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ACRYLAMIDE [1]
CASRN: 79061

Update: March 1996

Current Massachusetts Regulatory Limit
MMCL: Treatment Technique.

ORS has adopted the MCL published by U.S. EPA under the Phase II rule. 

Federal Regulatory Limit
Under the Phase II rule (56 FR 3526), no numerical MCL is provided for acrylamide and epichlorohydrin. If detected, a treatment technique is specified. Each water system must certify, in writing, to the state (using third-party or manufacturer's certification) that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used in drinking water systems, the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified, as follows:

  • Acrylamide = 0.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent)
  • Epichlorohydrin = 0.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent)

Basis for Criteria
The MCLG for acrylamide is zero based on its classification as a B-2 Carcinogen. The MCL is based on treatment technique. There are no standardized analytical methods for acrylamide at low levels in drinking water.

Critical Effects
Nerve damage. The RfD is based on NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg/day derived from a subchronic drinking water study in rats. (Burek et al., 1980). 

Cancer Assessment B2
The cancer assessment is based on a study by Johnson et al. (1986) where the authors reported an increase in the incidence of actual cancers, mammillary gland tumors, thyroid tumors, uterine adenomas, clitoral gland adenomas and oral papillomas. 

Class
VOC

Analytical Information
Updated analytical methods for drinking water and their associated PQLs may be found at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/methods.html

Other Regulatory Data
Any Health Advisories, Reference Doses (RfDs), cancer assessments or Cancer Potency Factors (CPFs) referenced in this document pertain to the derivation of the current guidance value. Updated information may be obtained from the following sources:

Health Advisories - The U.S. EPA provides guidance for shorter-term exposures for chemicals based on their non-cancer effects. Current health advisories may be more current than those used to derive MCLs and may be found at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/drinking/standards/dwstandards.pdf

RfDs, cancer assessments and CPFs - For specific information pertaining to derivation of drinking water criteria, consult the Federal Register notice that announces the availability of the most current guidance for that chemical. In addition, information on other current RfDs and CPFs as well as cancer assessments for specific chemicals may be found in the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) at http://www.epa.gov/iris/. Please note that the information in IRIS may differ from that used in the derivation process as published in the Federal Register notice.

References
Burek, J.D., R.R. Albee, J.E. Beyer, et al. 1980. Subchronic toxicity of acrylamide administered to rats in the drinking water followed by up to 144 days of recovery. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. 4:157-182.

Federal Register. January 30, 1991. Part III. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Proposed Rule. (56 FR 3526).

Johnson, K., S. Gazinski, K. Bodnur et al. 1986. Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study on acrylamide incorporated in the drinking water of Fisher 344 rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 85:154-168.


[1] No numerical MCL is provided for these compounds. If detected, a treatment technique is specified. Each water system must certify, in writing, to the state (using third-party or manufacturer's certification) that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used in drinking water systems, the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified, as follows:

  • Acrylamide = 0.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent)
  • Epichlorohydrin = 0.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent)