Welcome to CZ-Mail, the monthly electronic newsletter from the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM). Each issue provides information on major CZM initiatives, available tools and publications, upcoming workshops and events, grants, contracting opportunities, job openings, coastal legislation, and other news of interest to people working on coastal issues. Additional information about CZM's programs, publications, and other coastal topics can be found on the CZM website. To subscribe to CZ-Mail, send a blank email to email@example.com. Also, please feel free to share CZ-Mail with colleagues and friends—and if you have any suggestions for future editions, or would like make a change to your CZ-Mail subscription, please email your request to CZ-Mail@state.ma.us. For daily updates from CZM, please follow us on Twitter.
Coastal Community Resilience Grant Awards for 2015 Announced
On December 1, the Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) announced $1.5 million in funding through CZM’s Coastal Community Resilience Grants Program to support local efforts to address the effects of coastal storms, flooding, erosion, and sea level rise. The 11 grant award recipients are the communities of Duxbury, Hull, Manchester-by-the-Sea, Mattapoisett, Nantucket, Provincetown, Sandwich, Swampscott, Wareham, Weymouth, and Winthrop. The goal of this grant program is to provide financial and technical resources for advancing new and innovative local efforts to increase awareness of climate impacts, identify vulnerabilities, and implement measures to increase community resilience (i.e., the ability to endure impacts associated with coastal storms and the effects of erosion, flooding and sea level rise and to respond, recover and adapt to consequences).
Green Infrastructure Grants Awarded
On December 1, EEA announced nearly $1.5 million in funding through CZM’s Green Infrastructure for Coastal Resilience Grant Program to reduce risks associated with coastal storms, erosion, and sea level rise through natural and nonstructural approaches called green infrastructure. The seven grant award recipients are Chilmark, Gloucester, Plymouth, Salem, Save Popponesset Bay, Inc., Scituate, and Westport. Projects funded this year include building and enhancing dunes and beaches, planting beach grass and other erosion-control vegetation, restoring coastal floodplain, and creating salt marsh habitat. Results of these projects will provide valuable information for other communities seeking to identify opportunities for green infrastructure strategies to manage climate change impacts.
New Coastal Pollutant Remediation Grant Awards Announced
On December 2, EEA announced $368,298 in funding through CZM’s Coastal Pollution Remediation (CPR) Grant Program for projects to protect coastal waters in Massachusetts. The CPR grant recipients are the communities of Kingston, Duxbury, Hingham, and Manchester-by-the-Sea. Projects include local efforts to design and implement controls for runoff pollution from roadways and parking areas. These local water quality improvement projects will help protect wildlife habitat, open shellfish beds to harvesting, and reduce bacteria levels at recreational beaches. The grants are being matched by $128,033 from municipal sources, further extending the power of the grant program.
New CZM Fact Sheet to Help Coastal Property Owners with the Permitting Process
To protect public safety, coastal development, and natural resources, Massachusetts has enacted regulations that set minimum construction standards for building projects, including all new buildings, repair of storm-damaged properties, additions, septic systems, seawalls, decks, and a variety of other projects in coastal areas. In addition, when building or rebuilding after a storm, coastal property owners can go beyond minimum regulatory standards—using the best available techniques to minimize future property damage, significantly reduce flood insurance rates, and preserve the capacity of natural landforms to buffer storm waves and flooding. CZM’s new fact sheet, StormSmart Coasts: Who to Contact and What to Do before Building or Rebuilding, provides information for coastal property owners on applicable regulations and agency contacts, an overview of the most common permits needed, and recommendations for StormSmart building techniques to better protect coastal property.
Northeast Regional Ocean Planning Body Holds Fifth Meeting
On November 13-14, the Northeast Regional Planning Body (RPB) convened in Wentworth, NH, for its fifth meeting. The objectives of the meeting were to provide updates on activities and progress since its last meeting in June 2014; review and discuss options for advancing key actions related to its goals for healthy ocean and coastal ecosystems and effective decision making; and offer opportunities for public input. The RPB agreed on several important decisions for next steps in the regional ocean planning initiative for the Northeast, including continued work on characterizing the distribution and abundance of marine mammals, sea turtles, fish, and birds; formation of an interdisciplinary work group to explore options for identifying important ecological areas and adaptive, ecosystem-based management approaches; continued work on identifying best practices for consultation with Tribes; and additional consideration and deliberations on the eventual implementation of the regional ocean plan, including the application and usage of data in the plan, inter-agency coordination measures, and other best practices. For more information see the RPB’s website, Ocean Planning in the Northeast.
