The references below are those which are referred to in the three sets of Frequently Asked Questions

1) Black Bear Biology and Status  

2) Black Bear Habitat and Management and 

3) Black Bear Problems and Control ). 

Most of these references are technical and address only a specific topic of bear biology and management. A few book-length publications are broader or more popular in scope. See Best Bear Books for some excellent popular and scientific references on black bears and other North American bears.

Bibliography

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Allen, R.B. 1984. Experimental pursuit of black bears with trained bear dogs. Proceedings of the Eastern Black Bear Workshop 7:54-58.

Alt, G.L., G.J. Matula, Jr., F.W. Alt, and J.S. Lindzey. 1977. Movements of translocated nuisance black bears of northeastern Pennsylvania. Transactions of the Northeast Fish and Wildlife Conference [34]:119-126.

Alt, G.L., G.J. Matula, Jr., F.W. Alt, and J.S. Lindzey. 1980. Dynamics of home range and movements of adult black bears in northeastern Pennsylvania. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 4:131-136.

Alt, G.L. 1980. Rate of growth and size of Pennsylvania black bears. Pennsylvania Game News 51(12):7-17.

Alt, G.L. 1983. Timing of parturition of black bears (Ursus americanus) in northeastern Pennsylvania. Journal of Mammalogy 64:305-307.

Alt, G.L. 1984a. Black bear cub mortality due to flooding of natal dens. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:1432-1434.

Alt, G.L. 1984b. Cub adoption in the black bear. Journal of Mammalogy 65:511-512.

Alt, G.L. 1984c. Reuse of black bear dens in northeastern Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:236-239.

Ambrose, J.T. and O.T. Sanders. 1978. Magnitude of black bear depredation on apiaries in North Carolina. Proceedings of the Eastern Black Bear Workshop 4:167-179.

American Society of Mammalogists. 1987. Acceptable field methods in mammalogy: preliminary guidelines approved by the American Society of Mammalogists. Journal of Mammalogy 68 (supplement):1-18.

Ammons, A.E. 1974. Observations of reproductive activity of black bears in captivity in North Carolina. Proceedings of the Eastern Black Bear Workshop 2:98-100.

Amstrup, S.C. 2003. Polar bear. Pages 587-610 in G.A. Feldhamer, B.C. Thompson, and J.A. Chapman (eds) Wild mammals of North America. Biology, management, and conservation (2nd ed.) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 1216pp.

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Andelt, W.F. 1999. Relative effectiveness of guarding-dog breeds to deter predation on domestic sheep in Colorado. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:706-714.

Andelt, W.F. 2001. Livestock guard dogs, llamas and donkeys. Colorado State University, Cooperative Extension Service, Publication 1.218, 7pp.

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Ballard, W.B. 1994. Effects of black bear predation on caribou- a review. Alces 30:25-35.

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Barbour, H., T. Simmons, P. Swain, and H. Woolsey. 1998. Our irreplaceable heritage. Protecting biodiversity in Massachusetts. Mass. Division of Fisheries & Wildlife, Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, and Mass. Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, 83pp.

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Beck, T.D.I., D.S. Moody, D.B. Koch, J.J. Beecham, G.R. Olson, and T. Burton. 1995. Sociological and ethical considerations of black bear hunting. Proceedings of the Western Black Bear Workshop 5:119-131.

Beecham, J.J. and J. Rohlman. 1994. A shadow in the forest. Idaho's black bear. Idaho Dept. Fish & Game, Boise, and University of Idaho Press, Moscow, 245pp.

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Beringer, J.J., S.G. Seibert, and M.R. Pelton. 1990. Incidence of road crossing by black bears on Pisgah National Forest, North Carolina. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8:85-92.

Binninger, C.E., J.J. Beecham, L.A. Thomas, and L.D. Winward. 1980. A serologic survey for selected infectious diseases of black bears in Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 16:423-430.

