Florida v. Harris
, 568 US __ (Feb. 19, 2013)
"The question—similar to every inquiry into probable cause—is whether all the facts surrounding a dog’s alert, viewed through the lens of common sense, would make a reasonably prudent person think that a search would reveal contraband or evidence of a crime. A sniff is up to snuff when it meets that test... Because training and testing records supported Aldo’s reliability in detecting drugs and Harris failed to undermine that evidence, Wheetley had probable cause to search Harris’s truck.”
Florida v. Jardines
, 569 US __ (2013)
A dog sniff on the front porch of a private home is a search within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment.
United States v. Place
, 462 U.S. 696, 77 L. Ed. 2d 110, 103 S. Ct. 2637 (1983)
"…the sniff discloses only the presence or absence of narcotics, a contraband item. Thus, despite the fact that the sniff tells the authorities something about the contents of the luggage, the information obtained is limited….In these respects, the canine sniff is sui generis. We are aware of no other investigative procedure that is so limited both in the manner in which the information is obtained and in the content of the information revealed by the procedure. Therefore, we conclude that the particular course of investigation that the agents intended to pursue here -- exposure of respondent's luggage, which was located in a public place, to a trained canine -- did not constitute a "search" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment."
Illinois v. Caballes
, 543 U.S. 405, 160 L. Ed. 2d 842, 125 S. Ct. 834, 838 (2005)
Court reaffirmed precedent set in U. S. v Place. "Dog sniff conducted during a concededly lawful traffic stop that reveals no information other than the location of a substance that no individual has a right to possess does not violate the Fourth Amendment."
U. S. v. Grupee
682 F.3d 143 (1st Cir. 2012)
Defendant argued that affidavit in support of search warrant was insufficient because no information was given about the dog's capacity to alert reliably and without excessive false positives, it merely indicated that the dog was a Mass. State Police drug detection dog. Justice Souter opined "…The reasonableness of relying on the behavior of a police dog depends on what one knows about the dog and the person who handles it, ..., and the police can provide this sort of information in a readily available résumé of general certification standards and particular performance statistics, dog by dog, to be attached to a warrant application on a moment's notice. .. parsimonious though this disclosure was, we think it passes muster under existing circuit precedent on searches authorized by warrant, which holds that describing a drug detection dog as 'trained' and in the company of a drug detection agent is sufficient to allow a magistrate 'reasonably [to] infer' that a trained law enforcement dog has 'attained a high degree of proficiency in detecting the scent of narcotics.' "
Comm. v. Feyenord
, 445 Mass. 72 (2005)
Court upheld police officer's decision to summons drug-detection dog unit during routine motor vehicle stop despite lacking drug-related suspicion "A dog sniff is not a search under the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, see Illinois v. Caballes, 543 U.S. 405, 160 L. Ed. 2d 842, 125 S. Ct. 834, 837-838 (2005); United States v. Place, 462 U.S. 696, 707, 77 L. Ed. 2d 110, 103 S. Ct. 2637 (1983), and the court correctly concludes that a dog sniff of the exterior of an automobile is likewise not a search within the meaning of art. 14 of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights." (Greaney, J., concurring).
Comm. v. Lawson
, 79 Mass App Ct 322 (2011)
Defendant's motion to suppress marijuana found in car was denied. "The defendant argues that there was no justification for a search for narcotics or to search the interior of the vehicle with a drug-sniffing dog. We disagree. Here, where the defendant was unable to provide a valid driver's license, demonstrated nervous behavior, possessed a large bundle of cash, had multiple air fresheners in the vehicle, and had a record of prior arrests for drug distribution, there was probable cause to search the vehicle, with or without a drug-sniffing dog."
Comm. v. Negron, 29 Mass L Rep 483 (2012)
[This case is not available online, but may be requested for no charge from our Document Delivery service]. Defendants motion to suppress evidence obtained by a detection dog's interior search of a vehicle was allowed. "… the temporary detention of the Nissan for purposes of its examination by a drug-sniffing dog was reasonable given the facts in hand… However, with that examination resulting in no 'alert' by K-9 Mattie, the police had no further evidence upon which to base probable cause affirmatively to search the vehicle… A K-9 dog must indicate there are drugs before police allow it to enter a vehicle, barring some other legal justification."
- Alfano, Jessica, " Note: Interior-Vehicle Sniffs: reining in the leash on drug-dog sniffs and searching for the 'search' that courts have yet to find
." Also published as 46 New Eng L Rev 519 (Spring, 2012)
Examines interior-sniff jurisprudence
- Owsley, Brian, " The Supreme Court Goes to the Dogs: Reconciling Florida v. Harris and Florida v. Jardines ," 77 Albany Law Review 349 (2013-14).
- Phipps, Taylor, " Probable Cause on a Leash ," 23 BU Pub Int L J 57 (2014)
- Scheft, John Sofis and Sofis, Lisa, Criminal Procedure police manual : the Massachusetts police reference for criminal procedure, Law Enforcement Dimensions, 2012. Chapter 5: Encounters, Stops & Threshold Inquiries and Chapter 8: K-9 Operations
- Wallentine, Ken, K9 Officer's Legal Handbook , LexisNexis, 2008
- McDonald, Dan, "Passing the Sniff Test", Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly , Aug. 6, 2012 (40 MLW 2041)
Last update: August 20, 2015