By creating a native buffer of plants between your house and the shore, you can reduce lawn area, conserve water, reduce the use of fertilizers and pesticides, filter sediments and pollutants, stabilize soils, and help preserve wildlife values. The coastal bank landscape profile below shows a coastal bank viewed from the water that has been landscaped according to the coastal bank landscape plan that follows. The plant list at the bottom of the page gives a complete list of all of the species used within the plan (as indicated by the appropriate plant icon).
The plants in this design are well adapted to sunny areas and are resistant to dry conditions, wind, and salt spray. Some of the shrubs chosen, such as beach plum, will remain fairly small due the severity of the environment, yet if grown in high-nutrient soils, these shrubs can grow much taller (as much as 10-12 feet). Because most homeowners want to preserve coastal views, the smaller size of the shrubs is advantageous. Most of the plants included are native species, but those that are non-natives are noted as "not native."
The design provides for a pervious-paver driveway and an irregular flagstone walkway, which allow rain water to infiltrate into the ground, preventing runoff that may otherwise cause erosion of the bank. Because coastal homeowners often want to maintain some lawn area, a lawn is included in this plan. However, lawn grasses provide very little storm-damage protection and wildlife benefit. In addition, maintaining a lawn may actually worsen erosion problems when excess water from irrigation systems drains towards the bank or causes groundwater seepages to undermine bank stability. Lawn areas should therefore be kept as small as possible and permanent irrigation systems should not be used.
Coastal Bank Landscape Profile by Betsy Rickards
Coastal Bank Landscape Plan by Betsy Rickards
|Plant icon||Botanical name||Common name||Height||Value|
|Perennials and grasses|
|Ammophila breviligulata||American Beachgrass||2-3'||Ideal grass for coastal stabilization due to deep spreading roots, quick colonization, and salt tolerance. (native)|
|Andropogon gerardii||Big Bluestem||4-8'||Hardy upright grass with interesting seed heads that resemble a turkey’s foot and leaves that change colors throughout the seasons. (native)|
|Coreopsis rosea||Pink Tickseed||1-2'||Low-maintenance, small, flowering perennial with attractive pink, daisy-like flowers. It can spread by rhizomes or self-seeding. (native)|
|Eragrostis spectabalis||Purple Lovegrass||1-3'||Versatile and low-maintenance ornamental grass that grows in an open cluster with attractive reddish-purple blooms. (native)|
|Eurybia spectabilis||Eastern Showy Aster||1-2'||Easy-to-grow, drought- and salt-tolerant perennial with showy clusters of violet flowers that bloom from August to October. (native)|
|Panicum virgatum||Switchgrass||3-6'||Perennial, clump-forming, warm-season grass with open lacy sprays, reddish-purple seedheads, and deep roots that make it an ideal soil stabilizer. (native)|
|Schizachyrium scoparium||Little Bluestem||18”-3’||Adaptable grass that is useful for re-vegetation, soil stability, food for birds, and cover for wildlife. (native)|
|Solidago odora||Sweet Goldenrod||2-5'||Adaptable and hardy perennial with aromatic leaves and attractive bright yellow clusters of flowers that bloom from late summer to mid fall. (native)|
|Spartina patens||Saltmeadow Cordgrass||1-3'||Perennial grass that tolerates regular inundations of saltwater and spreads by long slender rhizomes. (native)|
|Shrubs and groundcovers|
|Arctostaphylos uva-ursi||Bearberry||6-12”||Hardy, low-growing evergreen groundcover/shrub that is a good soil stabilizer and has attractive bright red berries that are readily eaten by birds. (native)|
|Hydrangea macrophylla||Bigleaf Hydrangea||3-6’||Fast-growing, deciduous shrub that is tolerant of salt and shade and has attractive, large, colorful flowers. (not native; native to Japan)|
|Juniperus communis var. depressa||Common Juniper||4’||Dense, spreading, evergreen groundcover/shrub that is useful for erosion control and often found on gravelly slopes and rocky seaside locations. (native)|
|Myrica pensylvanica||Northern Bayberry||2-6’||Salt-tolerant, semi-evergreen shrub with berries that are eaten by birds. (native)|
|Prunus maritima||Beach Plum||7-14’||Salt-tolerant, deciduous shrub with deep roots, white flowers, and edible fruits. (native)|
|Viburnum dentatum||Arrowwood Viburnum||5-9’||Hardy shrub that is adaptable to a variety of conditions and has fruit valuable for birds. (native)|
|Viburnum lentago||Nannyberry||10-18’||Deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that blooms early in the summer and has attractive fall foliage. (native)|
|Acer rubrum ‘Red Sunset’||Red Maple||40-70’||Fast-growing, deciduous tree with brilliant fall color. (native)|
|Juniperus virginiana||Eastern Red Cedar||10-40’||Large evergreen tree that is drought- and salt-tolerant, with berries valuable to wildlife. (native)|
|Prunus serotina||Black Cherry||60-90’||Rapid growing tree that is drought- and salt-tolerant, with pendulous branches, fragrant flowers, and berries for wildlife. (native)|
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