Chapter 31 is a unique program designed specifically for disabled veterans. It has two primary goals. First, to assist the service-disabled veteran to prepare for, obtain, and maintain suitable employment. Second, for those veterans who are severely disabled and for whom gainful employment is not an option, assistance may be provided to allow the veteran to live more independently in his or her community.

Any veteran with a compensable disability rating of 10% or more can file an application for Vocational Rehabilitation by completing VA Form 28-1900 and submitting it to their local VA Office. Once the application is filed, an appointment will be scheduled to discuss educational plans, test aptitude, interests and abilities as well as review the nature of the veteran's disability and how it affects their ability to gain employment. An entitlement decision is rendered by the VA after the counseling appointment.

In some cases, a veteran requires additional education and training to become employable. A subsistence allowance is paid each month during training and is based on the rate of attendance, the number of dependents, and the type of training. Rates for apprenticeship training are shown to the right.