Update: August 1991
Current Massachusetts Regulatory Limit
MMCL = 0.0002 mg/L. ORS has adopted the MCL that the U.S. EPA promulgated as part of the Phase II rule (56 FR 3526: 1-30-91); (56 FR 30266; 7-1-91).
Federal Regulatory Limit
The MCL is equal to the MCLG of 0.0002 mg/L.
Basis for Criteria
The MCLG is derived based on the RfD presented below and assumes that a 70 kg adult ingests 2 L/day of water. The MCLG incorporates a relative source contribution factor of 20% and a ten-fold uncertainty factor of 10 to account for potential carcinogenicity.
RfD: 0.0003 mg/kg/day
UF: 1000 (10 = interspecies; 10 = intraspecies; 10 = subchronic to chronic)
The liver and kidney are the primary target organs for lindane toxicity. Acute exposure of animals to lindane results in neurological and behavioral effects. Subchronic and chronic studies have shown a variety of effects, including liver hypertrophy, kidney tubular degeneration and interstitial nephritis.
In a feeding study, rats were fed lindane in the diet at concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.8, 4, 20 and 100 ppm for 84 days. Liver, kidney, tubular degeneration, interstitial nephritis and other effects were noted at the two highest doses. A NOAEL of 4 ppm (0.33 mg/kg/day) was identified from this study (U.S. EPA, 1987).
There is inadequate evidence to determine whether or not lindane has the potential to cause cancer from lifetime exposures in drinking water. Under the U.S. EPA 1986 Carcinogen Risk Assessment Guidelines, lindane is classified as a Group C (possible) human carcinogen. This classification indicates that there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity of lindane in animals in the absence of human data.
PQL: 0.00002 mg/L
U.S. EPA Methods 505; 508; 508.1; 525.2
PQLs and analytical methods may have been updated since this guidance value was last revised. Updated analytical methods for drinking water and their associated PQLs may be found at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/methods.html.
Other Regulatory Data
Any Health Advisories, Reference Doses (RfDs), cancer assessments or Cancer Potency Factors (CPFs) referenced in this document pertain to the derivation of the current guidance value. Updated information may be obtained from the following sources:
Health Advisories - The U.S. EPA provides guidance for shorter-term exposures for chemicals based on their non-cancer effects. Current health advisories may be more current than those used to derive MCLs and may be found at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/drinking/standards/dwstandards.pdf.
RfDs, cancer assessments and CPFs - For specific information pertaining to derivation of drinking water criteria, consult the Federal Register notice that announces the availability of the most current guidance for that chemical. In addition, information on other current RfDs and CPFs as well as cancer assessments for specific chemicals may be found in the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) at http://www.epa.gov/iris/. Please note that the information in IRIS may differ from that used in the derivation process as published in the Federal Register notice.
Federal Register. November 13, 1985. Part IV. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 141. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Synthetic Organic Chemicals, Inorganic Chemicals and Microorganisms; Proposed Rule. (50 FR 46936).
Federal Register. January 30, 1991. Part II. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Parts 141, 142, and 143. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Final Rule. (56 FR 3526).
U.S. EPA. March 31, 1987. Lindane Health Advisory. Office of Drinking Water.