Storm Team Activated for Early November Northeaster
On November 2, CZM activated portions of the Coastal Storm Damage Assessment Team to assess damage from a northeaster forecasted to have severe impacts on the coast. More than 60 reports were submitted on the impact to communities north of Cape Ann, from Hull to Plymouth on the South Shore, from Sandwich to Dennis and in Chatham on Cape Cod, and on Nantucket. Impacts reported in these areas included widespread beach, dune, and bank erosion; widespread minor overwash over beaches, dunes, and seawalls; pockets of moderate overwash of barrier beaches in Scituate, Plymouth, and Sandwich; erosion threatening dwellings in Newburyport, Newbury, Scituate, and Sandwich; impassable roads due to overwash and flooding in Hull, Scituate, and Plymouth; damage to several beach access structures; and flooding of parking lots in Dennis.
Thank You COASTSWEEP Volunteers!
CZM offers out heartfelt thanks to the thousands of volunteers who turned out for the 27th annual COASTSWEEP, the statewide coastal cleanup sponsored by CZM. Cleanups were held throughout September and October and results are still flowing in. Data have been compiled from two-thirds of the cleanups so far, showing that 2,353 volunteers covered over 103 miles of coastline and removed 7,026 pounds of trash. The final tally, which will continue to grow as the rest of the cleanups are tabulated, will be reported in the January CZ-Mail. While this year's cleanups are now complete, stay tuned to marine debris issues year round on COASTSWEEP's Facebook page or by following the Twitter feed.
CZ-Tip - Twitter 101 for Coastal Managers
CZM started a Twitter feed in April 2014 to provide timely information on upcoming events, requests for proposals, job postings, comment opportunities, updates on CZM projects, and other time-sensitive matters, along with links to tools and information from the CZM website. For CZ-Mail readers who are considering trying Twitter, CZ-Tip: Twitter for People Working on Coastal Issues explains what Twitter is and how useful it can be in providing important updates on coastal management in Massachusetts. See the CZM Twitter feed to read tweets from CZM and to sign up to follow CZM on Twitter.
CZM Staff and People
Coastal Water Quality Manager Jan Smith - In November, CZM Coastal Water Quality Manager Jan Smith retired from state service. Jan had been with CZM for 28 years, also serving as Director of the MassBays National Estuary Program for nearly a decade, and as CZM’s Water Quality Specialist. Jan played a significant role in notable accomplishments for coastal and ocean management and stewardship, including pioneering innovative estuarine marsh assessment methods, developing the state’s first comprehensive Coastal Nonpoint Source Control Plan, working with regional partners on developing and implementing the MassBays Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan, and working on habitat restoration and monitoring projects. CZM thanks Jan for his 28 years of service and his extensive knowledge of coastal issues. CZM will miss the stories and pictures of his travels to seek out the rare birds of the world and his uncanny ability to dig up the latest EEA news. Good luck and enjoy your retirement Jan!
Five Star Restoration Grants - The Five Star Restoration Program is seeking applications for financial assistance to support community-based wetland, riparian, and coastal habitat restoration projects that integrate meaningful education and produce measurable results. Approximately $2 million in total funding will be available. For details, see the Five Star Restoration Program website. Applications are due by February 2, 2015.
Environmental Education Grants - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking applications for the 2014 Environmental Education (EE) Grants Program to fund projects that promote environmental awareness and stewardship. Proposals must include projects that design, demonstrate, and/or disseminate model EE practices, methods, or techniques. Each funded proposal must demonstrate that the project is replicable by locating and conducting the project in more than one state or U.S. territory during the project period. Applications are due by February 2, 2015.
