Public Water Supply Protection Areas are defined in the Drinking Water Regulations at 310 CMR 22.02. The regulatory wording is also provided below.
Groundwater Protection Areas:
Interim Wellhead Protection Area (IWPA)
For public water systems using wells or wellfields that lack a Department approved Zone II, the Department will apply an interim wellhead protection area. This interim wellhead protection area shall be a one-half mile radius measured from the well or wellfield for sources whose approved pumping rate is 100,000 gpd or greater. For wells or wellfields that pump less than 100,000 gpd, the IWPA radius is proportional to the approved pumping rate which may be calculated according to the following equation: IWPA radius in feet = (32 x pumping rate in gallons per minute) + 400. A default IWPA radius or an IWPA radius otherwise computed and determined by the Department shall be applied to transient non-community (TNC) and non-transient non-community (NTNC) wells when there is no metered rate of withdrawal or no approved pumping rate. The default IWPA radius shall be 500 feet for TNC wells and 750 feet for NTNC wells.
The protective radius required around a public water supply well or wellfield. For public water system wells with approved yields of 100,000 gpd or greater, the protective radius is 400 feet. Tubular wellfields require a 250 foot protective radius. Protective radii for all other public water system wells are determined by the following equation: Zone I radius in feet = (150 x log of pumping rate in gpd) - 350. This equation is equivalent to the chart in the Division's Water Supply Guidelines. A default Zone I radius or a Zone I radius otherwise computed and determined by the Department shall be applied to transient non-community (TNC) and non-transient non-community (NTNC) wells when there is no metered rate of withdrawal or no approved pumping rate. The default Zone I radius shall be 100 feet for TNC wells and 250 feet for NTNC wells.
That area of an aquifer which contributes water to a well under the most severe pumping and recharge conditions that can be realistically anticipated (180 days of pumping at approved yield, with no recharge from precipitation). It is bounded by the groundwater divides which result from pumping the well and by the contact of the aquifer with less permeable materials such as till or bedrock. In some cases, streams or lakes may act as recharge boundaries. In all cases, Zone II shall extend upgradient to its point of intersection with prevailing hydrogeologic boundaries (a groundwater flow divide, a contact with till or bedrock, or a recharge boundary).
The land area beyond the area of Zone II from which surface water and groundwater drain into Zone II. The surface drainage area as determined by topography is commonly coincident with the groundwater drainage area and will be used to delineate Zone III. In some locations, where surface and groundwater drainage are not coincident, Zone III shall consist of both the surface drainage and the groundwater drainage areas.
Surface Water Protection Areas:
(a) the land area between the surface water source and the upper boundary of the bank;
(b) the land area within a 400 foot lateral distance from the upper boundary of the bank of a Class A surface water source, as defined in 314 CMR 4.05(3)(a); and
(c) the land area within a 200 foot lateral distance from the upper boundary of the bank of a tributary or associated surface water body.
The land area within one-half mile of the upper boundary of the bank of a Class A surface water source, as defined in 314 CMR 4.05(3)(a), or edge of watershed, whichever is less. However, Zone B shall always include the land area within a 400 foot lateral distance from the upper boundary of the bank of the Class A surface water source.
The land area not designated as Zone A or B within the watershed of a Class A surface water source as defined at 314 CMR 4.05(3)(a).