10.01: Scope and Jurisdiction

  1. Scope. 248 CMR 10.00 governs the requirements for the installation, alteration, removal, replacement, repair or construction of all plumbing.
  2. Jurisdiction.
    1. Nothing in 248 CMR 10.00 shall be construed as applying to:
      1. refrigeration
      2. heating,
      3. cooling,
      4. ventilation or fire sprinkler systems beyond the point where a direct connection is made with the potable water distribution system.
    2. Sanitary drains, storm water drains, hazardous waste drainage systems, dedicated systems, potable and non-potable water supply lines and other connections shall be subject to 248 CMR 10.00.

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10.02: Basic Principles

Founding of Principles. 248 CMR 10.00 is founded upon certain principles of public health environmental sanitation and safety through properly designed, acceptably installed, and adequately maintained plumbing systems. Some of the details of plumbing construction may vary but the basic sanitary and safety principles desirable and necessary to protect the health of people are the same everywhere. As interpretations may be required, and as unforeseen situations arise which are not specifically covered in 248 CMR 10.00, the final interpretation shall be made by the Board. The following principles shall comply with all Articles of the State Sanitary Code and Titles of the Environmental Code.

  1. Principle No. 1 -- All Occupied Premises Must Have Potable Water. All premises intended for human habitation, occupancy, or use must be provided with a supply of potable water. Such a water supply shall not be connected with unsafe or questionable water sources, nor shall it be subject to the hazards of backflow, backpressure, or back-siphonage.
  2. Principle No. 2 -- Adequate Water Required. Plumbing fixtures, devices, and appurtenances must be supplied with water in sufficient volume and at pressures adequate to enable them to function properly and without undue noise under normal conditions of use.
  3. Principle No. 3 -- Hot Water Required. Hot water must be supplied to all plumbing fixtures which normally need or require hot water for their proper use and function.
  4. Principle No. 4 -- Water Conservation. Plumbing must be designed and adjusted to use the minimum quantity of water consistent with proper performance and cleaning.
  5. Principle No. 5 -- Dangers of Explosion or Overheating. Devices and appliances for heating and storing water must be so designed and installed as to guard against dangers from explosion or overheating.
  6. Principle No. 6 -- Required Plumbing Fixtures.
    1. To meet the basic prerequisites of sanitation and personal hygiene each dwelling shall include the following:
      1. At least one toilet.
      2. At least one lavatory.
      3. At least one kitchen style sink.
      4. At least one bathtub or shower compartment or shower unit.
      5. Laundry Facility Requirements. A washing machine connection that consists of a piping arrangement that includes a cold water supply, hot water supply and a sufficient drain connection shall be provided in conformance with the following:
        1. One and Two Family Dwelling. At least one washing machine connection per unit.
        2. Multiple Dwellings.
          1. Non-elderly Housing. In multiple dwellings that are not restricted to the elderly, at least one washing machine connection for every ten dwelling units or fraction thereof that do not have a washing machine in the unit.
          2. Elderly Housing. In housing that is restricted to the elderly, at least one washing machine connection for every 20 dwelling units or faction thereof that do not have a washing machine in the unit.
          3. The washing machine connection shall be located so that each occupant in a dwelling has access to a washing machine that may be affixed to the washing machine connection.
    2. All buildings and structures other than residential dwellings that are intended for occupancy shall be equipped with sufficient sanitary facilities as outlined in 248 CMR 10.00.
    3. Plumbing fixtures must be constructed of durable, smooth, nonabsorbent and corrosion resistant material and must be free of concealed fouling surfaces.
  7. Principle No. 7 -- Drainage System of Adequate Size. The plumbing drainage system must be installed, designed, arranged, constructed, and maintained to protect against fouling, deposit of solids, and stoppages. The drainage system shall incorporate adequate cleanouts placed in a manner that the drainage system may be readily cleaned.
  8. Principle No. 8 -- Durable Materials and Good Workmanship. The piping and other components of the plumbing system must be manufactured of durable material, free from defective workmanship, and designed and constructed to provide satisfactory service for its reasonable expected life.
  9. Principle No. 9 -- Liquid Sealed Traps Required. Every fixture directly connected to the drainage system must be equipped with a liquid-seal trap.
  10. Principle No. 10 - Protection of Trap Seals. The drainage and vent system must be designed to provide adequate circulation of air in and throughout all piping. Trap seals shall be protected from the dangers of, siphonage, leakage, aspiration, momentum, oscillation, back pressure, evaporation and capillary action under conditions of normal ordinary use.
  11. Principle No. 11 -- Exhaust Sewage Gases to Outside. Vent terminals shall extend to the outer air above the roof line and be installed to prohibit the possibility of vent obstruction and the return of sewage gases into the building.
  12. Principle No. 12 -- Test the Plumbing System. The plumbing system must be subjected to such tests as will effectively disclose all leaks and defects in the work or the materials.
  13. Principle No. 13 -- Exclude Harmful Substances from the Plumbing System. No substance that will cause or exacerbate clogs or stoppages in pipes, produce explosive mixtures, destroy the pipes or their joints, or interfere unduly with the sewage disposal process shall enter the building drainage system.
  14. Principle No. 14 -- Prevent Contamination by Installing Indirect Waste. Indirect drainage piping installations shall be provided to prevent contamination of food, water, ice, sterile goods, and other similar products. When the potential of a backflow of sewage event is possible the fixture, device, or appliance shall be connected indirectly with the building sanitary or storm drainage system.
  15. Principle No. 15 -- Light and Ventilation. No toilets, urinals, bathtubs, or shower facilities shall be installed into a new or renovated room, space, or compartment that does not incorporate proper illumination and mechanical exhaust to the exterior of the building. This Principle does not apply to the removal and replacement of existing fixtures.
  16. Principle No. 16 -- Individual Sewage Disposal Systems. If toilets or other plumbing fixtures are to be installed in buildings where there is no sewer within a reasonable distance, suitable provision shall be made for disposing of the sewage in compliance with 248 CMR and 310 CMR 15.00.
  17. Principal No. 17 -- Prevent Sewer Flooding. Where a plumbing drainage system is subject to back-flow of sewage from the public sewer system suitable provision shall be incorporated to prevent the potential of overflow into the building.
  18. Principle No. 18 -- Proper Maintenance. Plumbing systems shall be maintained in a safe and serviceable condition from the standpoint of both mechanics and health.
  19. Principle No. 19 -- Fixtures Shall Be Accessible. All plumbing fixtures shall be installed in a manner with respect to clearances for spacing and accessibility for their intended use and cleansing.
  20. Principle No. 20 -- Structural Safety. Plumbing shall be installed with regard to the preservation of the strength of structural members and the prevention of damage to walls, floors and other structurally sensitive surfaces when performing fixture installations and through fixture usage.
  21. Principle No. 21 -- Protect Ground and Surface Water. All discharges to ground or surface water must meet all local, state, and federal water quality discharge standards.
  22. Principle No. 22 -- Piping and Treatment of Hazardous Wastes. All waste discharge materials that may become detrimental to the health and welfare of the general public, that enter the sanitary drainage system of any building, shall be carried within hazardous waste piping systems. The hazardous waste shall be collected and disposed of or treated prior to entering the sanitary drainage system in accordance with the requirements of 248 CMR. 10.00.
  23. Principle No. 23 -- Privacy for Toilets. In a room that accommodates more than one toilet or that incorporates a urinal and a toilet, each toilet shall be enclosed and each urinal shall be side shielded for privacy.
  24. Principle No. 24 --Drinking Fountain. Drinking fountains shall be installed in safe, clean and hazard free areas. The installation of a drinking fountain in a rest room that incorporates toilets or urinals is prohibited.
  25. Principle No. 25 -- Temporary Construction Trailers. Temporary construction trailers are exempt from the material provisions of 248 CMR.10.06 the water and sewer connections shall be the same materials as supplied by the trailer manufacturer.
  26. Principle No. 26 --Materials and Design: The materials, products, devices, methods, systems, design, and installation of any and all aspects of a plumbing systems shall be in conformance with 248 CMR 3.00 through 10.00, including that all products used in any plumbing or gas fitting systems shall be Product-Approved by the Board.

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10.03: Definitions

For the purpose of 248 CMR 10.00, the terms defined in 248 CMR 3.00 have the meanings as defined therein. In addition, for the purposes of 248 CMR 10.00, the following terms shall have the meanings. No attempt is made to define ordinary words which are used in accordance with their established dictionary meaning except where it is necessary to define their meaning as used in 248 CMR 10.00 to avoid misunderstanding.

Accessible. Having access thereto that may require the removal of an access panel, door, or similar obstruction.

Air Break (Drainage System). A piping arrangement wherein a drain from a fixture, appliance, or device discharges indirectly into a fixture, receptacle, or interceptor at a point below the flood level rim of the receptacle.

Air Gap (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of a waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which the waste discharges.

Air Gap (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the flood level rim of the related receptacle.

Alkalinity. The measure of its capacity to neutralize acids. The quality or state of being alkaline. Containing more alkali than normal. Having a pH factor of more than seven. The opposite of acidity.

