John Adams believed that the "divine science of politics" should be able to produce constitutions and governmental institutions that would last for many generations. His contributions endure.

The Massachusetts Constitution has been amended many times since 1780. But its basic structure - a written guarantee of human freedoms, secured by a three-part structure of government and enforced by an independent judiciary - remains the same today as in John Adams's day. The Massachusetts Constitution is the oldest written constitution in the world still in effect.

The United States Constitution has also been amended, most significantly following the Civil War. In addition to governing the United States, this Constitution has and continues to inspire and influence the formation of democratic governments throughout the world. The constitutions of many nations today provide for separate and balanced branches of government, the enumeration of individual rights, and an independent judiciary to enforce those rights.

United States Constitution
United States Constitution
Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights