Background/Statement of the Problem
During the summers of 2002 and 2003, schools and other municipal buildings experienced significant mold problems. As a result, at least thirty school systems have experienced delayed school openings and/or have spent substantial funds on cleaning and remediating mold growth in schools. These mold growth problems are directly related to unusual weather patterns in New England (e.g., extended periods of hot, humid weather).
Mold growth in a building can produce eye, nose, throat and respiratory irritation. Mold may also exacerbate pre-existing respiratory problems (e.g., asthma) and cause symptoms in hypersensitive individuals. For these reasons, it is recommended that mold contaminated materials be removed or cleaned, where feasible (US EPA, 2001).
This document provides guidance on preventing or minimizing mold growth within a building. Most mold prevention steps can be employed in any building. However, certain steps involving dehumidification can only be achieved with dehumidifiers and/or heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment.
Understanding Dew Point
In general, two water phases - liquid and vapor - can create conditions conducive to fungal colonization of vulnerable materials. Leaks through the building envelope (e.g., roof, exterior wall components, foundation) or plumbing problems are obvious water sources. If the indoor environment is improperly managed, high relative humidity combined with hot weather can also cause damage. Under certain conditions, condensation can accumulate and moisten materials, especially porous, carbon-containing items (e.g., gypsum wallboard, carpeting, cloth, paper, cardboard).
The key to managing condensation within a building is understanding dew point. When warm, moist air passes over a cooler surface, condensation can form. Condensation is the collection of moisture on a surface at or below the dew point. The dew point is the hotness that air must reach for saturation to occur. If a building material/component has a temperature below the dew point, condensation will accumulate on that material. Over time, condensation can collect and form water droplets.
For example, at a temperature of 76 oF and relative humidity of 30%, the dew point temperature at which condensation can collect on a surface is approximately 42 oF. At temperatures less than 43 oF, water vapor can condense and form droplets on a surface. During humid weather, when the temperature is 85 oF and relative humidity is 90%, the dew point is approximately 82 oF. Therefore, surfaces with a temperature below 83 oF are prone to condensation formation.
According to American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), if relative humidity exceeds 70%, mold growth may occur due to wetting of building materials (ASHRAE, 1989). It is recommended that porous material be dried with fans and heating within 24 to 48 hours of becoming wet (US EPA, 2001, ACGIH, 1989). If porous materials are not dried within this time frame, mold growth may occur. Water damaged porous materials cannot be adequately cleaned to remove mold growth. To prevent condensation formation, the following points are recommended:
Action Step: Monitor weather through extended weathercasts to determine if hot, humid weather for more than 2 days is predicted. Many web-based weather services will provide a dew point listing.
Action Step: Monitor temperature of condensation prone building components with a laser thermometer. If the temperature of the building component is below the dew point during hot, humid weather, steps should be taken to decrease humidity levels.
Reducing Relative Humidity through Mechanical Means
Cooling air is the easiest method to reducing airborne water vapor. Window-mounted air conditioners and most HVAC systems are equipped with cooling coils. Each of these cooling efforts operates by drawing air over cooling coils that are set to a temperature below the dew point. As a result, condensation forms. In this manner, moisture is removed, before air is provided to a room. Although this method is the easiest for reducing indoor relative humidity, two disadvantages exist. First, drainage for condensation must be adequate to remove water at a sufficient rate. If a significant amount of water accumulates and lingers in the drip pan, the operation of HVAC system fans can reintroduce the moisture into the air stream. In addition, stagnant water can provide a medium for mold growth and associated odors.
Action Step: If systems equipped with cooling coils are used to remove moisture, ensure drain pans are operating as designed. Drain pans should not rely on evaporation to remove condensation; rather, water should drain rapidly. If pans are draining improperly, the drainage should be repaired. If proper drainage cannot be provided, this method of relative humidity reduction should be avoided.