Anti-siphon Vacuum Breaker-Non-pressure Type (Back-siphonage Preventer). A device or means to prevent back-siphonage. Not to be used under continuous pressure.

Anti-siphon Vacuum Breaker-Pressure Type (Back-siphonage Preventer). A device or means to prevent back-siphonage. Designed to be used under continuous pressure.

Anti-siphon Valve. A diaphragm type spring loaded device that prevents unwanted siphoning or over pumping of a chemical into a potable supply of water. Such device is constructed so as to sit tight on increasing vacuum, and its positive pressure opening point shall is not less than five P.S.I.G.

Area Drain. A receptacle designed to collect surface or storm water from an open area.

Backflow. The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures, or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable supply of water from any source or sources other than its intended source. Back-siphonage and back pressure are examples of backflows.

Backflow Connection. Any arrangement whereby backflow can occur.

Backflow Preventor. A device or means to prevent backflow.

Backflow Preventor (Reduced Pressure Zone Type). An assembly of differential valves and check valves including an automatically opened spillage port to the atmosphere.

Back-pressure. Pressure created by mechanical means or other means, causing water, liquids or other substances to flow, or move, in a reverse or opposite direction than intended.

Back-pressure Valve. A spring loaded one way check valve to prevent over pumping or unwanted siphoning of a chemical into a potable supply of water.

Back-siphonage. The flowing back of used, contaminated, or polluted water from a plumbing fixture, vessel or other sources into a water supply pipe due to a negative pressure in such pipe.

Barometric Loop. A vertical loop of pipe, rising to a height sufficient to prevent back-siphonage from occurring in the potable water supply pipe. (Approximately 35 feet, depending on the weight of the atmosphere.)

Bathroom (Residential). A room equipped with a bathtub or shower stall, toilet and a lavatory basin or any combination thereof.

Bathroom (Half-bath). A room equipped with a toilet and a lavatory basin.

Battery of Fixtures. Any group of two or more similar fixtures, that are adjacent, which discharge into a common horizontal waste or soil branch.

Battery Waste & Vent System. See Combination Waste & Vent System.

Black-water. Waste water containing fecal matter and other human waste that is flushed or discharged from toilets or urinals.

Boiler Blow-off. An outlet on a boiler to permit emptying or discharge of sediment.

Boiler Blow-off Tank. A vessel designed to receive the discharge from a boiler blow-off outlet, to cool the discharge to a temperature of 150EF or less, and permits the discharge to flow safely to the drainage system.

Branch. Any part of a piping system other than a main, riser, or stack.

Branch Interval. A distance along a soil or waste stack corresponding in general to a story height, but not less than eight feet in vertical height, and wherein the horizontal branches from one floor or story of a building are connected to the stack.

Branch Vent. A vent connecting one or more individual vents with a vent stack or stack vent.

Building. A structure used for the housing, shelter, enclosure, or support of persons, animals or property.

Building Drain. The lowest horizontal piping of a drainage system that extends from the base of the main stack to a terminating point ten feet outside the inner surface of a building's foundation wall, and is of sufficient size to receive the discharge from branch drains and/or stacks.

Building Drain -- Sanitary. A building drain which conveys the discharge of plumbing fixtures.

Building Drain -- Storm. A building drain which conveys storm water waste or other clear water drainage.

Building Sewer. The pipe that begins ten feet outside the inner face of a building's foundation wall and extends to a public sewer, septic tank, or other place of sewage disposal.

Building Sewer -- Combined. A building sewer that conveys both sewage and storm water or other drainage.

Building Sewer -- Sanitary. A building sewer that conveys the discharge of plumbing fixtures.

Building Sewer - Storm. A building sewer that conveys storm water waste or other clear water drainage except that it does not convey sewage.

Building Subdrain. The portion of a drainage system that cannot drain its discharge into a building sewer via the force of gravity.

Building Subdrain - Sanitary. The portion of a drainage system that cannot drain its sewage discharge into a building sewer via the force of gravity.

Building Subdrain - Storm. The portion of a drainage system that cannot drain its storm water waste, clear water discharge or other subsurface clear water discharge excluding sewage, into a building storm sewer via the force of gravity.

Circuit Vent. A branch vent that serves two or more floor-outlet fixtures that are battery wasted. Said vent extends from the top of the horizontal soil and/or waste branch in front of the last fixture waste and connects to a vent stack adjacent to the upstream end of the horizontal branch.

Combination Fixture. A fixture that combines multiple compartments into one unit.

Combination Waste and Vent System. A specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more plumbing fixtures or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe. In such a system, the piping is adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.

Common Vent. A vertical vent that serves two fixtures and connects in compliance with 248 CMR 10.16: Table 1.

Conductor. A pipe that is inside a building and that conveys storm water from the roof to a storm drain or combined building sewer/storm sewer.

Continuous Vent. A vertical vent that is a continuation of the vertical drain to which it connects.

Critical Level. In the potable water supply piping, the minimum elevation that a backflow prevention device or anti-siphon vacuum breaker is installed, above the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle it is to serve.

Cross Connection. Any actual or potential physical connection or arrangement between a pipe containing potable water from a public water system and any non-potable water supply, piping arrangement, or equipment, including, but not limited to waste pipe, soil pipe, sewer drain or other unapproved sources. (See Back-flow and Back-siphonage.)

Dead End. A branch leading from a soil, waste, or vent pipe, building drain, or building sewer, and terminating at a developed length of two feet or more by means of a plug, cap or other closed fitting.

Decontamination. The reduction or removal of microbial or hazardous chemical contamination from surfaces, liquids or spaces.

Dedicated Systems

  1. Dedicated Acid Waste and Special Hazardous Waste Systems. All acid drainage or special drainage and acid vent piping or special vent piping normally associated with exterior or interior acid neutralizing or hazardous waste treatment devices.
  2. Dedicated Gasoline, Oil and Sand Systems. All drainage and vent piping normally associated with exterior or interior gasoline, oil and sand Separators.
  3. Dedicated Grease Systems. All sanitary drainage and vent pipes normally associated with exterior grease interceptors/separators.
  4. Dedicated Gray Water Recycling System. Includes all piping, valves, pumps, meters, retaining tanks for exterior or interior gray water collection points.
  5. Dedicated Waste Water Recycling System. Shall be considered the assembly of all piping, valves, pumps, meters and retaining tanks for installation at exterior or interior waste water recycling system locations that shall include but not be limited to collection points and points of use.

Developed Length. The length of a pipeline as measured along the center line of the pipe or fittings.

Diameter. The nominal diameter as designated commercially.

Double Offset. Two changes of direction that are or have been installed in succession or series in a continuous pipe.

Domestic Sewage. The waterborne wastes derived from ordinary living processes.

Drain. A horizontal pipe that carries waste water or waterborne waste in a drainage system.

Drainage System. Includes all the piping contained within a public or private premises that conveys sewage, rain water, or other liquid wastes to an appropriate point of disposal. It does not include the mains of a public sewer system or private or public sewage treatment or disposal plant.

Drainage System, Building Gravity. A drainage system that drains via the force of gravity into a building sewer.

Dual Vent. (See Common Vent)

Durham System. Soil or waste systems where all piping is threaded pipe that uses recessed drainage fittings to correspond to the types of piping.

Dwelling -- Single. A room or group of rooms, forming a single habitable unit that is an independent building enclosed within its own exterior walls, roof and foundation, with facilities which are used, or intended to be used, for sleeping, living, cooking, and eating; and where the sewer connection and water supply are within the building's own premise and is separate from and completely independent of any other dwelling.

Dwelling -- Multiple. Three or more single dwellings that are not independent buildings, that share exterior walls, a roof, and a foundation and where a common sewer connection and water supply are contained within the premise.

Dwelling -- Two Family. Two single dwellings that are not independent buildings, that share a common exterior wall, a roof, and a foundation and a where a common water supply and sewer connection are contained within its own premises.

Effective Opening. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms of (a) if the opening is circular as the diameter of a circle, or (b) if the opening is not circular, as the diameter of a circle having the equivalent cross sectional area of the opening.

Existing Work. A plumbing system or any part thereof installed prior to March 11, 2005.

Fire Line. A system of pipes and equipment used exclusively to supply water for extinguishing fires.

Fixture (Plumbing Fixture). Installed receptacles, devices or appliances that are either supplied with water and/or receive and/or discharge liquids, or liquid-borne wastes, or both, with or without discharge into the drainage system with which they may be directly or indirectly connected.

Fixture Branch. A pipe connecting several fixtures.

Fixture Drain. A drain connected to the trap of one fixture.

Fixture Supply. The water supply pipe that connects a fixture to either a branch water supply pipe or directly to a main water supply pipe.

Fixture Unit. The rate of discharge of water through a plumbing fixture wherein 7½ gallons per minute is equal to one fixture unit.

Flood Level Rim. The edge of a receptacle from which water overflows.

Flooded. When the liquid in a fixture or receptacle rises to the flood level rim.

Flow Pressure (Residual Pressure). The pressure in a water supply pipe as measured at the faucet or water outlet when the faucet or water outlet is wide open and flowing.