Reminder - These opportunities, listed in the last CZ-Mail, are still available:
- BoatUS Grassroots Grants - The BoatUS Foundation is seeking applications for the 2014 Grassroots Grants. Up to $10,000 is available to local volunteer organizations to promote education on safe and clean boating. Applications are due by January 15, 2015.
- 2015 Massachusetts Recreational Trails Program Grants - The Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR) is currently seeking applications for the Recreational Trails Program, which provides grants from $2,000 to $50,000 for a variety of trail protection, construction, and stewardship projects throughout Massachusetts. DCR is also accepting applications for Statewide Trails Education Grants, which provide funding for statewide trail education initiatives. For more information on these grant programs, contact Amanda Lewis at firstname.lastname@example.org. Applications are due by February 2, 2015.
Coastal Property Owners Permitting Fact Sheet - CZM has released StormSmart Coasts: Who to Contact and What to Do before Building or Rebuilding, a new fact sheet that provides information for coastal property owners on applicable regulations and agency contacts, an overview of the most common permits needed, and recommendations for StormSmart building techniques to better protect coastal property.
East Coast Tidal Study - The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has released Encroaching Tides: How Sea Level Rise and Tidal Flooding Threaten U.S. East and Gulf Coast Communities over the Next 30 Years, a new study that finds steep increases in east coast high-tide floods. Flooding during high tides, which rarely occurred in the past, is now common in some places and is projected to grow to the point that sections of coastal cities may flood so often they would become unusable in the near future. The UCS study is based on an analysis of 52 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide gauges in communities stretching from Portland, Maine, to Freeport, Texas, using moderate sea level rise projections.
Risk-Based Adaption Planning Workbook - EPA’s Climate Ready Estuaries program has released Being Prepared for Climate Change: A Workbook for Developing Risk-Based Adaptation Plans for organizations that manage coastal or watershed environmental resources. The workbook provides guidance for conducting risk-based climate change vulnerability assessments and developing adaptation action plans. It helps users identify, analyze, and prioritize climate change risks and develop an action plan to address the most pressing risks and find appropriate responses.
Climate Change Synthesis Report - The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has released Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report, the fifth synthesis report of the IPCC. Key findings include that the human influence on the climate system is clear and growing, with impacts observed on all continents. If left unchecked, climate change will increase the likelihood of severe, pervasive, and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems. However, options are available to adapt to climate change, and implementing stringent mitigation activities can ensure that the impacts of climate change remain within a manageable range, creating a brighter and more sustainable future.
Insurance Company Response to Climate Change - Ceres has released Insurer Climate Risk Disclosure Survey Report & Scorecard: 2014 Findings & Recommendations, a new report that ranks the 330 largest insurance companies in the United States on what they are saying and doing to respond to escalating climate risks. This report summarizes responses from insurance companies to a survey on climate change risks. The aim of the survey is to provide regulators, insurers, investors, and other stakeholders with substantive information about the risks insurers face from climate change and the steps insurers are taking—or are not taking—to respond to those risks. The report found strong leadership among fewer than a dozen companies but generally poor responses among the vast majority. Companies were ranked on climate-related indicators, including governance, risk management, investment strategies, greenhouse gas management, and public engagement. The report cites studies and on-the-ground examples of how rising global temperatures are driving sea level increases, and more pronounced extreme weather events are causing larger damages and losses in coastal and non-coastal areas.
White House Priority Climate Agenda - The Obama Administration has released the Climate and Natural Resources Priority Agenda, which identifies a suite of actions that the federal government will take to enhance the resilience of America's natural resources to the impacts of climate change. Released as part of President Obama's Climate Action Plan, the agenda was developed jointly by federal agencies and is informed by the President's State, Local, and Tribal Leaders Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience and other stakeholder engagement. For more details on this announcement, see the White House Fact Sheet.
EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plans - EPA has released the final version of its agency-wide Climate Change Adaptation Plan and the 17 Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plans produced by the program and regional offices. The plans were developed in response to President Obama's Preparing the United States for the Impacts of Climate Change Executive Order. The plans are living documents that will be periodically revised to account for new knowledge, data, scientific evidence, and lessons learned from EPA's ongoing efforts to integrate climate adaptation planning into its programs, policies, rules, and operations. All plans are available on the EPA website.
