Update: May 2004
Current Massachusetts Regulatory Limit
ORSGL = 6.3 mg/L.
Federal Regulatory Limit
The U.S. EPA has not published an MCL for acetone.
Basis for Criteria
The ORSGL is derived based on the RfD presented below and assumes that a 70 kg adult ingests 2 L/day of drinking water. A relative source contribution factor of 20% is incorporated into the final value.
RfD: 9 x 10-1 mg/kg/day
UF: 1000 (10 = intraspecies; 3 = interspecies; 3 = subchronic to chronic;
10 = database deficiency)
The RfD is based on a 13-week rat study by Dietz et al. (1991) in which male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to acetone in their drinking water for 13 weeks at concentrations of 0, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 or 50,000 ppm. Male rats were the most sensitive group with the kidney, hematologic system and testes identified as target organs. Effects noted at 1700 mg/kg/day included mild nephropathy, macrocytic anemia and a depressed regenerative response. Effects noted at 3400 mg/kg/day included depressed sperm motility, caudal and epididymal weights and an increased incidence of abnormal sperm. A NOAEL of 900 mg/kg/day was identified based on mild nephropathy in male rats (converted from the concentration of 10,000 ppm for a male rat).
Data are inadequate for assessment of human carcinogenic potential.
Acetone is currently classified as a group D carcinogen based on a lack of adequate carcinogenicity data in animals and humans. Acetone has been negative in several mutagenicity assays.
PQL: 10 ug/L
PQLs and analytical methods may have been updated since this guidance value was last revised. Updated analytical methods for drinking water and their associated PQLs may be found at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/methods.html
Other Regulatory Data
Any Health Advisories, Reference Doses (RfDs), cancer assessments or Cancer Potency Factors (CPFs) referenced in this document pertain to the derivation of the current guidance value. Updated information may be obtained from the following sources:
Health Advisories - The U.S. EPA provides guidance for shorter-term exposures for chemicals based on their non-cancer effects. Current health advisories may be more current than those used to derive MCLs and may be found at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/drinking/standards/dwstandards.pdf
RfDs, cancer assessments and CPFs - For specific information pertaining to derivation of drinking water criteria, consult the Federal Register notice that announces the availability of the most current guidance for that chemical. In addition, information on other current RfDs and CPFs as well as cancer assessments for specific chemicals may be found in the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) at http://www.epa.gov/iris/. Please note that the information in IRIS may differ from that used in the derivation process as published in the Federal Register notice.
Dietz, D.D., Leininger, J.R., Rauckman, E.J., Thompson, M.B., Chapin, R.E. Morrissey, R.L. and Levine, B.S. 1991. Toxicity studies of acetone administered in the drinking water of rodents. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 17:347-360.
NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1991. Toxicity studies of acetone (CAS No. 67-64-1) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC. NTP TOX 3, NIH Publication No. 91-3122.
U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2004. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Web-based database.