Flush Valve. A device that is located at the bottom of a tank and that is used for flushing toilets and similar fixtures.

Flushometer Valve. A device used for flushing purposes that discharges a predetermined quantity of water into fixtures and where the device is closed by direct water pressure.

Genetics. The branch of biology that deals with heredity and variations of organisms.

Grade. The fall (slope) of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane. In drainage it is usually expressed as the fall in a fraction of an inch per foot length of pipe.

Gray-water. Used water out-flowing from a clothes-washer, shower, bathtub or bathroom sink and reused on the same site for below ground irrigation only. Gray-water is typically not treated.

Grease Interceptor. A passive interceptor whose rated flow exceeds 50 gpm (189 L/m). (See Interceptor)

Grease Trap. A passive interceptor whose rated flow is 50 gpm (189 L/m) or less. (See Interceptor)

Hangers. (See Supports)

Hazardous Waste. A waste, or combination of wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health, safety, or welfare or to the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, used or disposed of, or otherwise managed. See 310 CMR 30.00 for possible exemptions and for "Mixed waste."

Hazardous Wastes, Piping or Treatment. Wastes which require special treatment before entry into a normal plumbing system.

Hazardous Waste Pipe. Pipes which convey hazardous wastes.

Horizontal Branch Drain. A drain branch pipe that extends laterally from a soil or waste stack or a building drain, that may or may not have vertical sections or branches, that receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains and that conducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building drain.

Horizontal Pipe. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45E in reference to a horizontal plane.

Hot Water. Water at a temperature of at least 120EF.

Individual Sewage Disposal System. A system for disposal or treatment of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank or sewage treatment plant wherein the system is designed for use apart from a public sewer and serves a single establishment or building where a public sewer is not available.

Indirect Waste Pipe. A waste pipe that does not connect directly with a drainage system, but discharges into a drainage system through an air break or air gap into a properly wasted and vented trap, fixture, receptacle or interceptor.

Individual Vent. A pipe installed to vent a fixture drain. It connects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates at a point above the roof level.

Individual Water Supply. A water supply, other than a public water supply, that serves one or more buildings, dwellings or structures.

Industrial Waste Water. Water that has been contaminated with by-products of industrial manufacturing processes.

Industrial Wastes. Liquid wastes that result from the processes employed in industrial and commercial establishments.

Insanitary. Contrary to sanitary principles; injurious to health.

Interceptor. A device designed and installed to separate and retain for removal, by automatic or manual (passive) means deleterious, hazardous, or undesirable matter from normal wastes and permits normal sewage or liquid wastes to discharge into the drainage system by gravity.

Installed. An altered, changed, or new installation.

Irrigation System. A system of water distribution piping used to wet or moisten the landscape.

Leaching Well or Pit. A pit or receptacle having porous walls that permits the contents to seep into the ground.

Leader. An exterior drainage pipe for conveying storm water from a roof or gutter drains.

Liquid Waste. Discharge from any fixture, appliance, area or appurtenance that does not contain human or animal waste matter suspended in a solution.

Load Factor. The percentage of the total connected fixture unit flow which is likely to occur at any point in the drainage system. It varies with the type of occupancy, the total flow unit above this point being considered, and with the probability factor of simultaneous use.

Loop Vent. A branch vent that serves two or more floor-outlet fixtures that are battery wasted. The loop vent extends from the top of the horizontal soil and/or waste branch in front of the last fixture waste and connects to a vent stack or stack vent that is adjacent to the down-stream end of the horizontal branch.

Main. The principal pipe artery to which branches may be connected.

Materials. All piping, tubing and fittings, drains and receptacles, interceptors and protectors, hangers and supports, covers and coverings, appliances and other devices and appurtenances used, or referred to, in the definitions of Plumbing, Plumbing Fixtures and Plumbing Systems.

Mezzanine. An intermediate or fractional level between a floor and a ceiling that projects in the form of a balcony over the floor and wherein the aggregate floor area of the intermediate or fractional level is less than 33% of the area of the floor over which it is located.

Non-potable Water. Water that does not meet the standards of potable water.

Nuisance. Public nuisance as known in common law or in equity jurisprudence; what is dangerous to human life or detrimental to health; what building, structure or premise is not sufficiently ventilated, sewered, drained, cleaned or lighted, in reference to its intended or actual use; or what renders the air or human food or drink or water supply unwholesome.

Offset. A combination of elbows or bends which brings a pipe out of line with one section of piping but into a line parallel with another section of piping.

pH. The negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration used in expressing both acidity and alkalinity on a scale whose values run from zero to 14, with a lower value of less than seven indicating increasing acidity and values greater than seven indicating increasing alkalinity. A value of seven would indicate a neutral pH condition.

Person. A natural person, his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns; a firm, partnership, corporation, institution, association or group, its or their successors or assigns; or a city, town, county, or other governmental unit, owning or renting, leasing or controlling property, or carrying on an activity regulated by M.G.L. c. 142 or 248 CMR.

Plumbing. Plumbing includes the work and/or practice, materials and fixtures used in the installation, removal, maintenance, extension and alteration of a plumbing system; of all piping, fixtures, fixed appliances and appurtenances in connection with any of the following: sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities, hazardous wastes, the venting system and the public or private water-supply systems, within or adjacent to any building, structure, or conveyance; to their connection with any point of public disposal or other acceptable terminal within the property line.

It is the interpretation of this Board that that portion of the plumbing system consisting of all building drains beginning from a point ten feet outside from the inside face of the foundation wall and running into the building structure shall be installed by a licensed plumber only. On public or private water supply systems, any pipe beginning on the house side of the metering device or, if none, the main control valve immediately inside the foundation wall to the point of actual connection to heating/cooling equipment, appliance, fixture, etc. shall be installed by a licensed plumber only. When a metering device is installed as part of the water supply and distribution system for a building or group of buildings at a location outside the foundation wall(s) of said building(s), the cutting, fitting, connection and testing of all water supply piping between the metering device and said building(s) shall be performed by a licensed plumber in accordance with the requirements of 248 CMR. Other work involved in the installation of such piping such as trenching, tunneling, placement of assembled piping in the trenches, backfilling etc., may be performed by unlicensed personnel.

Plumbing System. The water supply and distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; soil, waste, and vent pipes; building sanitary and storm drains including the respective connections, devices, and appurtenances of the drains that are connected a point of public disposal or other appropriate terminal within the property line.

Potable Water. Water that does not contain impurities in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects. Its bacteriological and chemical quality shall conform to the pertinent requirements of 310 CMR, the regulations of the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection or to the pertinent local Board of Health regulations.

Private or Private Use. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, private shall apply to fixtures in residences, apartments, condominiums and to private guest rooms in hotels and motels.

Private Sewer. A sewer, serving two or more buildings, privately owned, and not directly controlled by a public authority.

Public or Public Use. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, public shall apply to every fixture not defined under Private or Private Use.

Public Sewer. A common sewer directly controlled by public authority.

Public Water Main. A water supply pipe for public use controlled by public authority.

Purification Waste. A by-product of waste material generated by or from the fermentation process to produce a pure substance.

Purified Water. Water produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other methods so that it meets the requirements of purified water in the most recent edition of the United State Pharmacopoeia.

Readily Accessible. Direct access without the necessity of removing or moving any panel, door, lock or similar obstruction.

Receptor. A fixture or device that receives the discharge from indirect waste pipes.

Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA Molecules. Viable organisms containing molecules made outside living cells by joining natural or synthetic DNA segments to DNA molecules that can replicate in a living cell, or DNA molecules that can result from the replication of those described above. Such use shall be in accordance with the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules, Federal Register Vol. 49, No. 227, November 23, 1984, P.462266.

Relief Vent. A vent that is designed to permit additional circulation of air between drainage and vent systems.

Return Offset. A double offset installed so that it returns the pipe to its original alignment.

Reverse Osmosis. A water treatment process that removes undesirable materials from water by using pressure to force the water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane. This process is referred to as "reverse" osmosis. Pressure forces the water to flow in the reverse direction (from the concentrated solution to the dilute solution) to the flow direction (from the dilute to the concentrated) in the process of natural osmosis. Reverse osmosis removes ionized salts, colloids, and organic molecules down to a molecular weight of 100. This process is sometimes referred to as hyperfiltration.

Reverse Osmosis - (Water Treatment Unit). A device installed within a potable drinking water system that uses reverse osmosis as the primary technology for processing potable tap water into high quality drinking water. The reverse osmosis drinking water device is designed to separate water from undesirable dissolved and undissolved substances such as particulate matter, salts, metals, organic matter, and microorganisms.

Rim. An unobstructed open edge of a fixture.

Riser. A water supply pipe which extends vertically one full story or more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures.

Roof Drain. A drain receptor installed to receive water that collects on the surface of a roof and conveys the discharge water into a leader or a conductor.

Roughing-in. The installation of all parts of the plumbing system that can be completed prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage piping, water supply piping, vent piping, the necessary fixture supports, and any fixtures that are built into the building.

Sand Trap. See Interceptor.

