ 902(c). Foreign Official Records

FORENSIC EVIDENCE

Inaccurate analysis

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Methods for testing

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

FORMER TESTIMONY, HEARSAY EXCEPTION

§ 804(b)(1). Prior Recorded Testimony

FOUNDATION, INTRODUCTION OF EVIDENCE

Authenticating or identifying evidence

§ 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence

Declarations of decedent

§ 804(b)(5)(A) , Note. Declarations of Decedent

Evidence conditionally admitted

§ 104(b), Note. Relevance That Depends on a Fact

§ 611(a), Note. Control by the Court

Prior bad act evidence

§ 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

Prior inconsistent statements

§ 613(a). Prior Inconsistent Statements

Sexual abuse evidence

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Testimony by expert witnesses

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

G

GUILTY PLEAS

Of accomplice

§ 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

Withdrawn

§ 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

H

HABIT, INADMISSIBLE AS EVIDENCE OF CONDUCT

§ 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

HARASSMENT OF WITNESS

§ 611(a). Control by the Court

§ 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

HARASSMENT PREVENTION PROCEEDINGS

§ 1106, Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

HEARINGS

Abuse prevention and harassment prevention proceedings

§ 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Amral hearings

§ 509(a), Note. Identity of Informer

Applicability of evidentiary sections at

§ 1101. Applicability of Evidentiary Sections

Availability of declarant for

§ 804. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Civil motor vehicle infraction hearings

§ 1101(c)(3) , Note. Certain Other Proceedings

Commitment hearings pursuant to G. L. c. 123, §§ 7, 8 and 35

§ 1101(c)(3) , Note. Certain Other Proceedings

Daubert-Lanigan hearings

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Defendant’s right not to testify at

§ 511(a)(4). At a Hearing or Trial

Lampron hearings

§ 1108(b). The Lampron Hearing and Findings

Martin hearings

§ 511(b), Note. Privilege of a Witness

On admissibility of evidence of sexual behavior or reputation

§ 412(c)(2) . Hearing

On closing courtroom to public

§ 611(a), Note . Control by the Court

On expert testimony

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

On reliability of the out-of-court statements

§ 804(b)(8)(C) . Reliability of Statement

§ 804(b)(9)(C) . Reliability of Statement

On third-party culprit information

§ 1107, Note . Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Precomplaint hearings

§ 1101(c)(3) , Note. Certain Other Proceedings

Preliminary

§ 104. Preliminary Questions

Pretrial dangerousness hearing

§ 601, Note. Competency

§ 804(b)(1), Note. Prior Recorded Testimony

§ 1101(c)(3) , Note. Certain Other Proceedings

Probable cause hearing

§ 801(d)(1). A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement, (A)

§ 804(b)(1), Note. Prior Recorded Testimony

§ 1103(b)(1), Note . Hearsay That Is Admissible

Probation violation hearing

§ 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

§ 1101(c)(3) , Note. Certain Other Proceedings

Restitution hearing

§ 1114(b). Procedural Requirements

Suppression hearings

§ 104(a) , Note. In General

§ 104(d) , Note. Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 511(c)(2) , Note. Waiver by Witness’s Testimony

§ 511(d) , Note. Use of Suppressed Statements

§ 1101(d) . Motions to Suppress

Unemployment hearing

§ 526 . Unemployment Hearing Privilege

HEARSAY

Admissibility

§ 802. The Rule Against Hearsay

Availability of declarant (see HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, AVAILABILITY  OF DECLARANT IMMATERIAL; HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS,  DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE)

Confrontation clause

Article VIII, Intro. Hearsay

Credibility of declarant, attacking or supporting

§ 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Defined

§ 801(c). Hearsay

Exceptions

§ 803. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial

§ 804. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Hearsay within hearsay

§ 805. Hearsay Within Hearsay

Rule

§ 802. The Rule Against Hearsay

Unavailability of declarant

§ 804(a). Criteria for Being Unavailable

HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS

Absence of public record

§ 803(10). Absence of Public Record

Ancient documents

§ 803(16). Statements in Ancient Documents

Availability of declarant (see HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, AVAILABILITY  OF DECLARANT IMMATERIAL; HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS,  DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE)

Business records

§ 803(6)(A). Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Child statement out of court, civil proceeding

§ 803(24). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Proceeding to Place Child in Foster Care

§ 804(b)(9). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Civil Proceeding, Including Termination of Parental Rights

§ 1115(d). Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

Child statement out of court, criminal proceeding

§ 804(b)(8). Admissibility in Criminal Proceedings of a Child’s  Out-of-Court Statement Describing Sexual Contact

Declarant unavailable (see HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE)

Dying declaration

§ 804(b)(2). Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

Excited utterance

§ 803(2). Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Existing mental, emotional or physical condition

§ 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

Family records

§ 803(13). Family Records

Forfeiture by wrongdoing

§ 804(b)(6). Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused  the Declarant’s Unavailability

Hospital records

§ 803(6)(B). Hospital Records

Identification

§ 801(d)(1). A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement, (C)

Judgment of prior conviction

§ 803(22). Judgment of a Previous Conviction

Learned treatises

§ 803(18). Learned Treatises

Marriage and baptism records

§ 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

Medical/hospital services

§ 803(6)(C). Medical and Hospital Services

Official/public records

§ 803(8). Official/Public Records and Reports

Other judgments

§ 803(23). Judgment as to Personal, Family, or General History,  or Boundaries

Past recollection recorded

§ 803(5). Past Recollection Recorded

Present sense impression

§ 803(1). Present Sense Impression

Prior recorded testimony

§ 804(b)(1). Prior Recorded Testimony

Records affecting interest in property

§ 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

Records of religious organization

§ 803(11). Records of Religious Organizations

§ 804(b)(7). Religious Records

Reputation as to character

§ 803(21). Reputation Concerning Character

Reputation concerning boundaries

§ 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History

Reputation concerning family history

§ 803(19). Reputation Concerning Personal or Family History

Spontaneous utterance

§ 803(2). Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Statements against interest

§ 804(b)(3). Statement Against Interest

Statements for medical diagnosis or treatment

§ 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment

Statements of facts of general interest

§ 803(17). Statements of Facts of General Interest

Statements of personal history

§ 804(b)(4). Statement of Personal History

Statutory exceptions for deceased persons

§ 804(b)(5). Statutory Exceptions in Civil Cases

Vital statistics

§ 803(9). Public Records of Vital Statistics

HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, AVAILABILITY OF DECLARANT IMMATERIAL

Ancient documents, statements in

§ 803(16). Statements in Ancient Documents

Baptismal, marriage, and other certificates

§ 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

Boundaries, reputation concerning

§ 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History

Business records

§ 803(6). Business and Hospital Records

Character, reputation concerning

§ 803(21). Reputation Concerning Character

Documents or records affecting interest in property

§ 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

§ 803(15). Statements in Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

Excited utterance

§ 803(2). Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Family records

§ 803(13). Family Records

Medical treatment, statement for purposes of

§ 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment

Mental, emotional, or physical condition

§ 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

Personal, family, or general history, judgments as to

§ 803(23). Judgment as to Personal, Family, or General History,  or Boundaries

Present sense impression

§ 803(1). Present Sense Impression

Public records and reports

§ 803(8). Official/Public Records and Reports

Recorded recollection

§ 803(5). Past Recollection Recorded

Religious organization records

§ 803(11). Records of Religious Organizations

Residual exception

§ 807 . Residual Exception

Vital statistics records

§ 803(9). Public Records of Vital Statistics

HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE

Applicability

§ 804(a). Criteria for Being Unavailable

Prior recorded testimony

§ 804(b)(1). Prior Recorded Testimony

Statement against interest

§ 804(b)(3). Statement Against Interest

Statement of party incapable of testifying

§ 804(b)(6). Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused  the Declarant’s Unavailability

Statement of personal history

§ 804(b)(4). Statement of Personal History

Statement under belief of impending death

§ 804(b)(2). Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

Statutory exceptions in civil cases

§ 804(b)(5). Statutory Exceptions in Civil Cases

HEARSAY RULE

Applicability to sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

§ 1103(b)(1), Note . Hearsay That Is Admissible

Confrontation clause and

Article VIII, Intro. Hearsay

Exceptions to

§ 803. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial

§ 804. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Explained

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 802. The Rule Against Hearsay

Hearsay within hearsay

§ 805, Note. Hearsay Within Hearsay

Hospital records exception

§ 413(b) , Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Residual exception

§ 807 , Note. Residual Exception

Statutes and rules providing exceptions to

§ 802, Note. The Rule Against Hearsay

HEARSAY WITHIN HEARSAY

§ 805. Hearsay Within Hearsay

HOSTILE WITNESS

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

§ 611(c). Leading Questions

I

IDENTIFICATION

Double-blind procedure

§ 1112(b)(1)(A)(i), Note. Suppression of Identification

Expert testimony regarding

§ 1112(e). Expert Testimony

Eyewitness

§ 1112. Eyewitness Identification

Facts accompanying

§ 801(d)(1)(C), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

In-court identification

§ 1112(c). In-Court Identification

Jury instructions

§ 1112(f) . Jury Instruction

Lineups

§ 1112(b)(2). Lineup

Of evidence (see AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION )

Out-of-court identification

§ 1112(b). Out-of-Court Identification

Photographic array

§ 1112(b)(1). Photographic Array

Showup

§ 1112(b)(3). Showup

§ 1112(c), Note. In-Court Identification

Suppression of

§ 1112(b)(1)(A). Suppression of Identification

Testimony of third-party observer

§ 801(d)(1)(C), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

§ 1112(d). Testimony of Third-Party Observer

Unnecessarily suggestive

§ 104(a), Note. In General

§ 1112. Eyewitness Identification

IMPEACHMENT

Adverse witness

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Bias

§ 611(b)(2). Bias and Prejudice

Character for truthfulness

§ 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Character witnesses

§ 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

§ 405(a). By Reputation

Conviction of crime

§ 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Credibility of plaintiff, using collateral source payments

§ 411, Note Insurance

Credibility of witness, using offer to compromise

§ 408, Note Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Credibility of witness, using witness cooperation agreement

§ 1104 . Witness Cooperation Agreements

Declarant

§ 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Defendant, with his or her prearrest/pretrial silence

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note. Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

§ 1113(b)(3)(E) , Note. Improper Argument

Defendant, with statement suppressed because of Miranda violation

§ 511(d) . Use of Suppressed Statements

Defendant, with testimony at suppression hearing

§ 104(d), Note. Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 1101(d), Note. Motions to Suppress

Evidence of character

§ 608(a). Reputation Evidence

Evidence of conduct

§ 608(b). Specific Instances of Conduct

First complaint witness

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Generally

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Hearsay declarant

§ 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Inconsistent statements

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 613(a). Prior Inconsistent Statements

Juvenile adjudications

§ 609(a)(5). Juvenile Adjudications of Delinquency or Youthful Offender

Other witness

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Party witness

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Prior conviction

§ 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Prior statements

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

Prior writings

§ 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

Religious beliefs

§ 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

Specific instances of misconduct

§ 608(b). Specific Instances of Conduct

Suppressed statements, use of

§ 511(d) . Use of Suppressed Statements

Verdict

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Who may impeach a witness

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Witness cooperation agreements

§ 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

IMPROPER VOUCHING

§ 704 . Opinion on Ultimate Issue

§ 1113(b)(3)(B) , Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(C) , Note. Improper Argument

INADEQUATE POLICE INVESTIGATION

§ 1107. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

INCONSISTENT STATEMENTS

Admissibility

§ 613(a). Prior Inconsistent Statements

As evidence of consciousness of liability

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Impeachment by/credibility of witness

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 607 , Note. Who May Impeach a Witness

§ 613(a). Prior Inconsistent Statements

§ 613(b) , Note. Prior Consistent Statement

§ 801(c) , Note. Hearsay

§ 801(d)(1)(A), Note . A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Medical malpractice actions

§ 409(c) . Medical Malpractice Claims

Prior statements that qualify as inconsistent

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note. Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

Statements of criminal defendant

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note. Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

Statements of hearsay declarant

§ 806 . Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Statements of prosecutor

§ 801(d)(2)(D), Note . An Opposing Party’s Statement

INDUSTRY AND SAFETY STANDARDS

§ 414. Industry and Safety Standards

INFERENCES

Adverse inference (see ADVERSE INFERENCE )

Arguing relevant inferences from evidence in closing argument

§ 1113(b)(2) . Permissible Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note . Improper Argument

Civil cases, generally

§ 301(b). Inferences

Criminal cases, generally

§ 302(b). Inferences

Defined

§ 301(b). Inferences

From claim of privilege

§ 525. Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege

From evidence of consciousness of guilt or liability

§ 1110. Consciousness of Guilt or Liability

From inadequate police investigation

§ 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

From party not calling witness

§ 1111. Missing Witness

From spoliation

§ 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Of expert witness

§ 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Of juror’s racial or ethnic bias

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

INFORMANTS, DISCLOSURE OF IDENTITY AND LOCATION OF

§ 509 . Identity of Informer, Surveillance Location, and Protected Witness Privileges

INSTRUCTIONS, JURY

Cautionary instructions

§ 525(b)(2), Note. Criminal Case

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

§ 1104, Note. Witness Cooperation Agreements

§ 1109(b), Note. Conduct

§ 1113(d), Note. Duty of the Court

Consciousness of guilt

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Consciousness of liability

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Curative instructions

§ 103(a), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error.

§ 1113(c), Note. Objections

Examination of witnesses by jurors

§ 614(d) . Examining by Jurors

Eyewitness identification

§ 1112(a), Note. Eyewitness Identification Generally

§ 1112(f). Jury Instruction

First complaint

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Limiting instructions

§ 105. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties  or for Other Purposes

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

§ 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

§ 411, Note. Insurance

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 525(a), Note. Civil Case

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

“Missing evidence”

§ 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Missing witness

§ 1111. Missing Witness

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Objections to

§ 103(a)(1), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error

§ 1113(c). Objections

Preference for recording certain custodial interrogations

§ 511(a)(1) , Note. Custodial Interrogation

State-of-mind evidence

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

Third-party culprit evidence

§ 1105 , Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

INSURANCE

§ 411. Insurance

INTERPRETERS

Appointment of sign language interpreter

§ 521(b), Note . Privilege

Generally

§ 604. Interpreters

Interpreter-client privilege

§ 522. Interpreter-Client Privilege

Procedural issues

§ 522, Note . Interpreter-Client Privilege

Qualified sign language interpreter defined

§ 521(a)(2) . Qualified Interpreter

Right to assistance of

§ 522, Note . Interpreter-Client Privilege

Sign language interpreter–client privilege

§ 521. Sign Language Interpreter–Client Privilege

IRRELEVANT EVIDENCE, ADMISSIBILITY OF

§ 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

J

JUDICIAL DELIBERATIONS

§ 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege

JUDICIAL NOTICE

Of adjudicative facts

§ 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

Of law

§ 202. Judicial Notice of Law

Timing of

§ 201(c). When Taken

Versus official notice

§ 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

JURORS

Bribing of

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Common sense; common experience

§ 1113(b)(1), Note. Critical Stage

§ 1113(b)(2) . Permissible Argument

Competence of as witnesses

§ 606(a). At the Trial

Contacting of, by attorneys

§ 606(b), Note . During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Discharge of during deliberations

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Discharge of during empanelment

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Discharge of during trial

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Emotions, sympathy of

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 1113(b)(2), Note Permissible Argument

§ 1113(b)(3). Improper Argument

§ 1113(d), Note. Duty of the Court

Ethnic or racial bias or prejudice of

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

§ 1113(d), Note. Duty of the Court

Extraneous matter introduced by

§ 606(b) , Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Improper appeals to

§ 1113(b)(3). Improper Argument

Misconduct of

§ 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Peremptory challenges of

§ 1116 . Peremptory Challenges of Potential Jurors

Sleeping jurors

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Sophistication of

§ 411, Note. Insurance

JURY

Common sense; common experience

§ 1113(b)(1), Note. Critical Stage

§ 1113(b)(2) . Permissible Argument

Credibility of

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Deadlocked

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Extraneous matter, exposure to/influenced by

§ 606(b) , Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Inadmissible evidence and

§ 103(d). Preventing the Jury or Witnesses from Hearing Inadmissible  Evidence

Instructions (see INSTRUCTIONS, JURY )

Jury nullification

§ 1113(b)(3)(F), Note. Improper Argument

Misleading

§ 102, Note. Purpose and Construction

§ 403 . Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 803(5)(B) , Past Recollection Recorded

Preliminary questions and

§ 104(c). Conducting a Hearing So That the Jury Cannot Hear It

Reduction of verdict

§ 103(e) , Note. Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice in Criminal Cases

§ 411, Note . Insurance

JUVENILE ADJUDICATIONS, USE OF IN IMPEACHMENT

§ 609(a)(5). Juvenile Adjudications of Delinquency or Youthful Offender

L

LACK OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY

§ 302, Note . Criminal Cases

§ 503(d)(2), Note . Court-Ordered Psychiatric Exam

§ 511(a)(3), Note . Compelled Examination

LAMPRON-DWYER PROTOCOL

Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records  from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases

§ 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

LAY WITNESS, OPINION TESTIMONY

Generally

§ 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

Illustrations

§ 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

Opinion on ultimate issue

§ 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

LEADING QUESTIONS

§ 611(c). Leading Questions

LIABILITY

Admissibility of records and reports as evidence of

§ 803(6)(B). Hospital Records

§ 803(9). Public Records of Vital Statistics

§ 804(b)(5)(D). Reports of Deceased Physicians in Tort Actions

Admissions of

§ 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Consciousness of

§ 1110(b). Civil Cases

Expressions of sympathy and

§ 409(a). Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

Fair report privilege as protection from

Article V, Intro. (h)(3). Fair Report Privilege

Immunity from

Article V, Intro. (h)(1). Immunity from Liability (Litigation Privilege)

Article V, Intro. (h)(4). Communications with Board of Bar Overseers  and Bar Counsel

§ 513, Note. Medical Peer Review Privilege

Insurance

§ 411. Insurance

Offers to compromise and

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Offers to pay medical expenses and

§ 409(b). Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

Statements against interest and

§ 804(b)(3). Statement Against Interest

Statements of counsel regarding

§ 1113(b)(3). Improper Argument, (B)

LIMITING INSTRUCTION

See INSTRUCTIONS, JURY

LINEUPS

§ 511(a)(2), Note. Refusal Evidence

§ 1112(b)(2). Lineup

M

MARRIAGE CERTIFICATES

§ 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL BILLS

Admissibility of

§ 411, Note. Insurance

§ 803(6)(C), Note. Medical and Hospital Services

§ 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills  and Reports

Authentication of

§ 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills  and Reports

§ 902(m). Copies of Bills for Genetic Marker Tests and for Prenatal  and Postnatal Care