Another problem associated with using cooling coils to reduce relative humidity is the potential for condensation generation on building components. This occurs when the HVAC system chills building components below the dew point. Most problems experienced in schools occurred in August 2003, when the buildings were unoccupied. HVAC systems are typically configured for occupied rooms, where room occupants generate heat. However, lack of building occupancy reduces the waste heat in a room. If the HVAC system operates at settings for occupied rooms during extended periods of vacancy, the chilling system operates at a temperature below the design. In this manner, building components are chilled below the dew point, causing condensation to form. Under these circumstances, monitoring of building component temperatures is vital to preventing/ minimizing condensation development.
Action Step: Monitor temperature of condensation prone building components with a laser thermometer. If the temperature of building components is below the dew point, raise the HVAC system set point to elevate the temperature of building materials above the dew point. The temperature of insulated chilled water pipes and HVAC components in contact with chilled air should also be monitored.
As with window-mounted air conditioners and HVAC systems, dehumidifiers also remove moisture from an indoor environment by cooling air drawn into the system. Although this method is effective, the dehumidification process also has limitations. Condensation usually drips into a collection well. If the water in the collection well becomes stagnant, it can provide the potential for mold growth.
Action Step: Clean and maintain dehumidifiers as per manufacturer's instructions. Some dehumidifiers are also equipped with condensation drain hoses. Measures should be taken to ensure water is draining out of hoses when dehumidifiers are operating.
Action Step: Ensure drain hoses are pointed downwards into a suitable receptacle (e.g., sink) and away from porous materials. Monitor draining when the dehumidifier is actively operating.
Although counterintuitive, the application of heat to building components (e.g., slab floors and foundation in contact with soil, below grade areas) can reduce condensation generation and prevent mold growth. This method is typically employed in areas lacking mechanical ventilation (e.g. storage rooms).
Action Step: Use carpet-drying fans to apply heat to slab floors with carpeting and below grade occupied areas with carpeting, gypsum wallboard, particleboard, plywood or ceiling tiles.
By increasing the airflow of a building, accumulation of hot, moist air can be reduced, decreasing the opportunity for porous materials to become wet. Areas particularly prone to elevated moisture include storage closets and occupied spaces without mechanical ventilation.
Action Step: Implement the following methods to promote increased airflow:
- Open all interior doors between rooms and closets.
- Operate HVAC systems not equipped with chilling components (e.g., unit ventilators, or univents) with the fresh air intake vents closed.
- Operate general exhaust ventilation system normally.
- Arrange floor fans in hallways to circulate air.
Activities in some non-classroom areas can generate water vapor. These areas include pools, kitchens, restrooms and locker rooms/showers. Specially designed exhaust ventilation systems in these areas should be provided to remove both odors and water vapor. This equipment is designed to prevent migration of odors and water vapor to other areas of a building.
Action Step: Operate exhaust vents in restrooms and locker rooms/showers during hot, humid weather to remove water vapor. The pool exhaust ventilation should be operating at all times.
Removing Porous Materials from Exposure to Water Vapor
To prevent mold growth in buildings, a number of mitigation steps can be taken. Measures may include the removal of porous materials from areas likely to be in contact with surfaces that have a temperature below the dew point, or removal of porous materials from hot, humid areas.
Action Step: The following measures can be used to reduce fungal growth of porous materials.
- Avoid placing wall-to-wall carpeting or other porous materials on slab in contact with soil or on floors in below grade areas.
- Avoid placing porous materials on temperature bridges. A temperature bridge is a structure that allows cooler temperatures to transfer between two areas. Furniture made of metal is more likely to be susceptible to temperature fluctuations. Avoid storing porous materials on metal objects that are low and in contact with floor or foundation walls.
- Store porous materials in airtight, hard plastic containers.
- Avoid placing porous materials between fresh air supply vents and exhaust vents. The air between this equipment is likely to hold moisture, since these systems are used to remove water vapor from a building interior.