Coastal Blue Carbon Manual - The International Blue Carbon Initiative has released Coastal Blue Carbon: Methods for Assessing Carbon Stocks and Emissions Factors in Mangroves, Tidal Salt Marshes, and Seagrass Meadows, a manual produced with the goal to standardize protocols for sampling methods, laboratory measurements, and analysis of blue carbon stocks and fluxes. Blue carbon describes the carbon found in the ocean—both in open water and coastal regions. The Blue Carbon Initiative is currently focused on three coastal ecosystems that have been recognized for the ability to accumulate, store, and sequester carbon.
Green Infrastructure Report - The EPA Office of Sustainable Communities has released Enhancing Sustainable Communities with Green Infrastructure: A Guide to Help Communities Better Manage Stormwater while Achieving other Environmental, Public Health, Social, and Economic Benefits, a report developed to help local governments, water utilities, nonprofit organizations, neighborhood groups, and others integrate green infrastructure strategies into community development plans. Many communities that want to use green infrastructure approaches face technical, regulatory, financial, and institutional obstacles that limit widespread implementation. This report serves as a guide to develop a plan that can overcome these obstacles for neighborhoods, towns, cities, and regions of all sizes.
Ocean Acidification and Marine Biodiversity - The Convention on Biological Diversity has released An Updated Synthesis of the Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biodiversity, a technical report that presents the results of a scientific synthesis on the impacts of ocean acidification on marine and coastal biodiversity.
MassBays Newsletter - The fall 2014 issue of the MassBays Newsletter, a quarterly update of the Massachusetts Bays National Estuary Program, features results of the Gulf of Maine King Tides Photo Contest, the availability of more than 500 planning and research documents through an online interactive map, dam removal on the South Shore, recent work to control Phragmites on the North Shore, research on nutrient management techniques on Cape Cod, and upcoming events and offerings throughout the five Mass Bays regions.
Natural Hazards Observer - The November 2014 issue of the Natural Hazards Observer, the bimonthly periodical of the Natural Hazards Center in Boulder, Colorado, features articles on the future of climate change politics, the Ebola epidemic, and other natural hazards news and information.
WHOI Newsletter - The November 2014 issue of the WHOI newsletter, a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) monthly e-newsletter, features articles on tracking Deepwater Horizon oil, ocean acidification affects in squid, and other ocean science news, research, and events at WHOI.
The Sandbar - The October 2014 issue of The Sandbar, a quarterly publication reporting on legal issues affecting the U.S. oceans and coasts by the National Sea Grant College Program, features articles on shellfish aquaculture regulations in Delaware, a Deepwater Horizon update, and other ocean- and coastal-related legal issues.
MPA Connections - The November 2014 edition of MPA Connections, the newsletter of NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas (MPA) Center, covers topics such as: a public comment opportunity for the Updated Framework for the National System of Marine Protected Areas of the United States of America, the White House announcement of largest the MPA in the world, and other MPA news.
Marine Ecosystems and Management Information Service - The October-November 2014 edition of Marine Ecosystems and Management, the bimonthly information service on marine ecosystem-based management from the University of Washington School of Marine Affairs, features articles on payments for ecosystem services, a new guide on how to evaluate marine spatial plans, and other notes and news.
Web-Based and Mobile-User Resources
Climate Resilience Toolkit - The Obama Administration has released the Climate Resilience Toolkit, an online resource that provides a framework for understanding and addressing the climate issues that impact people and communities. The toolkit offers a five-step process to initiate, plan, and implement projects to become more resilient to climate-related hazards. In addition, the toolkit provide interactive maps, training courses, case studies, and other tools to helps people face climate problems and find climate opportunities.
ESIP Tool Video - The EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) has developed an introductory video that takes visitors through the ESIP web page on a four minute tour of the different products that ESIP offers, from journal entries to fact sheets and supporting documents. The video covers such important ESIP tools as the Indicator Reporting Tool and the Monitoring Map Tool.
Please note: All official CZM requests for public comment are published in the Public Notices section of the Environmental Monitor, the bi-weekly publication from the Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) office. Available opportunities for public comment from other agencies and organizations are provided below.