Payment of

§ 409(b). Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

§ 411, Note. Insurance

MEDICAL MALPRACTICE ACTIONS

Evidence of medical bills covered by insurance

§ 411, Note. Insurance

Expert testimony

§ 409(c). Medical Malpractice Claims

Expressions of sympathy in

§ 409(c). Medical Malpractice Claims

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

§ 503(d)(6). Claim Against Psychotherapist

Use of learned treatises, published scientific opinion in

§ 803(18)(A). Use in Medical Malpractice Actions

§ 902(j), Note. Presumptions Created by Law

MEDICAL RECORDS AND REPORTS

Admissibility of

§ 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment

§ 803(6)(A). , Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

§ 803(6)(B). Hospital Records

§ 803(6)(C), Medical and Hospital Services

§ 902(k) . Certified Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Treatment and Medical History

As basis of opinion testimony by experts

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Production of

§ 1108(c), Note. Summons and Notice to Record Holder

Reciprocal discovery process for criminal responsibility examinations

§ 511(a)(3) , Note. Compelled Examination

Self-authenticating

§ 902(k). Certified Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Treatment  and Medical History

§ 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills  and Reports

§ 902(n). Results of Genetic Marker Tests

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(b)(1) . Hearsay That Is Admissible

Statements contained in

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1)(C). Whether the Statements Were Made  to Non–Law Enforcement Personnel

§ 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment

§ 803(6)(A), Note . Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

§ 803(6)(B) , Note. Hospital Records

Tort actions

§ 804(b)(5)(D). Reports of Deceased Physicians in Tort Actions

Workers’ compensation proceedings

§ 804(b)(5)(E). Medical Reports of Disabled or Deceased Physicians  as Evidence in Workers’ Compensation Proceedings

MEDICAL TREATMENT, STATEMENTS FOR PURPOSES OF

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1)(C). Whether the Statements Were Made  to Non–Law Enforcement Personnel

§ 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment

§ 803(6)(B) , Note. Hospital Records

MEMORY

Feigning lack of

§ 413(a), Note . Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note . Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

§ 801(d)(1)(A), Note . A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Refreshment of

§ 511(d) , Note. Use of Suppressed Statements

§ 611(c) , Note. Leading Questions

§ 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory

§ 613(a)(2), (3) , Note. Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

§ 803(5)(B) , Note. Past Recollection Recorded

MENTAL CAPACITY, COMPETENCY

§ 503(d)(2) , Note. Court-Ordered Psychiatric Exam

§ 511(a)(3) , Note. Compelled Examination

§ 601. Competency

§ 701 , Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

MENTAL, EMOTIONAL, OR PHYSICAL CONDITION

§ 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

MINORS

Competency of

§ 601. Competency

Development of adolescent brain

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Juvenile adjudications, impeachment by

§ 609(a)(5) . Juvenile Adjudications of Delinquency or Youthful Offender

Parent-child disqualification

§ 504(c) . Parent-Child Disqualification

Privilege of

§ 104(a) , Note. In General

MIRANDA/VOLUNTARINESS

Admission by silence and

§ 801(d)(2)(B) , Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Commenting on omissions in defendant’s statement to police following warnings

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note . Improper Argument

Custodial interrogation and

§ 511(a)(1). Custodial Interrogation

Preliminary questions involving

§ 104(a), Note. In General

Use of statements suppressed due to violation of

§ 511(d) . Use of Suppressed Statements

MISSING WITNESS

Argument by counsel

§ 1111(a). Argument by Counsel

Availability of witness

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

Criminal cases

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

Distinction between insufficient evidence and missing witness arguments

§ 1111(a), Note. Argument by Counsel

Explanation for failure to call

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

Foundation for instruction on

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

Friendliness, hostility of witness

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

Judicial approval for argument

§ 1111(a). Argument by Counsel

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Jury instruction

§ 1111(b). Jury Instruction

§ 1113(b)(3)(A) , Note. Improper Argument

Noncumulative testimony

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

MOTIONS

For access to third-party records

§ 1108 . Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

For disclosure of identity of informant

§ 509(a), Note . Identity of Informer

For required finding of not guilty

§ 1113(a)(2), Note . Directed Verdict, Finding of Not Guilty, or Mistrial

For view

§ 1109(a) . Availability, (1)

In limine

§ 103(b). Preliminary Evidentiary Motions: Effect on Appellate Rights

§ 103(d), Note. Preventing the Jury or Witnesses from Hearing Inadmissible Evidence

§ 103(f). Motions in Limine

§ 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

§ 801(d)(1)(C), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

§ 1108(g). Use of Presumptively Privileged Records at Trial

§ 1113(a)(1), Note. Purpose

To reduce verdict

§ 103(e), Note . Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice in Criminal Cases

To strike

§ 103(a)(1), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error§ 104(b). Relevance That Depends on a Fact

§ 611(a), Note. Control by the Court

§ 801(d)(2)(E), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 1104, Note. Witness Cooperation Agreements

To suppress

§ 103(d), Note. Preventing the Jury or Witnesses from Hearing Inadmissible Evidence

§ 104(a), Note. In General

§ 104(d), Note. Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 511(c)(2), Note. Waiver by Witness’s Testimony

§ 1101(d). Motions to Suppress

N

NEGLIGENCE

Industry and safety standards, violation of admissible to prove

§ 414 , Note. Industry and Safety Standards

Liability insurance, lack of not admissible to prove

§ 411. Insurance

Medical negligence cases

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 803(6)(C), Note . Medical and Hospital Services

Remedial measures, not admissible to prove

§ 407. Subsequent Remedial Measures

NOTICE, JUDICIAL

Court records

§ 201(b)(2) , Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

Criminal cases

§ 201(c) , Note. When Taken

Of adjudicative facts

§ 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

Of law

§ 202. Judicial Notice of Law

Timing of

§ 201(c). When Taken

Versus official notice

§ 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

O

OATH OR AFFIRMATION

Child witnesses

§ 603. Note. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully

§ 610, Note . Religious Beliefs or Opinions

Foster/preadoptive parents at care and protection trials

§ 1115(e)(2), Note . Foster/Preadoptive Parents

Interpreters

§ 604 . Interpreters

Witnesses, generally

§ 603. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully

OBJECTIONS

Calling or questioning of witnesses by court

§ 614(c). Objections

Doctrine of completeness

§ 106(a), Note. Remainder of Writings or Recorded Statements

Evidence of private conversations between spouses

§ 504(b)(1), Note. General Rule

Expert testimony

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Extrapolation evidence to determine weight of drugs

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Forfeiture of right to

§ 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully  Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

Generally

§ 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

Grounds for, motion in limine stage

§ 103(b), Note . Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

Hearsay

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 802, Note. The Rule Against Hearsay

§ 804(b)(5)(E), Note. Medical Reports of Disabled or Deceased  Physicians as Evidence in Workers’ Compensation Proceedings

§ 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully  Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

Peremptory challenges

§ 1116(b) . Objecting to a Peremptory Challenge

§ 1116(c) . Overruling the Objection

§ 1116(d) . Sustaining the Objection

Prior convictions

§ 609 , Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Prior inconsistent statement

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note . Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

Privilege against self-incrimination

§ 511(b), Note . Privilege of a Witness

Qualifications of CASA to render an expert opinion

§ 1115(c)(3), Note. Court-Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Reports

Question by jurors

§ 614(d), Note. Examining by Jurors

Records admitted without live testimony

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2) . Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Statement in an opening or closing

§ 1113(c). Objections

Voluntariness of a defendant’s statement

§ 104(a), Note. In General

OFFERS OF PROOF

§ 103 .  Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

§ 412(c)(1) . Motion. 

OFFERS TO COMPROMISE

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

OFFICIAL NOTICE OF FACTS

§ 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

§ 902(e). Official Publications

OPENING STATEMENT

Burden of proof

§ 1113(a)(2) . Directed Verdict, Finding of Not Guilty, or Mistrial

Cause of action

§ 1113(a)(2). Directed Verdict, Finding of Not Guilty, or Mistrial

Curative instructions

§ 1113(c). Objections

Directed verdict

§ 1113(a)(2). Directed Verdict, Finding of Not Guilty, or Mistrial

Duty of court

§ 1113(d). Duty of the Court

Evidence promised in, curative instruction

§ 103(a), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error

Mistrial

§ 1113(a)(2). Directed Verdict, Finding of Not Guilty, or Mistrial

Objections

§ 1113(c). Objections

Purpose

§ 1113(a)(1). Purpose

Reopening

§ 611(f) . Reopening

Responses to improper argument

§ 1113(d) , Note. Duty of the Court

OPINIONS, EXPERT WITNESSES

About law

§ 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Admissibility of

§ 704 , Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Based on evidence collected or created by absent expert

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3). Expert Testimony

Basis of

§ 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Care and protection cases

§ 1115(e)(7). Experts

Certitude of

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Expert opinion versus lay opinion, admissibility of

§ 701 , Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

Eyewitness identification

§ 1112(e). Expert Testimony

Firearm/ballistics identification

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Foundation requirements for

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Generally

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

In medical malpractice actions

§ 409(c). Medical Malpractice Claims

Limitation of, on cross-examination

§ 703, Note . Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

On possibility

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

On ultimate issue

§ 704 , Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Risk of inaccurate forensic analysis

§ 703 , Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(a), Note . In General.

