Update: January 1995
Current Massachusetts Regulatory Limit
MMCL = 0.004 mg/L. ORS has adopted the MCL published by U.S. EPA under the Phase II rule (55FR 30370; 7-25-90).
Federal Regulatory Limit
The MCL is equal to the MCLG of 0.004 mg/L. (Fed Reg., 1992).
Basis for Criteria
The MCLG is derived based on the RfD presented below and assumes that a 70 kg adult ingests 2 L/day of drinking water. The MCLG incorporates a relative source contribution factor of 20% and a 10-fold uncertainty factor to account for potential carcinogenicity.
RfD: 5x10-3 mg/kg/day
UF: 100 (10 = interspecies; 10 = intraspecies) M.F.: 1
The RfD is based on an adjusted NOAEL of 0.54 mg/kg/day derived from a chronic oral bioassay in rats. In this study, rats received beryllium in their drinking water over a lifetime. The only significant change noted in the study was a slight reduction in body weight in males from 2 to 6 months of age.
Cancer Assessment B2
Beryllium has been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals via inhalation, intratracheal instillation or intravenous injection. Only limited information is available on long-term oral exposure to beryllium. U.S. EPA derived an oral slope factor of 4.3 (mg/kg/day)-1 for beryllium. The drinking water concentration of beryllium at 1 x 10-4 cancer risk = 0.0008 mg/L.
210.2 AA Furnace
PQLs and analytical methods may have been updated since this guidance value was last revised. Updated analytical methods for drinking water and their associated PQLs may be found at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/methods.html
Other Regulatory Data
Any Health Advisories, Reference Doses (RfDs), cancer assessments or Cancer Potency Factors (CPFs) referenced in this document pertain to the derivation of the current guidance value. Updated information may be obtained from the following sources:
Health Advisories - The U.S. EPA provides guidance for shorter-term exposures for chemicals based on their non-cancer effects. Current health advisories may be more current than those used to derive MCLs and may be found at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/drinking/standards/dwstandards.pdf
RfDs, cancer assessments and CPFs - For specific information pertaining to derivation of drinking water criteria, consult the Federal Register notice that announces the availability of the most current guidance for that chemical. In addition, information on other current RfDs and CPFs as well as cancer assessments for specific chemicals may be found in the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) at http://www.epa.gov/iris/. Please note that the information in IRIS may differ from that used in the derivation process as published in the Federal Register notice.
Schroeder, H.A., and M. Mitchener. 1975. Lifeterm Studies in Rats: Effects of Aluminum, Barium, Beryllium and Tungsten. J. Nutr. 165: 421-427.
Federal Register. July 25, 1990. Part II. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 141 et al. National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations; Synthetic Organic Chemicals and Inorganic Chemicals; Proposed Rule. (55 FR 30370)
Federal Register. July 17, 1992. Part III. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Synthetic Organic Chemicals and Inorganic Chemicals; Final Rule. (57 FR 31776).