Sanitary Sewer. A pipe that carries sewage but does not carry storm, surface, clear water or ground water.

Seepage Well or Pit. A covered pit with open jointed lining. The septic tank effluent the pit receives may seep or leach into the surrounding porous soil through the open jointed lining.

Separator. See Interceptor.

Septic Tank. A watertight receptacle to receive sewage from a building sewer or building drain which is designed and constructed to permit sufficient retention of wastewater to allow for the separation of scum and sludge and the partial digestion of organic matter before discharge of the liquid portion to a soil absorption system.

Sewage. Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution, and the waste may include liquids containing chemicals in solution.

Sewage Ejectors. A device for moving sewage by entraining it on a high velocity steam, air or water jet.

Sewage Pump. A permanently installed mechanical device, except an ejector, for removing sewage or liquid waste from a sump.

Side Vent. A vent that connects to a drain pipe via a fitting where the angle of the vent is less than 45E from the vertical.

Siphon Breaker. A siphon breaker is a valve device, or appurtenance, constructed and installed to prevent back flow in the plumbing system or any portion thereof. (See Back-flow and Back-siphonage)

Size of Pipe and Tubing. (See Diameter)

Slope. (See Grade)

Soil Pipe. Any pipe that conveys the discharge of toilets, urinals or fixtures having similar functions to the building drain or building sewer. The discharge may be conveyed with or without the discharge from other fixtures.

Stack. A general term for any vertical line of soil, waste, vent or inside conductor piping which extends beyond at least one branch interval in height.

Stack Group. A term that is applied to the location of fixtures in relation to the stack so that by means of proper fittings vents may be reduced to a minimum.

Stack Vent. The portion of a soil or waste stack that is six inches above the highest flood level rim of the highest fixture connected to the stack. The stack vent terminates in compliance with 248 CMR 10.16.

Stack Venting. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures through a soil or waste stack.

Sterilization. The act or process that is physical or chemical that results in the complete destruction of microorganisms.

Storm Drainage System. A system that is used for conveying rain water, surface water, condensate, cooling water, sprinkler discharge or similar clear liquid wastes to the storm sewer or other place of disposal. The clear liquid waste conveyed excludes sewage or industrial waste.

Storm Sewer. A sewer used for conveying rain water, surface water, condensate, cooling water, or similar clear liquid wastes.

Subsoil Drain. A drain that collects subsurface, ground or seepage water and conveys it to a place of disposal.

Sump. A tank or pit that receives sewage or liquid waste, that is located below the normal grade of the gravity drainage system, and that must be emptied by mechanical means.

Sump Pump. A mechanical device, except for an ejector or bucket, that removes clear liquid waste from a sump.

Supports -- Hangers -- Anchors. Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fixtures, and equipment, to walls, ceilings, floors or structural members.

Swimming Pool. Any structure, basin, chamber, or tank containing an artificial body of water for swimming, diving, or recreational bathing and having a depth of two feet or more at any point.

Trap. A fitting or device that provides a liquid seal that prevents the emission of sewer gases without materially effecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it.

Trap Arm. That portion of a fixture drain or waste drain between the trap and its vent.

Trap Primer. A trap primer is a device or system of piping to maintain a water seal in a trap.

Trap Seal. The vertical distance between the crown weir and the top of the dip of the trap.

Treated Water. Potable water that has passed through a system for the purpose of purification, aeration, filtration, disinfection, softening, conditioning, fluoridation, stabilization, or corrosion correction and/or has had chemicals added which may alter its physical, chemical or radiological quality.

Troughs. An open conduit, drain, channel, trench or gutter.

Unisex/Handicap Toilet Room. A room containing one toilet and one lavatory available for use by either sex.

Vacuum. Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmosphere.

Vacuum Breaker, Non-pressure Type (Atmospheric). See Anti-Siphon Vacuum Breaker -- Non-pressure Type.

Vacuum Breaker, Pressure Type. See Anti-Siphon Vacuum Breaker -- Pressure Type.

Vacuum Relief Valve. A device to prevent an excessive vacuum in a water storage tank or heater.

Vent -- Automatic. A mechanical device that opens as a result of negative pressure in the drainage system to prevent trap siphonage, and closes gas and water tight when the pressure in the drainage system is equal to or greater than ambient pressure to prevent the entry of sewer gas into the building.

Vent Pipe. Part of a vent system.

Vent Stack. A vertical vent pipe installed to provide circulation of air to and from the drainage system.

Vent System. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from the drainage system or to provide a circulation of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and back pressure.

Vertical Pipe. Any pipe or fitting which makes an angle of 45E or less with the vertical plane.

Wall Hung Toilet. A wall mounted toilet installed in such a way that no part of the toilet touches the floor.

Waste. See Liquid Waste.

Waste Pipe. A pipe which conveys only waste.

Water Distribution Pipe. A pipe within the building or on the premises that conveys water from the water service pipe to the point of usage.

Water Filter. A device installed on a potable water system through which water flows for the reduction of turbidity, microorganisms, particulate matter, taste, color, odor or other contaminants.

Water Main. A pipe used to convey the public water supply.

Water of Questionable Safety. Water that passes through an isolated portion of the water piping distribution system. The system is defined as beginning at the outlet of a back-flow preventing device and ends at a point of final or actual connection with heating/cooling equipment or other fixtures, apparatus and appliances that require water for operation and process.

Water Outlet. As used in connection with a water-distribution system, a discharge opening for water:

  1. to a fixture;
  2. to atmospheric pressure (except into an open tank which is part of the water supply system);
  3. to a boiler or heating system; or
  4. to any water operated device or equipment requiring water in a plumbing system.

Water Service Pipe. The pipe from the municipal water main or private other source of water supply to the water distribution system of the building served.

Water Softener. A device installed on a potable water system through which water flows for the reduction of hardness and other metals using the cation exchange process.

Water Supply System. The water service pipe, the water distribution pipes, and the necessary connection pipes, fittings, control valves, and all appurtenances in or adjacent to a building or premises.

Water Treatment Device. A device which means any instrument or product sold, rented or leased, or offered for sale, rental or lease designed or claimed either to benefit potable water systems or to treat water intended for human consumption or use; including but not limited to, instruments or products using filtration, distillation, absorption, adsorption/ion exchange, reverse osmosis or other treatment processes or technologies such as magnetic or electro-magnetic field and catalytic conversion which is claimed to alter the radiological, chemical or physical properties of water.

Water Vending Machine. Any self-service device which, upon receipt of payment, dispenses purified or drinking water in bulk without the necessity of replenishing the device between each vending operation. The device is connected to a public or private system.

Wet Vent. A waste pipe that also serves as a vent, on the same floor level.

Workmanship. Work of such character that will fully secure the desired or needed results.

Yoke Vent (Relief Vent-foot). A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack to a vent stack and designed for the purpose of preventing pressure changes in the stack.

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10.04: Testing and Safety

(1) Surveyed. Prior to the commencement of work, all portions of existing systems that are directly affected by proposed plumbing work shall be surveyed by the licensed plumber to insure that the existing work is adequate to support the proposed work.

(2) Inspections of the Plumbing System. An Inspection is required for all plumbing work pursuant to 248 CMR 3.00. In addition, the following requirements shall be satisfied.

(a) Inspection of Rough Plumbing.

  1. The piping of the plumbing, drainage, and venting systems shall be tested as part of the Inspection.
  2. Upon proper notice of a request for an Inspection of the rough plumbing, the Inspector shall make the Inspection within two working days after receipt of such notice.
  3. The Inspector shall proceed with the Inspection only if the licensed plumber requesting the Inspection is on site, with a current edition of 248 CMR the Massachusetts Fuel Gas and Plumbing Code.
  4. Methods of Testing the Drainage and Vent System.
    1. Water Test. A water test shall be applied to the drainage system either in its entirety or in sections. If applied to the entire system, all openings in the piping shall be tightly closed, except the highest opening and the system filled with water to point of overflow. If the system is tested in sections, each opening shall be tightly plugged, except the highest opening of the section under test, and each section shall be filled with water. When testing successive sections, at least the upper ten feet of the next preceding section shall be tested, so that no joint or pipe in the building (except the uppermost ten feet of the system) shall have been submitted to a test that utilizes less than a ten foot head of water. The water shall be kept in the system or in the portion under test for at least 15 minutes before the inspection starts: the system shall then be tight at all points.
    2. Air Test. An air test shall be performed by attaching an air compressor testing apparatus to any suitable opening, and, after closing all other inlets and outlets to the system, forcing air into the system, until there is a uniform gauge pressure of five P.S.I.G. or sufficient pressure to balance a column of mercury ten inches in height. This pressure shall be held without introduction of additional air for a period of at least 15 minutes. The gauge used for this test shall be calibrated in increments no greater than 1/10 of a pound.
    3. Peppermint Test.
      1. A peppermint test shall only be used and performed on the concealed piping within existing buildings or structures. The test shall be applied by creating a liquid mixture with the appropriate amount of oil of peppermint and hot water. The mixture shall contain two ounces of oil of peppermint for every one gallon of hot water. This mixture shall be sufficient for testing a stack 50 feet in height or the equivalent of five branch intervals, (including the basement, if applicable).
      2. The mixture shall be poured down a main stack.
      3. The stack opening shall then be sealed.
      4. The individual who has handled the oil of peppermint or the peppermint mixture shall not enter the building until the test has been completed. The presence of the aroma of the oil of peppermint may potentially be present on the individual who created the mixture and will compromise the building environment under test and observation.
      5. After the completion of the test and upon immediate inspection of the building, if the odor of peppermint is prominent in a given area, then the test indicates a defect in that portion of the system in that vicinity.
    4. Smoke Test.
      1. A smoke test shall be performed by obtaining smoke injector equipment designed for the purpose of producing and introducing a heavy volume of smoke. Smoke injector testing equipment utilizes several methods for producing adequate smoke conditions for testing; manufacturer's recommendations shall be observed.
      2. The discharge hose from the smoke injector equipment shall be extended to and through a smoke test cap or plug and all voids encompassing the hose shall be sealed with putty or other similar compound.
      3. When the entire system or portion thereof is charged with smoke, air pressure equal to one-inch water column shall be applied.
      4. Defects, failures and leaks in the piping system will be revealed by plumes of smoke that will discharge through them.