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

§ 1103(b)(1), Note . Hearsay That Is Admissible

Termination of parental rights cases

§ 1115(e)(7). Experts

Testimony (see EXPERT TESTIMONY )

To establish composition of a drug

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Underlying facts and data

§ 705 . Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

ORIGINALS

§ 1001(b). Original

§ 1003. Admissibility of Duplicates

§ 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content

§ 1006. Summaries to Prove Content

§ 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder

P

PARENTAL RIGHTS CASES

Admissibility of evidence, general rule

§ 1115(a). General Rule

Adoption plans

§ 1115(f)(1). Adoption Plans

Bonding and attachment studies

§ 1115(f)(2). Bonding and Attachment Studies

Children’s out-of-court statements

§ 1115(d) . Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

Judicial findings from prior proceedings

§ 1115(f)(3). Judicial Findings from Prior Proceedings Regarding  the Same Party or Parties

Official/public records and reports

§ 1115(b). Official/Public Records and Reports

Testimony

§ 1115(e). Testimony

Written court reports

§ 1115(c). Written Court Reports

PARTY WITNESS, IMPEACHMENT OF

§ 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

PAST RECOLLECTION RECORDED

§ 803(5). Past Recollection Recorded

PENAL INTEREST, STATEMENTS AGAINST

§ 804(b)(3), Note. Statement Against Interest

§ 1105. Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

PEREMPTORY CHALLENGES

§ 1116(a) . General Principles

§ 1116(b) . Objecting to a Peremptory Challenge

§ 1116(c) . Overruling the Objection

§ 1116(d) . Sustaining the Objection

PERSONAL, FAMILY, OR GENERAL HISTORY, JUDGMENTS AS TO

§ 803(23). Judgment as to Personal, Family, or General History,  or Boundaries

PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE

Attorney

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note . Improper Argument

Conduct

§ 405. Methods of Proving Character

Excited utterance

§ 803(2), Note . Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Expert witness

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

§ 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(3) . Expert Testimony

Facts in sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

Facts stated in business records

§ 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular  Course of Business

Facts stated in hospital records

§ 803(6)(B) , Note. Hospital Records

Hearsay declarants

§ 602, Note . Need for Personal Knowledge

Lack of

§ 602. Need for Personal Knowledge

Statements of deceased

§ 504(b)(1), Note . General Rule

§ 504(b)(2). Exceptions, (G)

§ 804(b)(5)(A). Declarations of Decedent

§ 804(b)(5)(B). Deceased Party’s Answers to Interrogatories

PHOTOGRAPHIC ARRAYS

§ 1112(b)(1). Photographic Array

PHOTOGRAPHS

Admissibility of

§ 1001(a) , Note. Writings and Records

§ 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

§ 1112(b)(1)(C). Admissibility of Photographs

Authentication of

§ 901(a), Note. In General

Of crime scene

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Of defendant/suspect

§ 511(a)(2), Note. Refusal Evidence

§ 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

§ 901(b)(11), Note . Electronic or Digital Communication

§ 1112(b)(1). Photographic Array

Of victim/autopsy photographs

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

PLAIN ERROR

§ 103(e). Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice in Criminal Cases

PLEAS, OFFERS OF PLEAS, AND RELATED STATEMENTS

Admissibility of guilty plea

§ 803(22) . Judgment of a Previous Conviction

Plea agreements

§ 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

§ 1113(b)(3)(B), Note. Improper Argument

“Plea negotiations” versus “plea discussions”

§ 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

Prohibited uses

§ 410(a). Prohibited Uses

State versus Federal rule regarding use of

§ 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

Use of guilty plea for impeachment

§ 609(a)(2). Felony Conviction Not Resulting in Committed State Prison  Sentence

§ 609, Note . Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Use of in criminal proceeding for perjury

§ 410(b). Exception

POLICE REPORTS

Admissibility as business records

§ 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Admissibility at probation revocation hearings

§ 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Admissibility in child protective cases

§ 1115(b)(5). Police Reports

Admissibility in sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

§ 1103(b)(1), Note . Hearsay That Is Admissible

Consideration of hearsay contained in, at pretrial dangerousness hearings

§ 1101(c)(3), Note. Certain Other Proceedings

Judicial notice of contents on appeal

§ 201(c) , Note. When Taken

POLITICAL VOTER DISQUALIFICATION

§ 516. Political Voter Disqualification

PREJUDICE

Caused by allowing Commonwealth to reopen

§ 611(f), Note . Reopening

Caused by assertion of privilege against self-incrimination in civil case

§ 511(b), Note . Privilege of a Witness

§ 525(a), Note . Civil Case

Caused by court changing earlier ruling

§ 103(a) , Note. Preserving a Claim of Error

Caused by juror’s ethnic or racial bias

§ 606(b) , Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Caused by juror’s question

§ 614(d), Note . Examining by Jurors

Caused by jury’s exposure to extraneous matter

§ 606(b) , Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Caused by jury’s misuse of out-of-court statement

§ 801(c), Note . Hearsay

§ 803(3)(B), Note . Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

Caused by statements made in opening statements

§ 1113(a)(1), Note . Purpose

Caused by too narrow/broad cross-examination

§ 611(b)(1), Note . In General

Curative admissibility and

§ 106(b). Curative Admissibility

DNA analysis and

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Exclusion of evidence

§ 103(a)(2), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error

§ 103(g). Exclusion as Sanction

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 703 , Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

“Inherent prejudice” associated with evidence of other bad acts

§ 404(b) , Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

Probative value of evidence versus

§ 102 , Note. Purpose and Construction

§ 105, Note. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other  Parties or for Other Purposes

§ 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence

§ 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

§ 407(b), Note. Exceptions

§ 411, Note. Insurance

§ 412(c)(2). Hearing

§ 413(b). Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

§ 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

§ 801(d)(2)(D), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

§ 803(5)(B), Note. Past Recollection Recorded

§ 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

§ 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

§ 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Spoliation and

§ 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Third-party culprit evidence/information

§ 1105 . Third-Party Culprit Evidence

§ 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Unfair prejudice

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION, ADMISSIBILITY

§ 104. Preliminary Questions

PRELIMINARY HEARINGS

§ 104. Preliminary Questions

PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

PRESENT SENSE IMPRESSION

§ 803(1). Present Sense Impression

PRESERVATION OF APPELLATE RIGHTS

§ 103(b) . Preliminary Evidentiary Motions: Effect on Appellate Rights

“PRESUMPTION OF SANITY”

§ 302, Note . Criminal Cases

PRESUMPTIONS

Civil cases

§ 301(d). Presumptions

Criminal cases

§ 302(d). Presumptions

PRIMA FACIE EVIDENCE

Civil cases

§ 301(c). Prima Facie Evidence

Criminal cases

§ 302(c). Prima Facie Evidence

PRIOR BAD ACTS

Admissibility

§ 103(f), Note. Motions in Limine

Judicial inquiry/discretion regarding

§ 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Permitted/prohibited uses

§ 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

Unfair prejudice

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Use of, for purpose other than for which admitted

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note. Improper Argument

PRIOR CONSISTENT STATEMENTS

§ 613(b). Prior Consistent Statements

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 801(d)(1)(B) , Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENTS

Admissibility

§ 613(a). Prior Inconsistent Statements

§ 801(d)(1)(A), Note . A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Introduction of

§ 613(a). Prior Inconsistent Statements

Nonbinding admissions

§ 611(g)(1), Note. Form and Effect

Prior statements that qualify as inconsistent

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note. Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic  Evidence

Statements of criminal defendant

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note. Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic  Evidence

Substantive use of

§ 801(d)(1)(A), Note . A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Used to attack/support credibility of hearsay declarant

§ 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Used to impeach credibility of witness

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

Used to impeach first complaint witness

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Used to impeach one’s own witness

§ 607, Note. Who May Impeach a Witness

PRIOR RECORDED TESTIMONY

§ 804(b)(1). Prior Recorded Testimony

PRIOR SEXUAL CONDUCT

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

PRIVILEGES AND DISQUALIFICATIONS

Allied mental health or human services professional privilege

§ 508. Allied Mental Health or Human Services Professional Privilege

Applicability of Federal law

Article V, Intro. (f)(6) . Applicability of Federal Law

Attorney-client privilege (see ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE )

Board of Bar Overseers and bar counsel

Article V, Intro. (h)(4). Communications with Board of Bar Overseers  and Bar Counsel

Business interest privilege

Article V, Intro. (h)(5). Legitimate Business Interest

Comment on or inference from claim of privilege

§ 525. Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege

Confidentiality statutes

Article V, Intro. (f)(5) . Certain Documents, Records, and Reports

Confidentiality versus privilege

Article V, Intro. (d). Confidentiality Versus Privilege

Article V, Intro. (f). Examples of Relationships in Which There May Be  a Duty to Treat Information as Confidential Even Though There Is  No Testimonial Privilege

Deliberative process privilege

§ 518. Executive or Governmental Privilege

Disclosure of privileged matter

§ 524. Privileged Matter Disclosed Erroneously or Without Opportunity  to Claim Privilege

Doctor-patient privilege

Article V, Intro. (f)(1). Patient Medical Information

Domestic violence victims’ counselor privilege

§ 505. Domestic Violence Victims’ Counselor Privilege

Establishing existence of privilege

§ 104(a), Note. In General

Executing/exercising

Article V, Intro. (c) . Most Privileges Are Not Self-Executing

Executive privilege (governmental)