Bittner, S. 1998. Maryland has two year old female with cubs. International Bear News 7(3):33.

Black, H.C. 1958. Black bear research in New York. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 23:443-461.

Black, L.T. 1998. Bear in human imagination and ritual. Ursus 10:343-347.

Boone, W.R., J.C. Catlin, K.J. Casey, E.T. Boone, P.S. Dye, R.J. Schuett, J.O. Rosenberg, T. Tsubota, and J.M. Bahr. 1998. Bears as induced ovulators- a preliminary study. Ursus 10:503-505.

Braaten, A. 2003. Bear shepherds in the North Cascades. International Bear News 12(2):14-15.

Brady, J.R. and D.S. Maehr. 1982. A new method for dealing with apiary-raiding black bears. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 36:571-577.

Bray, O.E. and V.G. Barnes, Jr. 1967. A literature review on black bear populations and activities. Colorado Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, Fort Collins, Colo., 34pp.

Briscoe, N., J.G. Humphreys, and J.P. Dubey. 1993. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Pennsylvania black bears, Ursus americanus. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29:599-601.

Brody, A.J. and M.R. Pelton. 1989. Effects of roads on black bear movements in western North Carolina. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:5-10.

Brody, A.J. and J.N. Stone. 1987. Timber harvest and black bear population dynamics in a southern Appalachian forest. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 7:243-250.

Buckland, S.T. 1994. The principles and practice of large-scale wildlife surveys. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 59:149-158.

Bull, P. 1970. The Teddy Bear book. Random House, New York, 207pp.

Bunnell, F.L. and D.E.N. Tait. 1980. Bears in models and in reality- implications to management. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 4:15-23.

Bunnell, F.L. and D.E.N. Tait. 1981. Population dynamics of bears-implications. Pages 75-98 in C.W. Fowler and T.D. Smith (eds.) Dynamics of large mammal populations. J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 477pp.

Burghardt, G.M. and L.S. Burghardt. 1972. Notes on behavioral development of two female black bear cubs: the first eight months. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 2:207-220.

Burst, T.L. and M.R. Pelton. 1983. Black bear mark trees in the Smoky Mountains. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 5:45-53.

Burt, W.H. 1943. Territoriality and home range concepts as applied to mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 24:346-352.

Burton, T., D. Koch, D. Updike, and A. Brody. 1994. Evaluation of the potential effects of sport hunting on California black bears. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9(1):231-235.

Butler, C.E. and R.A. Khan. 1992. Prevalence of Trichinella spiralis in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 28:474-475.

Calvert, R., D. Slate, and P. Debow. 1992. An integrated approach to bear damage management in New Hampshire. Proceedings of the Eastern Black Bear Workshop 11:96-107.

Cardoza, J.E. 1976. The history and status of the black bear in Massachusetts and adjacent New England states. Mass. Division of Fisheries & Wildlife, Westborough, Mass., Research Bulletin 18, 113pp.

Cardoza, J.E., M.W. Sayre, and K.D. Elowe. 1990. Black bears in Massachusetts: the 1970s to the 1990s. Massachusetts Wildlife 40(4):10-17, 30-31.

Cardoza, J.E. 1997. Longbeards and long claws. Massachusetts Wildlife 47(4):11-17.

Carney, D.W. 1985. Population dynamics and denning ecology of black bears in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. M.S. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic University, Blacksburg, Va., 84pp.

Carr, P.C. and M.R. Pelton. 1984. Proximity of adult female black bears to limited access roads. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 38:70-77.

Carr, P.C. 2002. Black bears in New Jersey. New Jersey Fish & Wildlife Digest 16(1):62.

Caughley, G. 1974. Interpretation of age ratios. Journal of Wildlife Management 38:557-562.

Caughley, G. 1977. Analysis of vertebrate populations. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 234pp.

Chi, D.K., D. Chester, and B.K. Gilbert. 1998. Effects of capture procedures on black bear activity at an Alaskan salmon stream. Ursus 10:563-569.

