Painting of John Adams, Sam Adams, and James Bowdoin discussing the Massachusetts Constitution.

During the next several months, the Convention debated, and in several cases altered, Adams's draft. Attendance at the Convention meetings was often sparse due to a harsh winter, a smallpox epidemic, and the ongoing war effort.

On March 1, 1780, Convention president James Bowdoin sent copies of the proposed Constitution to each town. The proposed Constitution was debated and voted upon at town meetings. In June, the delegates reconvened to consider the responses of the towns. The Convention declared the Constitution ratified on June 15, 1780. John Hancock was inaugurated as the first Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts on October 25, 1780.