§ 518. Executive or Governmental Privilege

Fair report privilege

Article V, Intro. (h)(3). Fair Report Privilege

Human services professional privilege

§ 508 . Allied Mental Health or Human Services Professional Privilege

Impounding versus sealing privileged material

Article V, Intro. (e). Impounding Versus Sealing

Informant privilege

§ 509.   Identity of Informer, Surveillance Location, and Protected Witness Privileges

Interpretation of privileges

Article V, Intro. (b). Interpretation of Privileges

Interpreter-client privilege

§ 522. Interpreter-Client Privilege

Investigatory privilege

§ 515. Investigatory Privilege

Judicial deliberation privilege

§ 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege

Legislative deliberation privilege

Article V, Intro. (h)(2). Legislative Deliberation Privilege

Litigation privilege

Article V, Intro. (h)(1). Immunity from Liability (Litigation Privilege)

Mediation privilege

§ 514. Mediation Privilege

Medical peer review privilege

§ 513. Medical Peer Review Privilege

Mental health professional privilege

§ 508. Allied Mental Health or Human Services Professional Privilege

News sources and nonpublished information

Article V, Intro. (f)(4) . News Sources and Nonpublished Information

Nonevidentiary privileges

Article V, Intro. (h)(1). Immunity from Liability (Litigation Privilege)

Article V, Intro. (h)(2). Legislative Deliberation Privilege

Article V, Intro. (h)(3). Fair Report Privilege

Article V, Intro. (h)(4). Communications with Board of Bar Overseers  and Bar Counsel

Article V, Intro. (h)(5). Legitimate Business Interest

Not self-executing, generally

Article V, Intro. (c). Most Privileges Are Not Self-Executing

Parent-child disqualification

§ 504(c) . Parent-Child Disqualification

Privilege against self-incrimination

§ 511 . Privilege Against Self-Incrimination

§ 804, Note . Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

§ 1106, Note . Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Production of presumptively privileged records

Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records  from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases

Protected witness privilege

§ 509(c). Protected Witness

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

§ 503. Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege

§ 1115(d)(1), Note. Statements Not Related to Sexual Abuse

§ 1115(e)(5). Psychotherapists

Religious privilege

§ 510. Religious Privilege

Sexual assault counselor–victim privilege

Article V, Intro. (c). Most Privileges Are Not Self-Executing

§ 506. Sexual Assault Counselor–Victim Privilege

Sign language interpreter–client privilege

§ 521. Sign Language Interpreter–Client Privilege

Social worker–client privilege

§ 507. Social Worker–Client Privilege

§ 1115(d)(1), Note. Statements Not Related to Sexual Abuse

§ 1115(e)(4). Social Workers

Spousal disqualification

§ 504(b). Spousal Disqualification

Spousal privilege

§ 504(a). Spousal Privilege

§ 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully  Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

Student records

Article V, Intro. (f)(2) . Student Records

Article V, Intro. (f)(3) . Special Needs Student Records

Surveillance location privilege

§ 509(b). Surveillance Location

Tax return preparer privilege

§ 520. Tax Return Preparer

Tax return privilege

§ 519. State and Federal Tax Returns

Third-party records

§ 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Trade secrets privilege

§ 517. Trade Secrets

Unemployment hearing privilege

§ 526. Unemployment Hearing Privilege

Union member–union privilege

§ 528 . Union Member–Union Privilege

Validity of claim of privilege

§ 511(b) , Note. Privilege of a Witness

Waiver of privilege

§ 523. Waiver of Privilege

PROBATIVE VALUE OF EVIDENCE

Conversations between spouses

§ 504(b)(1), Note. General Rule

Evidence in sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

Evidence of consciousness of guilt

§ 1110(a). Criminal Cases, (4)

Evidence of victim’s state of mind

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

Expert opinion as to a possibility

§ 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Expressions of sympathy

§ 409(a), Note. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

Offers to pay medical bills

§ 409(b), Note. Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

Prior consistent statements

§ 613(b), Note. Prior Consistent Statements

Prior inconsistent statements

§ 801(d)(1)(A) , Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Propensity evidence

§ 404(b) , Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

Test for relevant evidence

§ 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence

Third-party culprit evidence

§ 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

Versus prejudicial effect (see under PREJUDICE)

PROCESS OR SYSTEM, AUTHENTICATION

§ 901(b)(9). Evidence About a Process or System

PRODUCTION OF ORIGINAL

§ 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

PROFFER

§ 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

PROOF, OFFER OF

§ 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

PROPERTY

§ 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

§ 803(15). Statements in Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

PROSECUTOR, SPECIAL ROLE OF

§ 1113(b)(2), Note. Permissible Argument

PROTECTED GROUPS

§ 1116(a), Note . General Principles

§ 1116(b)(1), Note . Stage One: Prima Facie Case of Unlawful Discrimination

PSYCHIATRIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS AND RECORDS

Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

§ 1115(c)(4) . Court-Ordered Psychiatric, Psychological, and Court Clinic Evaluation Reports

Compelled examination

§ 511(a)(3) . Compelled Examination

Competency examination

§ 511(a)(3) , Note. Compelled Examination

Criminal responsibility examination

§ 511(a)(3) , Note. Compelled Examination

Examination by mental health counselor

§ 508(d) . Mental Health Counselor Exception, (2)

Examination by social worker

§ 507(c) . Exceptions, (2)

Impounding versus sealing records

Article V, Intro. (e) . Impounding Versus Sealing

Privilege

§ 503 . Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(b)(1) . Hearsay That Is Admissible

PUBLIC RECORDS AND REPORTS

Admissibility of

Article V, Intro. (f)(2). Student Records

§ 502(d)(6), Note. Public Officer or Agency

§ 803(8). Official/Public Records and Reports

§ 803(9). Public Records of Vital Statistics

§ 1005. Official Records

§ 1115(b). Official/Public Records and Reports

Authentication of

§ 901(b)(7). Evidence About Public Records

§ 902(d). Certified Copies of Public Records

Copies of

§ 901(b)(7)(B). Copies

§ 902(d). Certified Copies of Public Records

Investigatory materials

§ 515, Note. Investigatory Privilege

Massachusetts public records statute

§ 502(d)(6), Note. Public Officer or Agency

§ 509(a), Note. Identity of Informer

§ 518, Note. Executive or Governmental Privilege

Proof of specific types of

§ 901(b)(7)(B), Note. Copies

Trade secrets

§ 517, Note. Trade Secrets

Q

QUALIFICATIONS, EXPERT WITNESSES

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 1115(c)(3) , Note. Court-Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Reports

R

RAPE-SHIELD LAW

§ 103(f), Note. Motions in Limine

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

§ 609 , Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

REBUTTAL

Absence of complaint as

§ 403, Note . Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Absence of dangerous condition as

§ 403, Note . Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Curative admissibility doctrine

§ 106(b), Note . Curative Admissibility 

Introduction of

§ 611(d). Rebuttal Evidence

Of allegation of dangerous condition

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Of character evidence

§ 404(a). Character Evidence

Of child’s out-of-court statements to court-appointed investigators

§ 1115(d)(1), Note. Statements Not Related to Sexual Abuse

Of claim of impossibility

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Of claim of recent contrivance or bias

§ 613(b)(2). Exception

§ 613(b), Note . Prior Consistent Statements

Of consciousness of guilt or liability evidence

§ 1110(c). Rebuttal

Of contention of undue delay

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Of deceased physician’s report

§ 804(b)(5)(D). Reports of Deceased Physicians in Tort Actions

Of defendant’s allegation of fabrication

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Of defendant’s claims regarding police

§ 511(a)(1), Note. Compelled Examination

Of false testimony

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Of hearsay within hearsay

§ 805, Note. Hearsay Within Hearsay

Of implication witness’s testimony was false

§ 611(e), Note. Scope of Subsequent Examination

Of presumption peremptory challenge is lawful

§ 1116(b) . Objecting to a Peremptory Challenge

Of presumptions, generally

§ 301(d). Presumptions

Of prima facie evidence

§ 301(c). Prima Facie Evidence

Of reputation evidence

§ 405(a), Note. By Reputation

Of written court reports in child protective cases

§ 1115(c)(1), Note. Court Investigation Reports

§ 1115(c)(2), Note. Guardian Ad Litem (GAL) Reports

§ 1115(c)(3), Note. Court-Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Reports

On issue of defendant's mental impairment

§ 511(a)(3), Note. Compelled Examination

RECORDED RECOLLECTION

§ 803(5). Past Recollection Recorded

RECORDS

Admitted without live testimony

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Business

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

§ 803(6). Business and Hospital Records

§ 803(6)(A), Note . Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

§ 902(i), Note. Commercial Paper and Related Documents

§ 1115(b)(5). Police Reports

Court

§ 902(a). Court Records Under Seal

Domestic official

§ 902(b). Domestic Official Records Not Under Seal

Electronic

§ 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

Family

§ 803(13). Family Records

Foreign official

§ 902(c). Foreign Official Records

Impounding versus sealing

Article V, Intro. (e). Impounding Versus Sealing

Inspection of

§ 1108(d). Inspection of Records

Judicial

§ 902(a). Court Records Under Seal

Medical and hospital records (see MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL BILLS ;  MEDICAL RECORDS AND REPORTS )

