Update: August 1993
Current Massachusetts Regulatory Limit
MMCL = 0.04 mg/L. ORS has adopted the MCL published by the U.S. EPA as part of the Phase II rule (56 FR 3526) (Fed. Reg. 1991).
Federal Regulatory Limit
The MCL is equal to the MCLG of 0.04 mg/L.
Basis for Criteria
The MCLG is based on the potential for adverse health effects reported in a 2 year dietary study in rats. The MCLG was derived based on the RfD presented below and assumes that a 70 kg adult ingests 2 L/day of water. The MCLG incorporates a relative source contribution factor for drinking water of 20%.
RfD: 5 x 10-3 mg/kg/day
UF: 100 (10 - interspecies; 10 - intraspecies) MF: 1
Confidence in RfD: high
Decreased plasma and RBC acetylcholinesterase and testicular seminiferous tubule degeneration were reported in beagle dogs that were fed carbofuran at up to 12.5 mg/kg/day for one year. A NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg/day was identified from the study.
Carbofuran is currently classified as a Group E (i.e., no evidence of carcinogenicity).
PQLs and analytical methods may have been updated since this guidance value was last revised. Updated analytical methods for drinking water and their associated PQLs may be found at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/methods.html
Other Regulatory Data
Any Health Advisories, Reference Doses (RfDs), cancer assessments or Cancer Potency Factors (CPFs) referenced in this document pertain to the derivation of the current guidance value. Updated information may be obtained from the following sources:
Health Advisories - The U.S. EPA provides guidance for shorter-term exposures for chemicals based on their non-cancer effects. Current health advisories may be more current than those used to derive MCLs and may be found at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/drinking/standards/dwstandards.pdf
RfDs, cancer assessments and CPFs - For specific information pertaining to derivation of drinking water criteria, consult the Federal Register notice that announces the availability of the most current guidance for that chemical. In addition, information on other current RfDs and CPFs as well as cancer assessments for specific chemicals may be found in the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) at http://www.epa.gov/iris/. Please note that the information in IRIS may differ from that used in the derivation process as published in the Federal Register notice.
Federal Register. January 30, 1991. Part II. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Parts 141, 142, and 143. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Final Rule. (56 FR 3526).
FMC Corporation. 1983. MRID No. 00129507. Available from U.S. EPA. Write to FOI, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC 20460.