The Juvenile Court Department has general jurisdiction over delinquency, children requiring assistance (CRA), care and protection petitions, adult contributing to a delinquency of a minor cases, adoption, guardianship, termination of parental rights proceedings, and youthful offender cases.

The Court Reorganization Act authorized the establishment of a statewide juvenile court. There are eleven divisions of the juvenile court with sessions in more than forty locations. The names and territorial jurisdictions are contained in G.L. c.218, s.57.