Clark, J.D., D.L. Clapp, K.G. Smith, and T.B. Wigley. 1991. Black bear damage and landowner attitudes toward bears in Arkansas. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 45:208-217.

Clark, J.D. 1991. Ecology of two black bear (Ursus americanus) populations in the interior highlands of Arkansas. PhD. dissertation, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 221pp.

Clarke, C. 2002. Kermode bears: from myth to mutation. International Bear News 11(1):33-34.

Clarke, C. 2003. Clans of the Cave Bear? International Bear News 12(1):20.

Clarkson, P.L. 1989. The twelve gauge shotgun: a bear deterrent and protection system. Pages 55-60 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Colvin, T.R. 1976. Aversive conditioning black bear to honey using lithium chloride. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game, Fish and Conservation Commissioners 29:450-453.

Comly-Gericke, L.M. and M.R. Vaughan. 1997. Survival and reproduction of translocated Virginia black bears. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9(2):113-117.

Cook, W.J. and M.R. Pelton. 1978. Selected infectious and parasitic diseases of black bears in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Proceedings of the Eastern Black Bear Workshop 4:120-124.

Cooper, A.B. 1996. Finding our bearings in the trade of American black bear (Ursus americanus) parts: are we on a course for disaster? Human Dimensions of Wildlife 1(4):69-80.

Coppinger, R., J. Lorenz, and L. Coppinger. 1983. Introducing livestock guarding dogs to sheep and goat producers. Proceedings of the Eastern Wildlife Damage Control Conference 1:129-135.

Costello, C.M. 1992. Black bear habitat ecology in the central Adirondacks as related to food abundance and forest management. M.S. thesis, State University of New York, Syracuse, 165pp.

Costello, C.M., D.E. Jones, K.A.G. Hammond, R.M. Inman, K.H. Inman, B.C. Thompson, R.A. Deitner, and H.B. Quigley. 2001. A study of black bear ecology in New Mexico with models for population dynamics and habitat suitability. Final report of New Mexico Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Project W-131-R. N. Mexico Dept. Game & Fish, Hornocker Wildlife Institute, Ecosystem Modeling, and N. Mexico Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit. 197pp.

Cushing, B.S. 1983. Responses of polar bears to human menstrual odors. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 5:270-274.

Dacy, G.H. 1939. Electrified fence: it controls honey-stealing bears. Gleanings in Bee Culture 67:619-621.

Dalle-Molle, J., M.A. Coffey and H.W. Werner. 1986. Evaluation of bear-resistant food containers for backpackers. Pages 209-214 in R.C. Lucas (comp.) Proceedings of the National Wilderness Research Conference; current research. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report INT-212, 553pp.

Davenport, L.B., Jr. 1953. Agricultural depredation by the black bear in Virginia. Journal of Wildlife Management 17:331-340.

Davidson, P., N. Bell, and A. Berchielli. 1994. Information and education about bears. Proceedings of the Eastern Black Bear Workshop 12:141-143.

Davidson, P.L., M.W. Davidson, and D.J. LeBlanc. 2003. The "tough love" approach to dealing with nuisance bears in Louisiana. Paper presented at 17th Eastern Black Bear Workshop, March 2-5, 2003, Mt. Olive, New Jersey.

DeCalesta, D.S. 1983. Building an electric antipredator fence. Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Service, Publication PNW-225, 12pp.

Decker, D.J. and J. O'Pezio. 1989. Consideration of bear-people conflicts in black bear management for the Catskill region of New York: application of a comprehensive management model. Pages 181-187 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Decker, D.J., T.B. Lauber, and W.F. Siemer. 2002. Human-wildlife conflict management. A practitioner's guide. Northeast Wildlife Damage Management Research and Outreach Cooperative, 48pp.