Reminder - This public comment opportunity, listed in the last CZ-Mail, is still open:
- Draft Stormwater General Permit for Small Massachusetts Municipalities - EPA is seeking public comment on the draft general permit for small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4) in Massachusetts. The draft permit combines the two previously issued draft permits for Massachusetts—the 2010 draft North Coastal Watershed permit and the 2010 draft Interstate, Merrimack, and South Coastal Watersheds permit. This permit requires regulated small MS4s to develop, implement, and enforce a stormwater management program designed to control pollutants to the maximum extent practicable, protect water quality, and satisfy appropriate requirements of the federal Clean Water Act. For more information, including links to the draft permit, see the EPA website. Comments are due by December 29.
MACC Education - The Massachusetts Association of Conservation Commissions (MACC) offers a variety of specialized education programs for the fall. Visit their workshops page to see an overview of upcoming wetland delineation and soil science courses, shrub identification workshops, and their soil erosion and sediment control training program, and to view their online education calendar for a schedule of programs.
BUAR Public Meeting - On December 4 at 1:30 p.m., the Board of Underwater Archaeological Resources (BUAR) will hold its bi-monthly public meeting in the CZM Large Conference Room. The preliminary agenda includes discussion/approval of minutes for the September 25 meeting, election of Board officers, dates for 2015 public meetings, renewal of seven permits and extension of one permit and discussion of permittee, outreach, and research activities. For more information, contact BUAR Director, Victor Mastone, at email@example.com.
MS4 Stormwater Permit Discussion - On December 10, the Barnstable County Coastal Resources Committee and the Cape Cod Stormwater Managers Group will hold a joint meeting on the draft general permit for small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4) in Massachusetts. EPA staff will be on hand to discuss how the new permit will affect Cape Cod communities. The meeting will be held from 9:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. at Cape Cod Community College in Barnstable. This event is free and refreshments will be provided. Please RSVP to Jo Ann Muramoto at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Shoreline Management Conference - On December 11, New Hampshire Sea Grant will hold The Hard and Soft of Shoreline Management, a one-day conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on shoreline management challenges, which have grown with more frequent and severe weather events as well as rising sea levels.
Northeast Aquaculture Conference and Exposition - From January 14-16, 2015, the Northeast Aquaculture Conference and Exposition will be held in Portland, Maine. Sessions topics will include shellfish and finfish farming, aquaculture health and disease concerns, impacts of climate change, spatial planning, and many other areas of interest. Discounted registration is available through December 13.
Low Impact Development Conference - From January 19-21, 2015, the 2015 International Low Impact Development (LID) Conference will be held in Houston, Texas. The conference will highlight new and continuing work including research developments and community adoption of LID throughout the United States and internationally.
Smart Growth Conference - From January 29-31, 2015, the 14th annual New Partners for Smart Growth Conference, Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities, will be held in Baltimore, Maryland. The three-day conference program includes more than 80 breakout sessions, workshops, and trainings and will feature cutting-edge policies and programs, projects, and best practices, as well as strategies and implementation tools that address the challenges of implementing smart growth development principles.
Erosion and Sediment Control Conference - From February 15-18, 2015, the 2015 Environmental Connection Conference will be held in Portland, Oregon. Environmental Connection is the largest gathering of erosion and sediment control professionals from around the world. Over four days, Environmental Connection provides peer-reviewed education and products and technology that address four educational tracks: erosion and sediment control, stormwater management, surface water restoration, and MS4 management.
International LIDAR Mapping Forum - From February 23-25, 2015, the 2015 International LIDAR Mapping Forum will be held in Denver, Colorado. This three-day technical conference will feature sessions on coastal zone mapping and lessons learned, modern hydrographic techniques, single photon LIDAR, and more.
Tuesday Tweets - Every other Tuesday through December, the Cape Cod Museum of Natural History will hold Tuesday Tweets, birdwatching walks with Gretchen Moran Towers. Whether experienced or a beginner, bring binoculars, wear appropriate footwear, and come prepared to watch, study, and enjoy feathered friends in their natural habitats.
Walks and Talks on Cape Cod - Through February, the Cape Cod Museum of Natural History will hold a series of walks, lectures, events with local naturalists, and the Wednesday Walk series with Connie Boyce. For details, see the museum calendar.
Walks, Lectures, and Events on Cape Cod - Mass Audubon’s Wellfleet Bay Wildlife Sanctuary and Long Pasture Wildlife Sanctuary in Barnstable offer a variety of educational programs for children and adults, including naturalist-led bird walks and nature adventures for preschoolers. For more information, search the calendar of programs, classes, and activities for Wellfleet Bay and Long Pasture.
Ipswich River Wildlife Programs and Activities - Mass Audubon’s Ipswich River Wildlife Sanctuary provides numerous nature walks, talks, and adventures. See the program catalog for event and schedule information.
Reminders - The following calendar items posted in the last CZ-Mail are still to come:
- Sea Grant Science Symposium - On December 10, the 13th annual Ronald C. Baird Sea Grant Science Symposium, Staying Afloat: Adapting Waterfront Business to Rising Seas and Extreme Storms, will be held in Newport, Rhode Island. This one-day conference will focus on minimizing impacts to waterfront business in the face of increasing threats from extreme storms and rising seas. Join private sector, government, and community members to examine the planning, engineering, and design-based climate adaptation options, as well as trade-offs to keep in mind as a business owner or waterfront district decision maker.
- Shellfish Restoration Conference - From December 10-13, the 16th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration, Restoration in an Ever-Changing World, will be held in Charleston, South Carolina. The 2014 conference will focus on three overall themes: restoration of shellfish ecosystems; rehabilitation/enhancement of shellfish populations; and protection and improvement of water quality for shellfish survival, growth, and harvest.
Other Items of Interest
Dr. Nancy Foster Scholarship Program - NOAA is seeking applications for the Dr. Nancy Foster Scholarship Program, which recognizes outstanding scholarship and encourages independent graduate level research—particularly by female and minority students—in NOAA mission-related sciences of oceanography, marine biology, and maritime archaeology, including all science, engineering, and resource management of ocean and coastal areas. Scholarship selections are based on academic excellence, letters of recommendations, research and career goals, as well as financial need. Up to $42,000 per student is available per year for graduate students. Depending on funding, approximately three to four scholarships are awarded each year. Applications are due by December 10.
New England Stormy Awards - The New England Water Works Association is seeking nominations for the New England Stormy Awards, which recognize simple, imaginative, and inventive ways that New England communities are increasing staff capacity, funding, or political support for stormwater management programs. Nominations are due by December 31.
Stellwagen Advisory Council - The Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is seeking applicants for one primary seat and one alternate seat on its Sanctuary Advisory Council. For more information and to receive an application kit, see the Sanctuary website or contact Elizabeth.Stokes@noaa.gov. Applications are due by December 31.
Coastal Management Fellowship - NOAA’s Office for Coastal Management is seeking applications for the 2015 Coastal Management Fellowship, which provides on-the-job education and training opportunities in coastal resource management and policy for postgraduate students and project assistance to state coastal zone management programs. The program matches postgraduate students with state coastal zone programs to work on state projects selected by NOAA. This two-year opportunity offers a competitive salary, medical benefits, and travel and relocation expense reimbursement. Applications are due by January 23, 2015.
Coastal and Marine Recreation Study for New England - The Northeast Regional Planning Body in coordination with Point 97, SeaPlan, and the Surfrider Foundation are seeking participants in the Coastal and Marine Recreation Study for New England. The survey will collect data about individual recreation use, such as sea kayaking, surfing, and general beach use. Anyone over 18 who has visited the New England coast at least once in 2014 is encouraged to participate. Take the survey, which is open until April 15, 2015.
Gulf of Maine King Tides Photo Contest Images - The first Gulf of Maine King Tides Photo Contest held on October 9 received more than 150 entries of images of the exceptionally high tide that day at locations from Cape Cod Bay to Nova Scotia. King tides are the highest predicted tides that occur over the course of a year when the gravitational pull of the sun and moon reinforce each other. See the winning submissions and many other images on the King Tides website.