Medical peer review committee records

§ 513(b)(1). Proceedings, Reports, and Records of Medical Peer Review  Committee

Presumptively privileged records

Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records  from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases

§ 1108(c). Summons and Notice to Record Holder, (2)

§ 1108(d)(2). Presumptively Privileged Records

§ 1108(f). Disclosure of Presumptively Privileged Records

§ 1108(g). Use of Presumptively Privileged Records at Trial

Psychiatric and psychological records

Article V, Intro. (e). Impounding Versus Sealing

§ 503. Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege

§ 1103(b)(1) . Hearsay That Is Admissible

§ 1115(c)(4). Court-Ordered Psychiatric, Psychological, and Court Clinic  Evaluation Reports

Public records or reports

§ 502(d)(6) , Note. Public Officer or Agency

§ 803(8) . Official/Public Records and Reports

§ 901(b)(7). Evidence About Public Records

§ 902(d) . Certified Copies of Public Records

§ 1005. Official Records

§ 1115(b). Official/Public Records and Reports

Records affecting interest in property

§ 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

Records defined

§ 1001(a). Writings and Records

Records in termination of parental rights and care and protection cases

§ 1115(b)(1). Criminal Probation Records, Including Criminal Activity  Record Information (CARI)

§ 1115(b)(2). Department of Children and Families (DCF) Records  and Reports

§ 1115(b)(3). Drug and Alcohol Treatment Records

§ 1115(b)(4). School Records

§ 1115(b)(5). Police Reports

§ 1115(c)(1). Court Investigation Reports

§ 1115(c)(2). Guardian Ad Litem (GAL) Reports

§ 1115(c)(3). Court-Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Reports

§ 1115(c)(4). Court-Ordered Psychiatric, Psychological, and Court Clinic  Evaluation Reports

Records of vital statistics

§ 803(9). Public Records of Vital Statistics

Religious organization records

§ 803(11). Records of Religious Organizations

§ 804(b)(7). Religious Records

Sexual offender registry records

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Third-party records

§ 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Work-product doctrine

§ 502(d)(6) , Note. Public Officer or Agency

REDACTION

Of amounts paid by health insurers

§ 411, Note. Insurance

Of defendant’s affidavit in support of disclosure of informant’s identity

§ 509(a), Note . Identity of Informer

Of Department of Children and Families (DCF) records and reports

§ 1115(b)(2)(C), Note. DCF Service Plans, Affidavits, Foster Care Review  Reports, Case Review Reports, and Family Assessments

§ 1115(b)(2)(D), Note. DCF Social Worker Investigation Reports

Of documents in sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(b), Note. Proceedings.

§ 1103(b)(1) Note.  Hearsay That Is Admissible

§ 1103(b)(2), Note . Hearsay That May Be Admissible

Of hospital records for references to assault and statements of self-diagnosis

§803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

Of means and manner of death in death certificate

§ 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports

Of medical records for information not germane to treatment

§ 803(6)(C) , Note. Medical and Hospital Services

Of nature of prior offense

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Of police reports

§ 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Of presumptively privileged records

§ 1108(f). Disclosure of Presumptively Privileged Records, (2)

  § 1108(g). Use of Presumptively Privileged Records at Trial, (3)

Of witness cooperation agreements

§ 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

To protect personal privacy

§ 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

REDIRECT EXAMINATION

Of expert witnesses

§ 803(18)(B), Note. Use in Cross-Examination of Experts

Regarding matters raised during cross-examination

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Regarding witness cooperation agreements

§ 1104 . Witness Cooperation Agreements

Regarding witness’s fear in testifying

§ 607, Note . Who May Impeach a Witness

Scope of

§ 611(e). Scope of Subsequent Examination

REFRESHMENT OF MEMORY

Generally

§ 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory

Of defendant, with suppressed statements

§ 511(d) , Note. Use of Suppressed Statements

Of witness, with earlier statement

§ 613(a)(2), (3) , Note. Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

§ 801(d)(1)(A) , Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Past recollection recorded exception versus doctrine of refreshing memory

§ 803(5)(B) , Note. Past Recollection Recorded

Use of leading questions

§ 611(c) , Note. Leading Questions

RELEVANT EVIDENCE

Admissibility

§ 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

Defined

§ 401. Test for Relevant Evidence

Evidence relevant to weight and credibility of other evidence

§ 104(e) . Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

Exclusion of

§ 103(a), Note . Preserving a Claim of Error

§ 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Test for

§ 401. Test for Relevant Evidence

RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION RECORDS

§ 803(11). Records of Religious Organizations

§ 804(b)(7). Religious Records

REMEDIAL MEASURES

Prohibited uses of evidence of subsequent measures

§ 407(a). Prohibited Uses

When evidence may be admitted

§ 407(b). Exceptions

REOPENING CASE

§ 611(f). Reopening

REPUTATION

Boundaries

§ 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History

Character

§ 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts

§ 405(a). By Reputation

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

§ 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Character trait

§ 404(a). Character Evidence

§ 405(a). By Reputation

§ 608(a) , Note. Reputation Evidence

§ 803(21). Reputation Concerning Character

Complaining witness

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Defendant

§ 404(a)(2) . Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

§ 608(a), Note. Reputation Evidence

Family history

§ 803(19). Reputation Concerning Personal or Family History

Sexual reputation

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Victim

§ 404(a)(2) . Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

RESTITUTION

§ 1114(a). Nature and Extent of Remedy

§ 1114(b). Procedural Requirements

§ 1114(c) . Judicial Determination

ROUTINE PRACTICE

§ 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

RULINGS

Competency of witnesses

§ 601(b). Rulings

Generally

§ 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

Preliminary

§ 104. Preliminary Questions

Qualifications of expert witnesses

§ 702 . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

Timing of requests for

§ 105 , Note. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes

S

SCOPE

See individual topics

SELF-AUTHENTICATION

§ 902. Evidence That Is Self-Authenticating

SELF-DEFENSE

Burden of production of defendant

§ 302(d)(2), Note. Presumptions

Character of victim

§ 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

§ 404(a)(2)(C), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

Flight not inconsistent with

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Identity of first aggressor

§ 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

State of mind of defendants

§ 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Cas

State of mind of victim

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

SEQUESTRATION OF WITNESSES

§ 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

SETTLEMENTS

Compromises and offers to compromise

§ 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Evidence of settlement with another defendant

§ 411, Note. Insurance

SEXUAL ASSAULT

First complaint (see FIRST COMPLAINT OF SEXUAL ASSAULT )

Impeaching complaining witness with prior conduct

§ 608(b) , Note. Specific Instances of Conduct

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Opinion of expert on whether sexual assault has occurred

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Prosecutor’s closing argument regarding child victim

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note. Improper Argument

Psychological and counseling records of alleged victim

Article V, Intro. (e) . Impounding Versus Sealing

Rape-shield law

§ 103(f) , Note. Motions in Limine

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

§ 609 , Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Reputation of complaining witness

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Right to confrontation with child victim

Article VIII, Intro. (c). Massachusetts Law Versus Federal Law

SAIN evidence/Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

§ 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

Sexual assault counselor-victim privilege

Article V, Intro. (c). Most Privileges Are Not Self-Executing

§ 506. Sexual Assault Counselor–Victim Privilege

Statement of victim to sexual assault nurse examiner

§ 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OR REPUTATION

§ 412(a). Prohibited Uses

§ 412(b). Exceptions

§ 412(c). Procedure to Determine Admissibility

SEXUALLY DANGEROUS PERSON PROCEEDING

Admissible hearsay

§ 1103(b)(1) . Hearsay that is Admissible

Excluded hearsay

§ 1103(b) , Note. Proceedings

Hearsay expressly made admissible by statute

§ 1103(b)(1) , Note. Hearsay that is Admissible

Hearsay that may be admissible

§ 1103(b)(2) . Hearsay That May Be Admissible

In general

§ 1103(a) . In General

Miscellaneous evidentiary rulings

§ 1103(b) , Note. Proceedings

Statutory procedures

§ 1103(a) , Note. In General

Testimony of qualified examiner/expert testimony

§ 1103(a) , Note. In General

§ 1103(b)(1) , Note. Hearsay that is Admissible

SEXUAL OFFENDER REGISTRY

Hearings

§ 1101(c)(3). Certain Other Proceedings

Records

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

§ 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

SHOWUPS

§ 1112(b)(3). Showup

§ 1112(c), Note. In-Court Identification

SIMILAR OCCURRENCES, EVIDENCE OF

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

SOCIAL-NETWORKING WEB SITE

§ 901(b)(11), Note. Electronic or Digital Communication

SPOLIATION OR DESTRUCTION OF EVIDENCE

As evidence of consciousness of guilt

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Case

As evidence of consciousness of liability

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Exclusion of other evidence as sanction

§ 103(g), Note. Exclusion as Sanction

Judge’s discretion to impose sanctions

§ 1102 . Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

STATEMENTS

By juror

§ 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Defined

§ 801(a). Statement

Doctrine of completeness

§ 106. Doctrine of Completeness

Expressions of sympathy

§ 409(a). Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

§ 409(c). Medical Malpractice Claims

False

§ 509(a), Note. Identity of Informer

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 801(d)(2)(B), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 801(d)(2)(E), Note . An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

For purpose of medical treatment

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1)(C). Whether the Statements Were Made  to Non–Law Enforcement Personnel

§ 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment

Hearsay (see HEARSAY )

In care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

§ 1115. Evidentiary Issues in Care and Protection and Termination  of Parental Rights Cases

Inconsistent statements by prosecutor at successive trials

§ 801(d)(2)(D) , Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Indicating consciousness of guilt

§ 801(d)(2)(B) , Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

In sexually dangerous person proceedings

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

§ 1103(b)(1), Note . Hearsay That Is Admissible

§ 1103, Note. Sexually Dangerous Person Proceedings

§ 1103(a), Note. Hearsay That Is Admissible

Made during competency examinations

§ 511(a)(3) , Note. Compelled Examination

Made during criminal responsibility examination

§ 511(a)(3), Note. Compelled Examination

Made in compromise negotiations

§ 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Of defendant

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Of identification

§ 801(d)(1)(C) , Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Of joint venturer

§ 801(d)(2)(E) , Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Of opposing party

§ 801(d)(2). An Opposing Party’s Statement

Of third party

§ 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

§ 1112(d). Testimony of Third-Party Observer

Of victim

§ 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case, (C)

§ 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1)(B). The Formality of the Statements and the  Actions of the Parties Involved

§ 801(c). Note. Hearsay

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

§ 803(3)(B)(ii), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

§ 804(b)(2). Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

§ 1101(c)(3), Note. Certain Other Proceedings

§ 1103(b)(1), Note . Hearsay That Is Admissible

Out-of-court statements

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 608(a), Note. Reputation Evidence

Article VIII, Intro. (a). Confrontation Clause and Hearsay in Criminal  Cases

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1)(C) . Whether the Statements Were Made to Non–Law Enforcement Personnel

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 801(d)(2), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 801(d)(2)(D), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

§ 803(24). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Proceeding to Place Child in Foster Care

§ 804, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

§ 804(b)(3), Note. Statement Against Interest

§ 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully  Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

§ 804(b)(8). Admissibility in Criminal Proceedings of a Child’s  Out-of-Court Statement Describing Sexual Contact

§ 804(b)(9). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Civil Proceeding, Including Termination of Parental Rights

§ 807 . Residual Exception

§ 1101(d). Motions to Suppress

§ 1103(b), Note . Proceedings

§ 1112(d), Note. Testimony of Third-Party Observer

§ 1115(d) . Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

Prior (see PRIOR CONSISTENT STATEMENTS ; PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENTS )

Regarding pleas

§ 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

Regarding state of mind

§ 408, Note . Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

Suppressed statement used for impeachment

§ 511(d) . Use of Suppressed Statements

Suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

§ 612(b)(3). Suppressed Statement

Testimonial versus nontestimonial

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1). Testimonial Versus Nontestimonial; the Primary  Purpose Test

Unrecorded

§ 511(a)(1) , Note. Custodial Interrogation

Voluntariness of

§ 104(a), Note. In General

STATE OF MIND

Of child, in child custody cases

§ 1115(d)(1), Note. Statements Not Related to Sexual Abuse

Of declarant, circumstantial evidence of

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

Of defendant

§ 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

§ 404(a)(2)(C), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

§ 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

Of employer, in employment discrimination case

§ 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Of testator

§ 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition, (B)(iii)

Of victim

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

§ 801(c) , Note. Hearsay

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

Of witness

§ 408(b). Exceptions

State-of-mind exception

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

§ 803(3)(B)(ii), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

STATUTORY PRESUMPTIONS

§ 301 . Civil Cases

§ 302. Criminal Cases

§ 902(j) . Presumptions Created by Law

STIPULATIONS

§ 611(g)(1). Form and Effect

§ 611(g)(2). Essential Element

SUBSCRIBING WITNESS

§ 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

SUMMARIES

§ 1006. Summaries to Prove Content

SUPPRESSION

Applicability of evidentiary sections at hearings

§ 1101(d). Motions to Suppress

Hearings

§ 104(a), Note. In General

§ 104(d), Note. Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 511(c)(2), Note. Waiver by Witness’s Testimony

§ 511(d) , Note. Use of Suppressed Statements

§ 1101(d). Motions to Suppress

Motions to suppress

§ 103(d), Note . Preventing the Jury or Witnesses from Hearing Inadmissible Evidence

§ 104(a), Note . In General

§ 104(d), Note. Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 511(c)(2), Note. Waiver by Witness’s Testimony

§ 1101(d) . Motions to Suppress

Of defendant’s statement

§ 104(a), Note. In General

Of false statement

§ 509(a), Note. Identity of Informer

Of identification

§ 1112(b)(1)(A) . Suppression of Identification

§ 1112(c)(1)(B), Note. Where There Has Been an Out-of-Court  Identification

Statements made at suppression hearings

§ 1101(d), Note. Motions to Suppress

Suppressed statement used for impeachment

§ 511(d) . Use of Suppressed Statements

Suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

§ 612(b)(3). Suppressed Statement

T

TERMINATION OF PARENTAL RIGHTS (TPR) PROCEEDINGS

See PARENTAL RIGHTS CASES

TESTIMONY

Before Board of Bar Overseers

Article V, Intro. (h)(4). Communications with Board of Bar Overseers  and Bar Counsel

Before medical peer review committee

§ 513(d). Testimony Before Medical Peer Review Committee

Care and protection cases

§ 1115(e). Testimony

Expert (see EXPERT TESTIMONY ; EXPERT WITNESSES )

False

§ 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Missing witness, expected testimony of

§ 1111(b). Jury Instruction

Noncumulative

§ 1111(b),  Jury Instruction, (3)

§ 1111(b),  Note. Jury Instruction

Of defendant

§ 104(d). Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

§ 801(d)(2)(A) , Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

Of first complaint witness

§ 413 . First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Of juror

§ 606. Juror’s Competency as a Witness

Of lay witness

§ 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

§ 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Of police

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

§ 611(f) , Note. Reopening

§ 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

§ 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 801(d)(1)(C), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

§ 901(a) , Note. In General

§ 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Of subscribing witness

§ 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

Of third-party observer

§ 801(d)(1)(C), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

§ 1112(d). Testimony of Third-Party Observer

Of victim, at pretrial dangerousness hearing

§ 804(b)(1), Note. Prior Recorded Testimony

Of victim, regarding first complaint of sexual assault

§ 413(a), Note . Admissibility of First Complaint

Of witness, from outside defendant’s presence

§ 509(b), Note . Surveillance Location

On behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

§ 704 . Opinion on Ultimate Issue

On first to use deadly force

§ 404(a)(2)(B), Note . Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

On person’s reputation

§ 405(a) . By Reputation

On prior criminal conviction

§ 607, Note . Who May Impeach a Witness

§ 609, Note . Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

On ultimate issue

§ 704 . Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Opinion

§ 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

§ 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

§ 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Preliminary matters

§ 104. Preliminary Questions

Prior recorded testimony

§ 804(b)(1). Prior Recorded Testimony

Records admitted without

Article VIII, Intro. (a)(2). Records Admitted Without Live Testimony

Suborning witness to provide false testimony

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Suppressed statement used to refresh memory for

§ 612(b)(3). Suppressed Statement

Termination of parental rights (TPR) cases

§ 1115(e). Testimony

To prove contents of electronic record

§ 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

To prove contents of written statement

§ 1007. Testimony or Statement of Party to Prove Content

Waiver of privilege against self-incrimination by

§ 511(c)(2). Waiver by Witness’s Testimony

THIRD-PARTY CULPRIT

§ 807 . Residual Exception

§ 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

§ 1107 , Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

TRANSLATORS AND TRANSLATIONS

Admission of translation

§ 604, Note . Interpreters

Defendant’s custodial statements

§ 511(a)(1), Note . Custodial Interrogation

Derivative attorney-client privilege

§ 502(a)(5), Note . Definitions

Interpreters

§ 604 . Interpreters

Qualified sign language interpreters

§ 521(a)(2) . Qualified Interpreter

U

ULTIMATE ISSUE, ADMISSIBILITY OF OPINION TESTIMONY

§ 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

V

VERDICT

Commenting on or discussing consequences of

§ 1113(b)(2), Note. Directed Verdict, Finding of Not Guilty, or Mistrial

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Contacting jurors after

§ 606(b), Note . During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Directed verdict, after opening statement

§ 1113(a)(2). Directed Verdict, Finding of Not Guilty, or Mistrial

Duty of jury to return guilty verdict of highest crime proved

§ 1113(b)(3)(F), Note. Improper Argument

Evidence of consciousness of guilt as basis for

§ 1110(a) . Criminal Cases

Inquiry into validity of

§ 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Jury nullification

§ 1113(b)(3)(F) , Note. Improper Argument

Reduction of

§ 103(e), Note. Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice in Criminal  Cases

Reduction of damages after

§ 411, Note. Insurance

References to verdicts in other civil cases

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Suggesting that jurors may need to explain verdict

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

VICTIM

Appealing to jury for justice for

§ 1113(b)(3)(C) , Note. Improper Argument

Character of

§ 404(a)(2) . Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case  Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts

§ 405(c). By Violent Character of the Victim

Child victim, right to confrontation with

Article VIII, Intro. (c) . Massachusetts Law Versus Federal Law

Credibility of

§ 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

Definition of, for purposes of rape-shield law

§ 412(d) . Definition of “Victim”

Dying declarations of

§ 804(b)(2), Note . Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

Evidence defendant victim of battered woman syndrome

§ 702, Note . Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Evidence to contradict impeachment of