Decker, T.A. 1991. Mortality, habitat use, and bedsite characteristics of white-tailed deer fawns in western Massachusetts. M.S. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 92pp.

DeGraaf, R.M. and W.M. Healy. 1993. The myth of nature's constancy: preservation, protection, and ecosystem management. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 58:17-28.

Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. 2001. BioMap. Guiding land conservation for biodiversity in Massachusetts. Mass. Division of Fisheries & Wildlife, Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, 58pp.

Eagle, T.C. and M.R. Pelton. 1983. Seasonal nutrition of black bears in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 5:94-101.

Eason, T.H., B.H. Smith, and M.R. Pelton. 1996. Researcher variation in collection of morphometrics on black bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 24:485-489.

Eiler, J.H., W.G. Wathen, and M.R. Pelton. 1989. Reproduction in black bears in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:353-360.

Ellingwood, M.R. and J.V. Spignesi. 1987. Management of an urban deer herd and the concept of cultural carrying capacity. Transaction of the Northeast Deer Technical Committee 22:42-45.

Ellingwood, M. 1999. Bear cultural carrying capacity: a Northeast perspective. Proceedings of the Eastern Black Bear Workshop 15:135 (abstract only).

Elowe, K.D. 1984. Home range, movements and habitat preferences of black bear (Ursus americanus) in western Massachusetts. M.S. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 112pp.

Elowe, K.D. 1987. Factors affecting black bear reproductive success and cub survival in Massachusetts. PhD. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 71pp.

Elowe, K.D. and W.E. Dodge. 1989. Factors affecting black bear reproductive success and cub survival. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:962-968.

Elowe, K.D., D.P. Fuller, and T.K. Fuller. 1991. Survival and cause-specific mortality rates of black bears in western Massachusetts. Transactions of the Northeast Section of The Wildlife Society 48:76-80.

Erickson, A.W. 1957. Techniques for live-trapping and handling black bears. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 22:520-543.

Erickson, A.W. 1959. The age of self-sufficiency in the black bear. Journal of Wildlife Management 23:401-405.

Erickson, A.W. and J. Nellor. 1964. Breeding biology of the black bear. Pages 5-45 in A.W. Erickson, J. Nellor, and G.A. Petrides. The black bear in Michigan. Michigan State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Lansing, Mich., Research Bulletin 4, 102pp.

Fair, J. and L. Rogers. 1990. The great American bear. NorthWord Press, Inc., Minocqua, Wisc., 191pp.

Fies, M.L., D.D. Martin, and G.T. Blank. 1987. Movements and rates of return of translocated black bears. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 7:369-372.

Filion, I. and J. Hamr. 2002. Improved black bear live trap. International Bear News 11(1):26.

Fimbel, C.C., L.J. Wolgast, and P.A. McConnell. 1991. Use of fragmented habitat and a provision site by black bears in New Jersey. Transactions of the Northeast Section of The Wildlife Society 48:81-97.

Flower, R. 1975. The education of a bear hunter. Winchester Press, New York, 336pp.

Floyd, T., R.A. Nelson, and G.F. Wynne. 1990. Calcium and bone metabolic homeostasis in active and denning black bears (Ursus americanus). Clinical Orthopaedics 255:301-307.

Folk, G.E., Jr., A. Larson, and M.A. Folk. 1976. Physiology of hibernating bears. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 3:373-380.

Forrester, D.J., M.G. Spalding, and J.B. Wooding. 1993. Demodicosis in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29:136-138.

Foster, D.R., G. Motzkin, D. Bernardos, and J. Cardoza. 2002. Wildlife dynamics in the changing New England landscape. Journal of Biogeography 29:1337-1355.

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Fraser, D. 1979. Sightings of moose, deer, and bears on roads in northern Ontario. Wildlife Society Bulletin 7:181-184.

Fraser, D., J.F. Gardner, G.B. Kolenosky, and S. Strathearn. 1982. Estimation of harvest rate of black bears from age and sex data. Wildlife Society Bulletin 10:53-57.

