• Screaming, shouting, yelling

  • Exhibit distrust of others

  • Exhibit emotional outbursts

  • Obsess, worry or appear anxious about her/his own performance

  • Have low self-esteem or confidence

  • Have a sudden loss of appetite

  • Criticize caretaker constantly

  • Curse, hit, scratch caregiver

  • Request separation from caregiver

  • Exhibit fear of the caregiver

  • Exhibit fear of the dark, being alone, people, places or going home

  • Cry easily, frequently

  • Express feelings of hopelessness

  • Want to die

  • Exhibit stress-related illness

  • Exhibit self-injurious behaviors

  • Have nightmares or difficulty sleeping

  • Be isolated from others

  • Be emotionally withdrawn, detached

  • Have startled response to movement

  • Be incontinent, malodorous, unpleasant

  • Be resistant to taking medication, being bathed, eating or allowing caregiver to provide care

  • Abuse alcohol or other substances

  • Have rapid physical deterioration

  • Refuse offers of assistance

  • Be fearful of intimacy and touch

  • Be sexually promiscuous

  • Exhibit aggressive, disruptive or delinquent behavior

  • Express self-hate, self-blame, guilt or shame

  • Be fearful of abandonment, rejection or retaliation

  • Experience stunted growth and developmental delays

  • Have attention and learning disorders

  • Engage in destructive activities

  • Learn passive/aggressive behaviors

  • Adopt same behaviors as the abuser