2. Methods of Testing the Water Distribution and Supply System. Upon completion of a section or of the entire water supply system when roughed, it shall be tested and proved tight under a pressure not less than 125 pounds per square inch. Water used for tests shall be obtained from a potable supply source. Air or other inert gases may be used for testing.

(b) Final Test and Inspection.

  1. Within five days after the plumbing work is sufficiently advanced so that Principle No. 6 in 248 CMR 10.02(6) is satisfied, the plumber who performed the work or the Permit Holder shall notify the Inspector.
  2. Within two working days after receipt of such notice, the Inspector shall proceed with the inspection and examine the work with the water turned on to the fixtures. If requested by the Inspector, the licensed plumber shall be present with a current edition of 248 CMR.
  3. If the installation is found in compliance with 248 CMR an Inspection approval tag shall be issued by the Inspector.
  4. Defects.
    1. Should the examination of work disclose any defects or violations of 248 CMR, the plumber shall be required to remedy the violations and defects, without delay, and notify the Inspector for a repeat Inspection of the installation.
    2. If the licensee holding a permit for work in a building turns the water on and fails to properly notify the Inspector as required, or neglects to remedy any defects or violations that may have been found and pointed out to him/her by the Inspector he/she shall not be granted any further permits until he/she has complied with 248 CMR. Other disciplinary action may be pursued by the Inspector as provided for in M.G.L. c. 142 and 248 CMR.
  5. Defective Materials and Poor Workmanship. If at the time of testing and Inspection leaks, defective or patched materials, or evidence of unskilled or inferior workmanship is found with the plumbing installation, the following procedures shall be followed:
    1. The Inspector shall condemn the affected part(s) or entire system.
    2. The Inspector shall order that the defective parts, unskilled or inferior workmanship be removed and corrected.
    3. No further progress shall be allowed with the installation until the defective parts, unskilled or inferior workmanship is compliant with 248 CMR 3.00 through 10.00.
  6. Repairs and Alterations.
    1. Deviations from the provisions of 248 CMR may be permitted in existing buildings or premises where plumbing installations are to be altered, repaired, or renovated. The deviations shall be negotiated by the Permit Holder and the Inspector prior to the installation. The deviations may be allowed provided that the deviations are found to be necessary and conform to the scope and intent of 248 CMR. 10.00.
    2. Whenever compliance with all of the provisions of 248 CMR 10.00 fails to eliminate or alleviate a nuisance that may involve health or safety hazards, the Inspector shall notify the owner or his or her agent in writing of the violations. The owner or his or her agent shall notify a licensed plumber to install such additional plumbing or equipment that may be found necessary by the Inspector.
  7. Defective Plumbing.
    1. Whenever there is reason to believe that the plumbing system of any building has become defective, it shall be subjected to test and/or inspection, and any defects found shall be corrected as required in writing by the Inspector.
    2. Whenever the work subject to a permit complies with the provisions of 248 CMR 3.00 through 10.00, but the Inspector notes other existing plumbing or gas fitting that may cause a health or safety hazard, the Inspector shall notify the owner of the hazard in writing.
  8. Maintenance. The plumbing and drainage system of any premises shall be caused to be maintained in a sanitary and safe operating condition by the owner or his or her agent.
  9. Demolition and Removal.
    1. When a fixture that is connected to the plumbing system is to be permanently removed, a permit for the work shall be secured. All plumbing connections to that fixture shall be made water and gas tight.
    2. Insofar as they are pertinent, the provisions of 248 CMR 10.04(9)(a) shall also apply when a building, structure, dwelling or tenant space is to be demolished.
  10. Personal Safety.
    1. In General. All personnel working on plumbing systems water, waste, vents systems, fixtures and, appliances and appurtenances shall wear appropriate protected clothing and/or equipment and conform to M.G.L. c. 111F, § 2, the "Right to Know Law".
    2. Special Labs. All licensed plumbers and plumbing apprentices installing pipe connections or working on drains to hospital waste and vent systems, mortuary waste and vent systems, laboratory waste and vent systems, dental waste and vent systems and plumbing systems in radioactive sensitive areas shall have the surface of their body and clothing protected by disposable or washable gowns similar or equal to the gowns, gloves and face masks worn by surgical staff.

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10.05: General Regulations

  1. Conforming with 248 CMR 10.00. Except as otherwise allowed by specific exception granted by the Board under 248 CMR 3.00, all plumbing which is installed shall conform to the following general requirements as outlined in 248 CMR 10.00.
  2. Pitch of Horizontal Drainage Piping.
    1. Horizontal drainage piping shall be run in straight practical alignment and at a consistent uniform pitch.
    2. Horizontal drainage piping which is three inches in diameter or smaller shall be installed with a minimum uniform pitch of ¼ inch per foot.
    3. Horizontal drainage piping which is larger than three inches in diameter shall be installed with a minimum uniform pitch of 1/8 inch per foot.
    4. Storm or sanitary drains shall be installed at a slope that produces a computed velocity of discharge of not less than two feet per second.
  3. Changes in Direction of Drainage Piping.
    1. Fittings to Be Used.
      1. Changes in the direction of drainage piping shall be made by the use of wyes, long sweep quarter bends, fifth, sixth, eighth or sixteenth bends, or their equivalent.
      2. Quarter bends, or their equivalent may be used in soil and waste lines when the change in the direction of the flow is from the horizontal to the vertical.
      3. Tees and crosses for vent fittings may be used for changes in the direction of vent piping only.
      4. Short sweep fittings may be used in a branch waste line when the waste line serves only one outlet and cleanouts are provided in accordance with 248 CMR 10.08.
    2. Back to Back Fixtures. Back to back fixtures shall be installed:
      1. with fittings that are designed to prevent the discharge of each fixture to mix prior to a change in horizontal direction; or
      2. with fittings especially designed to eliminate throw over from the discharge of one fixture to the discharge of the other fixture without compromising venting requirements.
  4. Fittings and Connections Prohibited.
    1. Fittings Prohibited.
      1. No fitting that incorporates a straight T branch shall be used as a drainage fitting.
      2. No fitting or connection that has an enlargement chamber or that has a recess with a ledge or shoulder, or that incorporates a reduction in pipe area shall be used.
      3. No running threads, bands or saddles shall be used in a drainage system.
      4. No drainage pipe or vent piping shall be drilled, tapped, burned or welded.
      5. A fitting commonly referred to as a "Sisson Joint" is prohibited.
    2. Obstruction to Flow.
      1. No fitting, connection, device, or method of installation that obstructs or retards the flow of water, wastes, sewage, or air in drainage or venting systems where the obstruction results in flow resistance that is greater than the normal frictional resistance to flow shall be used unless otherwise specifically indicated elsewhere in 248 CMR 10.00.
      2. The enlargement of a three-inch closet bend or stub to four inches shall not be considered an obstruction under this provision provided that the horizontal flow line or insert is continuous without forming a ledge.
    3. Dead Ends. Dead ends shall not be used as any part of a drainage system except where the use of a dead end is necessary to extend a cleanout so as to be accessible.
    4. Heel or Side-inlet Bends. A heel or side-inlet quarter bend shall not be used as a dry vent when the inlet is placed in a horizontal position, or any similar arrangement of pipe and fittings producing a similar effect, except when the entire fitting is part of a dry vent arrangement.
  5. Trenching, Tunneling and Backfilling.
    1. Trenching and Bedding.
      1. Trenches shall be of sufficient width to permit proper installation of the pipe.
      2. Where shoring is required, ample allowance shall be made in the trench's width to facilitate proper working conditions.
      3. Where trenches are excavated to a grade such that the bottom of the trench forms the bed for the pipe:
        1. care must be exercised to provide solid bearing between joints; and
        2. bell holes shall be provided at points where the pipe is joined.
      4. Where trenches are excavated below grade such that the bottom of the trench does not form the bed for the pipe, the trench shall be back-filled to grade with sand tamped in place so as to provide a uniform bearing surface for the pipe between joints.
      5. Where rock is encountered in trenching:
        1. The rock shall be removed to a point at least three inches below the grade line of the trench and the trench shall be backfilled to grade with sand tamped in place so as to provide a uniform bearing for the pipe between joints; and
        2. care shall be exercised to ensure that no portion of the pipe, including its joints, rests on any portion of a rock.
      6. If soft materials of poor bearing qualities are found at the bottom of the trench:
        1. a concrete foundation shall be provided to ensure a firm foundation for the pipe; and
        2. the concrete foundation shall be bedded with sand tamped in place so as to provide a uniform bearing for the pipe between joints.
      7. For PVC and ABS piping underground, See 248 CMR 10.06(2)(o)19.: Piping Trench Installation.
    2. Tunneling.
      1. Where necessary, pipe may be installed by tunneling or jacking, or a combination of both. In such cases special care shall be exercised to protect the pipe from damage either during installation or from subsequent uneven loading.
      2. Where earth tunnels are used, adequate supporting structures shall be provided to prevent future settling or caving.
      3. Pipe may be installed in a larger conduit that has been jacked through unexcavated portions of the trench.
    3. Backfilling.
      1. Until the crown of the pipe is covered by at least two feet of tamped earth considerable care shall be exercised in backfilling trenches.
      2. Loose earth, free of rocks, broken concrete, frozen chunks and other rubble, shall be carefully placed in the trench in six-inch layers and tamped in place.
      3. Care shall be taken to thoroughly compact the backfill under and beside the pipe to be sure that the pipe is properly supported.
      4. Backfill shall be brought up evenly on both sides of the pipe so that it retains proper alignment.
    4. Safety Precautions. All laws, rules and regulations pertaining to safety and protection of workmen, other persons in the vicinity, and neighboring property shall be observed where excavating, trenching, blasting, or other hazardous operations are being conducted.
  6. Structural Safety. In the process of installing or repairing any plumbing installation, the finished floors, walls, ceilings, tile work or any other part of the building or premises that must be changed or replaced shall be returned to a safe structural condition upon completion of the plumbing work.
  7. Workmanship. Workmanship shall conform to generally accepted good practice. Particular attention shall be applied to all piping installations in regard to the alignment of piping (straight, level, plumb).
  8. Protection of Piping.
    1. Corrosion. Any pipe that is in contact with or that passes through or under a masonry product, concrete product or any other similar and potentially corrosive material shall be protected against external damage by application of a protective sleeve, coating, wrapping, or other means that will prevent corrosion.
    2. Cutting, Notching, or Drilling.
      1. A structural member of any building shall not be weakened or impaired by cutting, drilling or notching.
      2. Any cutting, drilling, or notching shall be completed in compliance with the local Inspector of Buildings or as specified in 780 CMR: The Massachusetts State Building Code.
    3. Freezing Prevention.
      1. No water supply or drainage piping shall be installed outside of or under a building in an exposed, open or unheated area.
      2. For water supply or drainage piping that is installed in an exterior wall, unconditioned space or similar areas that may be directly influenced by freezing temperatures, adequate provision shall be made to protect all pipes from freezing.
      3. The protection and covering of water and waste pipes shall be the responsibility of the installing plumber.
    4. Rat Proofing.
      1. All strainer plates on drain inlets shall be designed and installed so that the diameter of the opening is no greater than or equal to ½ inch.
      2. Meter boxes shall be constructed in such a manner that rats cannot enter a building by following the water service pipe from the box into the building.
    5. Physical Damage. All exposed drainage piping, vent piping, or water piping in parking garages, in residential garages, warehouses or similar type buildings must be protected against physical damage from all types of vehicles such as automobiles, carts, pallet jacks or forklifts.
  9. Prevent Damage to the Drainage System or Sewer. No person shall discharge by any means into a building drain or sewer the following matter:
    1. ashes;
    2. masonry products;
    3. textiles;
    4. paints;
    5. solvents;
    6. flammables;
    7. corrosive or explosive liquid(s);
    8. gas;
    9. oil;
    10. grease; or
    11. any product that would or could obstruct, or damage a drain or sewer.
  10. Detrimental Wastes. Waste that is detrimental to the public sewer system or to the functioning of the sewage treatment plant shall be treated and disposed of according to the requirements of the State, local or Federal authorities having jurisdiction.
  11. leeves. The annular space between the sleeve and a pipe that passes through an exterior wall shall be made water tight or weather tight.
  12. econd Hand or Previously Installed Plumbing Material.
    1. No person shall install second hand or previously installed plumbing material or a plumbing fixture unless the fixture or material complies with the minimum standards set forth in 248 CMR 10.00.
    2. If installation of a second hand or previously installed plumbing fixture is in compliance with 248 CMR 10.00, before installation, it shall be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected.
  13. Piping in Relation to Footings.
    1. Outside of Footings. Piping which is installed outside of and below a footing shall not destroy the bearing value of the soil.
    2. Through or Under Footings, Foundations or Walls. No pipe shall be installed through or under a footing, foundation or wall, except when a provision is made in the footing to carry the building or structural loads without transmitting such loads to the pipe.
  14. Drainage Below Sewer Level. Drainage piping which is located below the sewer shall be installed as provided in 248 CMR 10.15(10)
  15. Connections to Plumbing System Required. All plumbing fixtures, drains and appurtenances which are used to receive or discharge liquid waste or sewage waste shall be properly connected to the sanitary or storm drainage system of the building or premises in accordance with the requirements of 248 CMR 10.00.
  16. Sewage Disposal Connections (Buildings).
    1. The plumbing of each building shall have an independent connection to a public sanitary sewer outside of building, unless, in the opinion of the Inspector, a single separate connection is not feasible.
    2. If a public sanitary sewer is not available, the sewage shall be discharged into a sewage disposal system that complies with 310 CMR 15.00: The State Environmental Code, Title 5: Standard Requirements for the Siting, Construction, Inspection, Upgrade and Expansion of On-site Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems and for the Transport and Disposal of Septage.
  17. Location of Fixtures.
    1. Light and Ventilation. Plumbing fixtures shall be located in compartments, rooms, spaces or areas that are provided with mechanical ventilation and illumination that conform to 105 CMR 410.000: Minimum Standards of Fitness for Human Habitation (State Sanitary Code, Chapter II) and 780 CMR: The Massachusetts State Building Code.
    2. Improper Location. Piping, fixtures, or plumbing devices and equipment shall not be installed in a manner that will interfere with the normal operation of windows, doors, or other openings.

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10.06: Materials

(1) Materials.

(a) Minimum Standards. All materials, systems, and equipment used in the construction, installation, alteration, repair, replacement, or removal or any plumbing or drainage system or part thereof, shall conform at least to the standards listed in 248 CMR 10.06, except that:

1. the Inspector may allow the extension, addition to or relocation of existing water, soil, waste and/or vent pipes with materials of like grade or quality as permitted under 248 CMR 10.04(6)(a); or

2. materials not covered by the standards listed in 248 CMR 10.06 may be used with the approval of the Board as permitted under 248 CMR 3.04.

(b) Installation.

1. All materials installed in plumbing systems shall be so handled and installed as to avoid damage so that the quality of the material will not be impaired.

2. No defective or damaged materials, equipment or apparatus shall be installed or maintained.

3. All materials used shall be installed in strict accordance with the standards under which the materials are accepted and approved by the Board, including the appendices of the standards, and in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

(c) Standards and Approval.

1. Materials not listed in 248 CMR 10.06: Table 1 shall be used only as provided for in 248 CMR 10.06(1)(a) or as permitted in 248 CMR 3.04.

2 Abbreviations in 248 CMR 10.06: Table 1 refer to the following organizations:

a. ANSI -- American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, New York, New York 10036, 212-642-4900

b. ASSE -- American Society of Sanitary Engineering, 901 Canterbury Road, Suite A, Westlake, OH44145-1480, 440-835-3040

c. ASTM -- American Society for Testing & Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, 610-832-9598

d. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990

e. AWS-American Welding Society, P.O. Box 351040, 550 N.W. Lejune Road, Miami, FL 33126

f. AWWA -- American Water Works Association, 6666 West Quincy Ave., Denver, COLO, 80235, 303-794-7711

g. CDA -- Copper Development Association, P.O. Box 1305, 140 Konhans Road, Mechanicsburg, PA 170555, 717-795-5495

h. CISPI -- Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute, 5959 Shallowford Road, Suite 419, Chattanooga, TN 37421, 615-892-0137

i. CS - Commercial Standards/Commodity Standards Division, Office of Industry and Commerce, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th St., between E & Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20004, 202-377-2000

j. FS -- Federal Supply Service, Standards Division, General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. 20405, 202-472-1082

j. NAMA -- National Automatic Merchandising Association, 20 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606, 312-346-0370

l. MSS -- Manufacturers Standardization Society, (of the) Valve and Fittings Industry, 127 Park St., N.E., Vienna, VA 22180, 703-281-6613

m. NIST -- National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Quincy Orchard & I270, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, 301-948-2791

n. NSF -- International 789 North Dixboro Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, 734-769-5361

o. PDI -- Plumbing and Drainage Institute, 800 Turnpike Street, Suite 300 North Andover, MA 01845, 978-557-0720

p. PPI -- Plastic Pipe Institute, 1825 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 680, Washington, DC 20009, 202-462-9607

q. PS -- Product Standards (Published by Superintendent of Documents), U.S. Government Printing Office, North Capitol St., between G & H Sts., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20011, 202-783-3238

r. Water Quality Association, 4151 Naperville Road, Lisle, Illinois 60632, 312-369-1600

NOTE. Because material standards and specifications are subject to change, the designations carrying indication of the year of issue may thus become obsolete. 248 CMR 10.06, Table 1 gives the full designations of standards current when 248 CMR was last promulgated. This table will be reviewed and updated by the Board at regular intervals.

3. REFERENCED STANDARDS: The following is a listing of the standards referenced in 248 CMR 10.00, the effective date of the standard, the promulgating agency of the standard and the section(s) that refer to the standard. Many titles are referenced by both ANSI and ASME.

ANSI American National Standards Institute
25 West 43rd Street
New York, New York 10036

Standard Reference NumberTitle
ANSI/ASME 
A112.19.3 - (R2004)Stainless Steel Plumbing Fixtures (Designed for Residential Use) with Supplement 1-2002
ANSI/ASME 
A112.19.4 - 94 (R2004)Porcelain Enameled Formed Steel Plumbing Fixtures with Supplement 1-1999 and Supplement 2-2000
ANSI/ASME 
A112.19.7 - 95Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances
ANSI\ASME 
A112.19.8 (R1996)Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances
ANSI\ASME 
A112.6.3-2001Floor and Trench Drains
ANSI/ASME 
A112. 6.4-2003Roof, Deck and Balcony Drains
ASSE 1010-2004Performance Requirements for Water Hammer Arrestors
ANSI/ASME 
A112.36.2 - 91 (R2002)Cleanouts
ANSI/AWS 
A5.31Fluxes, Brazing, and Braze Welding
ANSI/AWS 
A5.8Filler Metals, Brazing, Braze Welding
ANSI/AW 
C3.4Torch Brazing
Z 21.10.1 - 98Gas Water Heaters Volume I Storage Water Heaters with Input Ratings of 75,000 BTU per Hour or Less
Z 21.10.3. - 2001Gas Water Heaters Volume III Storage, with Input Ratings Above 75,000 BTU per Hour, Circulating and Instantaneous Water Heaters
Z 21.22.86 - 99Relief Valves and Automatic Gas Shutoff Devices for Hot Water Supply Systems
Z124.1 - 95Plastic Bathtub Units
Z124.2-95Plastic Shower Receptors and Shower Stalls
Z124.3-95Plastic Lavatories
Z124.4-96Plastic Toilets Bowls and Tanks

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Three Park Avenue
New York, New York 10016-5990

Standard Reference NumberTitle
ASME/ANSI 
A112.6.1- 97 (R2002)Supports for Off-the-Floor Plumbing Fixtures for Public Use
ASME/ANSI 
A112.14.1 (R2003)Backwater Valves
ASME/ANSI 
A112.18.1 (2003)Plumbing Fixture Fittings
ASME/ANSI 
A112.19.1- 94 (R2004)Enameled Cast Iron Plumbing Fixtures with Supplement 1 - 1998 and Supplement 2 - 2000
ASME/ANSI 
A112.19.2 (2003)Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures and Hydraulic Performance Requirements for Toilets and Urinals
ASME/ANSI 
A112.19.3 (R2004)Stainless Steel Plumbing Fixtures (Designed for Residential Use) with Supplement 1 - 2002
ASME/ANSI 
A112.19.4- 94 (R2004)Porcelain Enameled Formed Steel Plumbing Fixtures with Supplement 1- 1999 ann Supplement 2 - 2000
ASME/ANSI 
A112.19.7- 95Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances
ASME/ANSI 
A112.19.8 (1996)Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances
ASME/ANSI 
A112.6.3 - 2001Floor and Trench Drains
ASME/ANSI 
A112. 6.4 - 2003Roof , Deck and Balcony Drains
ASME/ANSI 
B1.20.1 (R1999)Pipe Threads, General Purpose (inch)
B16.3- 99Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings
B16.4- 98Cast Iron Threaded Fittings
B16.12- 98Cast Iron Threaded Drainage Fittings
B16.14- 91Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Locknuts with pipe threads
B16.15 (R1994)Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings
B16.18 (R1994)Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
B16.21- 92Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
B16.22 (2001)Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
B16.23 (2002)Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings (DWV)
B16.28 (1988)Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes
B16.29 (2001)Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Fittings for Drainage Fittings
B16.39- 98Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions
B16.45-97Cast Iron Fittings for Sovent Drainage Systems
B16.50 (2001)Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Braze-joint Pressure Fittings

ASSE American Society of Sanitary Engineering
901 Canterbury Road, Suite A
Westlake, OH 44145 - 1480

Standard Reference NumberTitle
1001- 2002Performance Requirements for Pipe Applied Atmospheric Type Vacuum Breakers
1002- 99Performance Requirements for Toilet Flush Tank Ball Cocks
1003- 2002Performance Requirements for Water Pressure Reducing Valves
1005- 99Performance Requirements for Water Heater Drain Valves
1006- 89RPerformance Requirements for Residential Use (Household) Dishwashers
1007- 92Performance Requirements for Home Laundry Equipment
1008- 89RPerformance Requirements for Household Food Waste Disposer Units
1010- (2004)Performance Requirements for Water Hammer Arrestors
1011- (2004)Performance Requirements for Hose Connection Vacuum Breakers
1012- 2002Performance Requirements for Backflow Preventers with Intermediate Atmospheric Vent
1013- 99Performance Requirements for Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Preventers
1014- (2004)Performance Requirements for Hand-held Showers
1015- 90Performance Requirements for Double Check Backflow Prevention Assembly
1016- (2004)Performance Requirements for Individual Thermostatic, Pressure Balancing and Combination Control Valves for Bathing Facilities
1017- 2003Performance Requirements for Temperature Activated Mixing Valves for Primary Domestic Use
1018- 2001Performance Requirements for Trap seal Primer Valves
1019- (2004)Performance Requirements for Wall Hydrants, Frost Resistant Automatic Draining, Types
1020- (2004)Performance Requirements for Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly
1021- 2001Performance Requirements for Drain Air Gaps for Domestic Dishwasher Applications
1023- 79Plumbing Requirements for Hot Water Dispensers Household Storage Type Electrical (covered in ASME A112.18.1)
1037- 90Performance Requirements for Pressurized Flushing Devices (Flushometers) for Plumbing Fixtures
1044- 2001Performance Requirements for Trap Seal Primer Valves Drainage Type.

ASTM International
100 Barr Harbor Drive
West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