Free, S.L. and E. McCaffrey. 1972. Reproductive synchrony in the female black bear. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 2:199-206.

Friend, M., D.E. Toweill, R.L. Brownell, Jr., V.F. Nettles, D.S. Davis, and W.J. Foreyt. 1994. Guidelines for proper care and use of wildlife in field research. Pages 96-105 in T.A. Bookhout (ed.) Research and management techniques for wildlife and habitats (5th ed.) The Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C., 740pp.

Fuller, D.P. 1993. Black bear population dynamics in western Massachusetts. M.S. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 136pp.

Garner, N.P. and M.R. Vaughan. 1989. Black bear-human interactions in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Pages 155-161 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

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Garshelis, D.L. and R.R. Pelton. 1981. Movements of black bears in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 45:912-925.

Garshelis, D.L., H.B. Quigley, C.R. Villarrubia, and M.R. Pelton. 1983. Diel movements of black bears in the southern Appalachians. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 5:11-19.

Garshelis, D.L. 1989. Nuisance bear activity and management in Minnesota. Pages 169-180 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Garshelis, D.L. 1991. Monitoring effects of harvest on black bear populations in North America: a review and evaluation of techniques. Proceedings of the Eastern Black Bear Workshop 10:120-144.

Garshelis, D.L. 1994. Density-dependent population regulation of black bears. Pages 3-14 in M. Taylor (ed.) Density-dependent population regulation of black, brown, and polar bears. International Conference on Bear Research and Management Monograph Series 3, 43pp.

Garshelis, D. 1997. Symposium on the trade of bear parts. The arrogance of ignorance- a commentary on the bear trade. International Bear News 6(2):4-6.

Garshelis, D.L. and L.G. Visser. 1997. Enumerating megapopulations of wild bears with an ingested biomarker. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:466-480.

Garshelis, D.L., K.V. Noyce, and P.L. Coy. 1998. Calculating average age of first reproduction free of the biases prevalent in bear studies. Ursus 10:437-447.

Garshelis, D.L., R.S. Sikes, D.E. Andersen, and E.C. Birney. 1999. Landowners' perceptions of crop damage and management practices related to black bears in east-central Minnesota. Ursus 11:219-224.

Garshelis, D.L. 2000. Delusions in habitat evaluation: measuring use, selection, and importance. Pages 110-164 in L. Boitani and T.K. Fuller (eds.) Research techniques in animal ecology. Controversies and consequences. Columbia University Press, New York, 442pp.

Garshelis, D.L. 2002. Misconceptions, ironies, and uncertainties regarding trends in bear populations. Ursus 13:321-334.

Gaski, A.L. 1997. An update on the bear trade. Pages 62-76 in D. Williamson and A.L. Gaski (eds.) Proceedings of the second symposium on the trade of bear parts. TRAFFIC USA, World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C., 239pp.

Geist, V., S.P. Mahoney, and J.F. Organ. 2001. Why hunting has defined the North American model of wildlife conservation. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 66:175-185.

Geist, V. 2003. Hunters, "freedom of the woods" and dispersal phenotype: carnivore management for public safety. Paper presented at 17th Eastern Black Bear Workshop, March 2-5, 2003, Mt. Olive, New Jersey.

Gibbs, J.P. 2000. Monitoring populations. Pages 213-252 in L. Boitani and T.K. Fuller (eds.) Research techniques in animal ecology. Controversies and consequences. Columbia University Press, New York, 442pp.

Gilbert, B.K. and L.D. Roy. 1977. Prevention of black bear damage to beeyards using aversive conditioning. Pages 93-102 in R.L. Phillips and C.J. Jonkel (eds.) Proceedings of the 1975 Predator Symposium. University of Montana, Missoula, 268pp.

Gilbert, B.K. 1989. Behavioral plasticity and human-bear conflicts. Pages 1-8 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Gilbert, J.R., W.S. Kordek, J. Collins, and R. Conley. 1978. Interpreting sex and age data from legal kills of bears. Proceedings of the Eastern Black Bear Workshop 4:253-266.

Giles, R.H., Jr. 1978. Wildlife management. W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, Calif., 416pp.

Gillin, C.M., I.E. Chestin, P. Semchenkov, and J. Claar. 1997. Management of bear-human conflicts using Laika dogs. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9(2):133-137.

Gittleman, J.L. 1989. Carnivore group living: comparative trends. Pages 183-207 in J.L. Gittleman (ed.) Carnivore behavior, ecology, and evolution. v. 1. Comstock Publishing, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 620pp.

Gleason, S.C., R. Currier, and P. Quinlisk. 1999. Public health response to a potentially rabid bear cub- Iowa, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48(42):971-973.

Goad, D. 2003. Bald bears? International Bear News 12(2):17-18.

Graber, D.M. 1981. Ecology and management of black bears in Yosemite National Park. PhD. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 206pp.

Green, J.S., R.A. Woodruff, and T.T. Tueller. 1984. Livestock-guarding dogs for predator control: costs, benefits, and practicality. Wildlife Society Bulletin 12:44-50.

Green, J.S. 1989. Donkeys for predation control. Proceedings of the Eastern Wildlife Damage Control Conference 4:83-86.

Green, J.S. and R.A. Woodruff. 1989. Livestock-guarding dogs reduce depredation by bears. Pages 49-53 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Grogan, R.G. and F.G. Lindzey. 1999. Estimating population size of a low-density black bear population using capture-resight. Ursus 11:117-122.

Grumbine, R.E. 1994. What is ecosystem management? Conservation Biology 8:27-38.

Grumbine, R.E. 1997. Reflections on "What is ecosystem management?". Conservation Biology 11:41-47.

Gunson, J.R. 1977. Black bears and beehives in Alberta. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Association of State Fish & Game Commissioners 57:182-191.

Gunther, K.A. 1994. Bear management in Yellowstone National Park, 1960-93. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9(1):549-560.

Gunther, K.A. and H.E. Hoekstra. 1998. Bear-inflicted human injuries in Yellowstone National Park, 1970-1994. Ursus 10:377-384.

Hall, E.R. 1981. The mammals of North America (rev. ed.) J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 2 v.

Hallowell, A.I. 1926. Bear ceremonialism in the northern hemisphere. American Anthropologist 28:1-175.

Hamilton, H.R. 1999. The case for abundant species management. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 4(3):74-85.

Harlow, R.F. 1961. Characteristics and status of Florida black bear. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 26:481-495.

Harris, R.B. and L.H. Metzgar. 1987. Estimating harvest rates of bears from sex ratio changes. Journal of Wildlife Management 51:802-811.

Hastings, B.C., B.K. Gilbert, and D.L. Turner. 1986. Black bear aggression in the backcountry of Yosemite National Park. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 6:145-149.

Hastings, B.C., B.K. Gilbert, and D.L. Turner. 1989. Effects of bears eating campers' food on human-bear interactions. Pages 15-18 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Healy, W.M., K.W. Gottschalk, R.P. Long, and P.M. Wargo. 1997. Chestnut is gone: are the oaks far behind? Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 62:249-263.

Hellgren, E.C. and D.S. Maehr. 1992. Habitat fragmentation and black bears in the eastern United States. Proceedings of the Eastern Black Bear Workshop 11:154-165.

Hellgren, E.C. 1998. Physiology of hibernation in bears. Ursus 10:467-477.

Herrero, S. 1972. Aspects of evolution and adaptation in American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) and brown and grizzly bears (U. arctos Linne.) of North America. Papers of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 2:221-231.

Herrero, S. 1978. A comparison of some features of the evolution, ecology and behavior of black and grizzly/brown bears. Carnivore 1(1):7-17.

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