Preventing Moisture Intrusion
Separating occupied areas from unoccupied areas
A crawlspace is an unoccupied area that typically consists of a dirt floor, which holds moisture. As a result, this area is prone to high relative humidity and mold growth. The crawlspace is often used as a chase way to run pipes and electrical services to rooms through a building. Crawlspaces are usually present in schools that are equipped with univents connected to heating pipes. Spaces and holes in walls and floors provide a pathway for crawlspace air to penetrate classrooms. Breaches around pipes also provide a means for crawlspace air and associated odors/particles to be drawn and distributed to classrooms via univents. In order to prevent moisture and potential fungal pollutant migration from the crawlspace to occupied areas, penetrations should be rendered airtight.
Reducing the Water Load on the Building Envelope
Breaches in the building envelope or water pooling on/against a building structure can also result in water penetration and subsequent mold growth. Buildings are typically designed for minimal water impingement via building envelope components, including the roof, exterior walls, foundation and other penetration points through the structures. For example, exterior wall systems should be designed weep holes and drainage plans to prevent moisture accumulation penetration.
An exterior wall system of many buildings contains an exterior curtain wall. Behind the curtain wall is an air space that allows for water to drain downward and for the exterior cladding system to dry. At the base of the curtain wall should be weep holes that allow for water drainage. Opposite the exterior wall and across the air space is a continuous, water-resistant material adhered to the back up wall that forms the drainage plane.
The purpose of the drainage plane is to prevent moisture that crosses the air space from penetrating the interior building system. The plane also directs moisture downwards toward the weep holes. The drainage plane can consist of a number of water-resistant materials, such as tarpaper or, in newer buildings, plastic wraps. The drainage plane should be continuous. Where breaks exist in the drainage plane (e.g., window systems, door systems and univent fresh air intakes), additional materials (e.g., copper flashing) are installed as transitional surfaces to direct water to weep holes. If the drainage plane is discontinuous, missing flashing or lacking air space, rainwater may accumulate inside the wall cavity and lead to water vapor/moisture penetration into the building.
In order to allow water to drain from the exterior brick wall system, a series of weep holes is customarily installed at or near the foundation slab/exterior wall system junction. Weep holes allow for accumulated water to drain from a wall system (Dalzell, 1955). Lack of weep holes in brickwork or burial of weep holes below grade will allow water to accumulate in the base of walls, resulting in seepage and possible moistening of building components.
Unless a structure is designed to be in contact with pooling water, efforts should be made to prevent water from pooling for extended periods. For example, standing water on flat roofs as well as water in contact with foundations and floor slabs should be removed. Mitigation efforts may include modifications to the building design and construction.
Action Step: Reduce pooling water around the building envelope and around the exterior wall system through the following methods:
- Install gutters and downspouts to direct rainwater at least five feet away from the foundation. Gutters should extend along the entire roof edge.
- Remove foliage and wood chips to no less than five feet from the foundation.
- Improve the grading of the ground away from the foundation at a rate of 6 inches per every 10 feet (Lstiburek & Brennan, 2001).
- Install a water impermeable layer (e.g., clay cap) on ground surface to prevent water saturation of ground near foundation (Lstiburek & Brennan, 2001).
- Remove trees in close proximity to building to increase drying of exterior walls.
- Ensure weep holes in exterior walls are not blocked with wicks or buried below grade. Weep holes must be free of blockage and located above grade to allow water to drain and air to penetrate and aid in drying into the drainage plane. Configure the weep hole opening to prevent insect entry into the drainage plane.
ACGIH. 1989. Guidelines for the Assessment of Bioaerosols in the Indoor Environment. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.
ASHRAE. 1989. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA. ANSI/ASHRAE 62-1989.
Dalzell, J.R. 1955. Simplified Masonry Planning and Building. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York, NY.
Lstiburek, J. & Brennan, T. 2001. Read This Before You Design, Build or Renovate. Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Region I, Boston, MA
US EPA. 2001. Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Indoor Environments Division, Washington, D.C. EPA 402-K-01-001. March 2001.