§ 413(b), Note . Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

First complaint of sexual assault

§ 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Juror bias due to race or ethnicity of

§ 606(b), Note . During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Past behavior of

§ 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Photographs of

§ 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

§ 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Privileges

§ 505. Domestic Violence Victims’ Counselor Privilege

§ 506. Sexual Assault Counselor–Victim Privilege

§ 524. Privileged Matter Disclosed Erroneously or Without Opportunity  to Claim Privilege

Psychological and counseling records of alleged sexual assault victim

Article V, Intro. (e). Impounding Versus Sealing

Records of

§ 1108(a). Filing and Service of the Motion, (3)

References to, in closing argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(A), Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(D), Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(E), Note. Improper Argument

Restitution

§ 1114. Restitution

Sexual reputation or behavior of

§ 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Spontaneous utterance by

§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Statements of (see STATEMENTS )

State of mind of

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

§ 801(c) , Note. Hearsay

§ 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

Testimony of, at pretrial dangerousness hearing

§ 804(b)(1), Note. Prior Recorded Testimony

Testimony of, regarding first complaint of sexual assault

§ 413(a), Note . Admissibility of First Complaint

Testimony regarding behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

§ 704, Opinion on Ultimate Issue

VIEWS

Availability of

§ 1109(a). Availability

Chief purpose of

§ 1109(c) , Note. Status

Conduct during

§ 1109(b). Conduct

Payment of cost of

§ 1109(d). Costs

References to, in closing argument

§ 1113(b)(1) , Note. Critical Stage

Unauthorized views of sites by jurors

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Use of observations made during

§ 1109(c). Status

VITAL RECORDS, CERTIFIED COPIES

§ 902(d). Certified Copies of Public Records

VITAL STATISTICS RECORDS

§ 803(9). Public Records of Vital Statistics

VOIR DIRE

Of child in proceeding to place child in foster care

§ 803(24)(B), Note. Reliability of Statement

Of expert witness

§ 705 , Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Of jurors

§ 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Of witness

§ 612(b)(3). Suppressed Statement

Regarding defendant’s failure to appear at trial

§ 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Regarding excited utterance

§ 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Regarding feigning lack of memory

§ 801(d)(1)(A), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Regarding spousal privilege

§ 504(a)(1), Note. General Rule

Regarding suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

§ 612(b)(3). Suppressed Statement

Regarding third-party culprit evidence

§ 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

§ 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Regarding witness’s intent to assert a privilege

§ 525(b)(2) , Note. Criminal Case

Regarding witness’s mental competency

§ 601(c), Note. Preliminary Questions

Waiver of privilege against self-incrimination during

§ 511(c)(2) , Note. Waiver by Witness’s Testimony

VOUCHING

§ 704, Opinion on Ultimate Issue

§ 1113(b)(3)(B), Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(C), Note. Improper Argument

§ 1115(e)(7), Note . Experts

W

WEB SITE

§ 803(18)(B) , Note. Use in Cross-Examination of Experts

§ 901(b)(11) , Note. Electronic or Digital Communication

WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE

Answers to questions by jurors

§ 614(d) . Examining by Jurors, (5)

Bowden evidence

§ 1107 , Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Business records

§ 803(6)(A) , Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

§ 1115(c) . Written Court Reports

§ 1115(f)(3) , Note. Judicial Findings from Prior Proceedings Regarding  the Same Party or Parties

Defects in chain of custody and

§ 402 , Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

Electronic communications and e-mail

§ 901(b)(11) , Note. Electronic or Digital Communication

Evidence of consciousness of liability

§ 1110(b) , Note. Civil Cases

Expert testimony

§ 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

First complaint testimony

§ 413(a) , Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Inflammatory material, risk of unfair prejudice from

§ 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Introduction of evidence relevant to

§ 104(e) . Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

Jury’s role

§ 401 , Note. Test for Relevant Evidence

§ 1008 . Functions of Judge and Fact Finder

§ 1110(b) , Note. Civil Cases

Past sexual conduct and reputation

§ 412(b)(3) , Note. Exceptions

§ 412(c)(2) . Hearing

Photographs and digital images

§ 1002 , Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

Police reports

§ 803(6)(A) , Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Reports in official publications, trade journals, or newspapers

§ 803(17) , Note. Statements of Facts of General Interest

Secondary evidence of contents of writing or record

§ 1008 . Functions of Judge and Fact Finder

Third-party culprit evidence

§ 1107 , Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

WITNESS

Adverse witness

§ 607 . Who May Impeach a Witness

Attacking credibility

§ 1113(b)(3)(C) , Note. Improper Argument

Availability of 

§ 413(a), Note . Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 703, Note . Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Article VIII, Intro. (a) . Confrontation Clause and Hearsay in Criminal Cases

§ 804 . Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

§ 806, Note . Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

§ 1111(b), Note . Jury Instruction

§ 1115(d)(2)(A) . Cases Involving TPR

Bias, impeachment for

§ 610 . Religious Beliefs or Opinions

Calling by court

§ 614 . Calling and Examination of Witnesses by Court or Jurors

Character of

§ 608 . A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Child protective cases

§ 1115(e) . Testimony

§ 1115(f)(2), Note . Bonding and Attachment Studies

Child witness

§ 601 . Competency

§ 1115(d) . Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

Competency

§ 601 . Competency

Cooperation agreements

§ 1104 . Witness Cooperation Agreements

Court personnel, competency as

§ 605 . Competency of Judge as Witness

Credibility (see CREDIBILITY OF WITNESS )

Cross-examination of

§ 104 . Preliminary Questions

§ 611 . Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

Direct examination of

§ 611 . Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

Examination by court

§ 614 . Calling and Examination of Witnesses by Court or Jurors

Examination by jurors

§ 614(d) . Examining by Jurors

Exclusion of

§ 615 . Sequestration of Witnesses

Expert witness (see EXPERT TESTIMONY ; EXPERT WITNESSES )

Eyewitness

§ 1112 . Eyewitness Identification

Failure to call

§ 1111(b) . Jury Instruction, (4)

Fear of testifying, questions concerning

§ 607, Note . Who May Impeach a Witness

First complaint witness

§ 413 . First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Harassment

§ 611(a) . Control by the Court

Hostile witness

§ 611(c) . Leading Questions

Immunity

§ 511(c)(5) . Immunity

Impeachment of (see IMPEACHMENT )

Improper vouching

§ 1113(b)(3)(B) , Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(C) , Note. Improper Argument

Incompetency, finding of

§ 601 . Competency

Intimidation

§ 501 , Note. Privileges Recognized Only as Provided

§ 1110(a) , Note. Criminal Cases

§ 1111(b) , Note. Jury Instruction

Judge as

§ 527 . Judicial Deliberation Privilege

§ 605 . Competency of Judge as Witness

Juror as

§ 606 . Juror’s Competency as a Witness

Lack of personal knowledge of

§ 602 . Need for Personal Knowledge

Lay witness

§ 701 . Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

§ 704, Note . Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Memory, feigning lack of

§ 413(a), Note . Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 613(a)(2), (3), Note . Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

§ 801(d)(1)(A), Note . A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Memory, lack of

§ 611(b)(1), Note . In General

§ 803(5) . Past Recollection Recorded

§ 804(a)(3), Note . Criteria for Being Unavailable

Memory, refreshment of

§ 611(c), Note . Leading Questions

§ 612 . Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory

Missing witness (see MISSING WITNESS )

Motive to lie/lack of motive to lie, commenting on

§ 1113(b)(3)(B) , Note. Improper Argument

§ 1113(b)(3)(C) , Note. Improper Argument

Oath

§ 603. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully

Plea agreements with

§ 1104 . Witness Cooperation Agreements

§ 1113(b)(3)(B), Note . Improper Argument

Preventing from hearing inadmissible evidence

§ 103(d) . Preventing the Jury or Witnesses from Hearing Inadmissible Evidence

Prior statements of

§ 413(a) , Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

§ 607 , Note. Who May Impeach a Witness

§ 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

§ 801(c) , Note. Hearsay

§ 801(d)(1) . A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Privilege

§ 511(b). Privilege of a Witness

Production or procurement of

§ 1111(b), Note. Jury Instruction

Protected witness

§ 509(c). Protected Witness

Qualification

§ 104. Preliminary Questions

Recollection of, refreshed

§ 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory

References to, in closing argument

§ 1113(b). Closing Argument

Rehabilitation of

§ 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

§ 801(c), Note. Hearsay

§ 801(d)(1)(B), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Sequestration of

§ 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Suborning of, to provide false testimony

§ 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Subscribing

§ 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

Witness cooperation agreements

§ 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

WORK-PRODUCT DOCTRINE

Burden of proof

§ 502(d)(6), Note. Public Officer or Agency

Explanation and intention of

§ 502(d)(6) , Note. Public Officer or Agency

Scope of, in public records context

§ 502(d)(6) , Note. Public Officer or Agency

Waiver

§ 523(c)(2) , Note. Conduct Not Constituting Waiver

Writing or object used to refresh witness’s memory

§ 612(a)(2) . Production and Use

WRITINGS

Ancient

§ 803(16). Statements in Ancient Documents

Contents of (see CONTENTS OF WRITINGS, PROOF )

Defined

§ 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article

Disputed

§ 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence

Doctrine of completeness

§ 106. Doctrine of Completeness

Made in regular course of business

§ 803(6)(A). Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

Used to impeach

§ 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

Used to refresh memory

§ 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory