Update: January 1995
Current Massachusetts Regulatory Limit
MMCL = Treatment technique. ORS has adopted the MCL published by the U.S. EPA.
Federal Regulatory Limit
Under the Phase II rule (56 FR 3526), no numerical MCL is provided for acrylamide and epichlorohydrin. If detected, a treatment technique is specified. Each water system must certify, in writing, to the state (using third-party or manufacturer's certification) that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used in drinking water systems, the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified, as follows:
- Acrylamide = 0.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent)
- Epichlorohydrin = 0.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent)
Basis for Criteria
The MCLG for epichlorohydrin is zero, based on its classification as a group B2 carcinogen. The MCL is based on treatment technique. There are no standardized analytical methods for epichlorohydrin at low levels in drinking water.
The major target organs for toxicity upon chronic exposure to epichlorohydrin are the nasal turbinates, lungs, kidneys, male reproductive organs and the central nervous system. Tumors were observed in several species by several different routes of administration.
There are no human data for exposure to epichlorohydrin in humans and cancer. In animals, epichlorohydrin has produced cancers of various types at the sites of application when administered by several routes. Webster et al. (1985) administered 0, 2 or 10 mg/kg/d of epichlorohydrin by gavage to groups of Wistar rats (50 rats/groups/sex). The incidence of forestomach carcinomas was significantly increased in the high-dosed rats. Konishi et al. (1980) reported similar results in male Wistar rats given epichlorohydrin in their drinking water.
The U.S. EPA CAG estimated an upper limit 1 x 10-6 excess lifetime cancer risk-associated concentration in drinking water of 0.00354 mg/L based on the Konishi et al (1980) study (Fed Reg. 1985). The Konishi et al. study (1980) was the only drinking water study available and the data from the study were used to derive the slope factor. The tumor types were papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach (Fed Reg, 1985).
There are no standardized analytical methods for epichlorohydrin in drinking water. Instead, the monomer of epichlorohydrin is limited to 0.01% residual concentration dosed at 20 ppm.
PQLs and analytical methods may have been updated since this guidance value was last revised. Updated analytical methods for drinking water and their associated PQLs may be found at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/methods.html.
Other Regulatory Data
Any Health Advisories, Reference Doses (RfDs), cancer assessments or Cancer Potency Factors (CPFs) referenced in this document pertain to the derivation of the current guidance value. Updated information may be obtained from the following sources:
Health Advisories - The U.S. EPA provides guidance for shorter-term exposures for chemicals based on their non-cancer effects. Current health advisories may be more current than those used to derive MCLs and may be found at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/drinking/standards/dwstandards.pdf.
RfDs, cancer assessments and CPFs - For specific information pertaining to derivation of drinking water criteria, consult the Federal Register notice that announces the availability of the most current guidance for that chemical. In addition, information on other current RfDs and CPFs as well as cancer assessments for specific chemicals may be found in the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) at http://www.epa.gov/iris/. Please note that the information in IRIS may differ from that used in the derivation process as published in the Federal Register notice.
Federal Register. November 13, 1985. Part IV. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 141. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Synthetic Organic Chemicals, Inorganic Chemicals and Microorganisms; Proposed Rule. (50 FR 46936).
Federal Register. May 22, 1989. Part II. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Parts 141, 142 and 143. National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations; Proposed Rule.
Konishi, T., A. Kawabata, A. Denda. 1980. Forestomach tumors induced by orally administered epichlorohydrin in male Wistar rats. Gann. 71:922-923.
Webster, P.W., C.A.Vander Heijden, A. Bisschop and G.J. Van Erch. 1985. Carcinogenicity study with epichlorohydrin, (CEP) by gavage in rats. Toxicology. 36:325-339.