Standard Reference NumberTitle
A53- 2001Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded and Steamless
A74- 98Specification for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings
A312- 2001Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes
A377- 99Index for Specifications for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe
B42-02e1Specification for Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes
B43- 98e1Specification for Seamless Red Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes
B88- 2003Specifications for Seamless Copper Water Tube
B302- 2002Specification for Threadless Copper Pipe
B306- 2002Specification for Copper Drainage Tube (DWV)
B370- 2003Standard Specification for Copper Sheet Strip for Building Construction
B813- 2000e1Standard specification for liquid and paste fluxes for soldering of copper and copper alloy tube
B819-00Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Medical Gas Systems
B828-2002Standard practice for making capillary joints by Soldering of copper and copper alloy tube and fittings
C12-86Standard Practice for Installing Vitrified Clay Pipe Lines
C14- 99Specification for Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe
C76- 2000Specification for Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe
C301-89Standard Test Methods for Vitrified Clay Pipe
C361-89Standard Specification for Reinforced Concrete Low-Head Pressure Pipe
C425- 2002Specification for Compression Joints for Vitrified Clay Pipe and Fittings
C443- 2001Specifications for Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe, Using Rubber Gaskets
C444-80Standard Specification for Perforated Concrete Pipe
C564- 97Specification for Rubber Gaskets for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings
C700- 2002Specification for Vitrified Clay Pipe, Extra Strength, Standard Strength and Perforated
D1330-85Standard Specification for Rubber Sheet Gaskets
D1527- 99Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe Schedules 40 and 80
D1785- 99Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Schedules 40, 80 and 120
D2104- 2001Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Schedule 40
D2235- 2001Specification for Solvent Cement for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe and Fittings
D2239- 2001Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SIDR-PR)
D2241- 2000Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe (SDR-Series)
D2282- 99Specification for Acrylontrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR)
D2321- 2000Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Flexible Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe
D2447- 2001Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80, Based on Outside Diameter
D2464- 99Specification for Threaded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVS) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80
D2466- 2001Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings Schedule 40
D2467- 2001Specification for Socket-type Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80
D2468- 96aSpecification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40
D2564- 96aSpecification for Solvent Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings
D2609- 2000Specification for Plastic Insert Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe
D2661- 2001Specifications for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe
D2665- 2001Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste and Vent Pipe Fittings
D2672- 96aSpecification for Solvent Cement Joint Sockets on Belled PVC Pressure Pipe
D2729- 96aSpecification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings
D2737- 2001Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Tubing
D2751- 96aSpecification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Sewer Pipe and Fittings
D2774-72Recommended Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping
D2846- 99Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot and Cold Water Distribution Systems
D2852-89Standard Specification for Styrene-Rubber (SR) Plastic Drain Pipe and Fittings
D2855- 96Standard Practice for Making Solvent-Cemented Joints with Poly Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Fittings
D2949-2000aSpecification for 3.25-In Outside Diameter Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings
D3034-2001Specification for Type PSM Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings
D3122-95Standard Specification for Solvent Cements for Styrene-Rubber (SR) Plastic Pipe and Fittings
D3139-98Specification for Joints for Plastic Pressure Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals
D3212-96aSpecification for Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals
D3261-88Standard Specification for Butt Heat Fusion Polyethlene (PE) Plastic Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe and Tubing discontinued
D3311-94Standard Specification for Drain, Waste, and Vent (DWV) Plastic Fittings Patterns
D4068-2001Standard Specification for Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) Sheeting for Concealed Water Containment
F402-98(R99)Recommended Practice for Safe Handling of Solvent Cements Used for Joining Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings
F405-98Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene (PE) Tubing and Fittings
F409-2002Specification for Thermoplastic Accessible and Replaceable Plastic Tube and Tubular Fittings
F437-99Specification for Threaded Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80
F438-2001Specification for Socket Type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40
F439-2001Specification for Socket Type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings. Schedule 80
F441-99Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80
F442-99Specifications for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC} Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR)
F493-97Specifications for Solvent Cements for Chlorinated Poly (vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings
F628-2001Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe with a Cellular Core
F656-96aSpecification for Primers for Use in Solvent Cement Joints of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings
F789-95aStandard Specification for Type PS-46 Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Gravity Flow Sewer Pipe and Fittings
F876-99AStandard specifications for Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing.
F877-99AStandard specifications for Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX), plastic hot and cold water distribution systems.
F891-88ASpecifications for co-extruded, (Polyvinyl Chloride), (PVC) plastic pipe with a cellular core.
F1807-97Standard specifications for metal insert fittings utilizing a copper crimp ring for SD9 Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) tubing.
F1960-99Standard specifications for cold expansion fittings with (PEX) reinforcing rings for use with Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) tubing.

AWWA American Water Works Association
6666 West Quincy Avenue
Denver, CO 80235

Standard Reference NumberTitle
C110/A21.10-98Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 3 in. through 48 in., for Water and other Liquids
C111/A21.11-2000Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings
C151/A21.51-96Ductile-Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast in Metal Molds or Sand-Lined Molds, for Water or Other Liquids
C203-91aCoal-Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel Water Pipelines Enamel and Tape- Hot Applied
C205-89Cement-Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for Steel Water Pipe four inches and Larger - Shop Applied
C210-84Liquid Epoxy Coating Systems for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines
C213-2001Standard for Fusion-Bonded Epoxy Coating for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines
C303-87Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel Cylinder Type, Pretensioned, for Water and Other Liquids; Erratum
C606-97Grooved and Shouldered Joints

CDA Copper Development Association Inc.
260 Madison Avenue, 16th Floor
New York, NY 100016

Standard Reference NumberTitle
Design Assistance Publication-409-80 Copper Sovent Single Stack Plumbing System

CISPI Cast Iron Pipe Institute
Suite 419
5959 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421

Standard Reference NumberTitle
301-2000Specification for Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and Storm Drain, Waste and Vent Piping Applications

International Cast Polymer Alliance
1010 North Glebe Road, Suite 450
Arlington, VA 22201

Standard Reference NumberTitle
LS-2-97Property and Performance Standard for Cast Polyester Lavatories (Note: includes cultured marble and onyx)

 

FSFederal Specification that is available from the Supt. of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office Washington D.C. 20402-9325
General Service Administration
7th and D Streets
Specification Section
Room 6039
Washington, DC 20407
MSSManufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fitting Agency
127 Park Street, NE
Vienna, VA 22180

 

Standard Reference NumberTitle
SP-58-2002Pipe Hangers and Supports-materials, Design and Manufacture
SP-69-03Pipe Hangers and Supports-selection and Application
SP-70-84Cast Iron Gate Valves, Flanges and Threaded Ends
SP-71-84Cast Iron Swing Check Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends

NAMA National Automatic Merchandising Association
20 N. Wacker Dr.
Chicago, IL 60606-3102

Standard Reference NumberTitle
Section 900-2001Standard for the Sanitary Design and Construction of Food and Beverage Vending Machines

NSF International
789 North Dixboro Road
Ann Arbor, MI 48104

Standard Reference NumberTitle
14-2003Plastics Piping Components and Related Materials
42-2002Drinking Water Treatment Units-Aesthetics Effects
44-2002Cation Exchange Water Softeners
53-2002Drinking Water Treatment Units-Health Effects
58-2002Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Treatment Systems
61-2003Drinking Water System Components - Health Effects

 

PPFAPlastic Pipe and Fittings Association
800 Roosevelt Road
Building C, Suite 20
Glen Ellyn, IL 60137
ULUnderwriters Laboratories Inc.
333 Pfingsten Road
Northbrook, IL 60062

 

Standard Reference NumberTitle
174-96Household Electric Storage Tank Water Heaters
399-93Drinking Water Coolers
499-97Electric Heating Appliances
732-95Oil-Fired Storage Tank Water Heaters
749-97Household Dishwashers

WQA Water Quality Association
4151 Naperville Road
Lisle, IL 60532

Standard Reference NumberTitle
S100-2000Household Commercial and Portable Exchange Water Softeners
S200-2000Household and Commercial Water Filters
S300-2000Point-of-Use Low Pressure Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Systems
S400-2000Point-of-Use Distillation Drinking Water Systems

TABLE 1
STANDARDS FOR PRODUCT- APPROVED PLUMBING MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

DescriptionANSIASTMFSOTHER
Ferrous Pipe, Fittings and Valves
Cast Iron Aerators and De-Aerators ASME Hubless FittingsB16.45-1987NoneNoneNone
Cast Iron Drainage Fittings, ThreadedB16.12-1998NoneWW-P-46B-1967None
Cast Iron Screwed Fittings (Threaded)B16.4-1998NoneWW-P-501d-1967None
Cast Iron Pipe (Threaded) DWVNoneNoneWW-P356a-1967None
Cast Iron Pipe, Thickness Design ofNoneNoneWW-P-421c-1967None
Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Hub & SpigotNoneA74-98WW-P-401e-1974None
Cast Iron Water Pipe (2")NoneA377-99WW-P-360b-1968None
Cast Iron Water Pipe (Cast in Metal Molds)NoneA377-99WW-P-421c-1967None
Cast Iron Water Pipe (Cast in Sand-Lined MoldsNoneA377-99WW-P-421c-1967None
Cast Iron Water Pipe FittingsA21.10-1998A377-99None*AWWA C110-98
Ductile-Iron PipeA21.51-1996A377-99WW-P-421c-1967*AWWA C151-96
Grove & Shoulder Type Joints (Split-Couplings)NoneNoneNone*AWWA C606-97
Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for
Hubless Cast Iron Sanitary SystemNoneNoneWW-P-104e-1974CISPI 301-2000
Malleable Iron Screwed Fittings, 150 lbs.& 300 lbs.B16.3-1985NoneWW-P-521f-1968None
Nipples, Pipe, ThreadedNoneNoneWW-N-351b(1)-1970 
Pipe Fittings, Ferrous (Bushing, Plugs, and Locknuts) Threaded, 125 & 150 lb.B16.4-198NoneWW-P47b-1970None
Pipe Threads (except Dry Seal)ASME
B1.20.1-1992
NoneNoneNFS Handbook
H28-Part II-1966
Steel Pipe, StainlessNoneA312-2001a89None
Steel, Stainless, Water-DWV TubesNoneNoneNoneNone
Steel Pipe, Welded or Seamless (for coiling) Black or GalvanizedNoneA53-2001WW-P-471b-1970
Int Amend 3-1971
None
Steel Pipe, Welded or Seamless Black or GalvanizedNoneNoneWW-P-406d(1)-1973None
Steel Pipe (Cement-Mortar Lining and Reinforced Cement-Mortar (Coating)NoneNoneSS-P-385a(1)-1968AWWA C205-2000
Steel Pipe (Coal Tar Enamel or Cement Coated and Wrapped)NoneNoneWW-P-1432-1970*AWWA C203-91a
Unions, Pipe, Steel or Malleable IronB16.39-1986NoneWW-U-531c-1965None
Valves, BallNoneNoneWW-V-35a-1965None
Valves, Cast Iron, Gate 125 & 250 lb.NoneNoneWW-V-58b-1971MSS-SP-70-1984
Valves, Cast Iron, Swing CheckNoneNoneNoneMSS-SP 02-1997
Non-Ferrous Metallic Pipe, Fittings and Valves
* Aerator and De-aerator Copper Solder Joint Drainage FittingsNoneNoneNoneCDA-409-80
Aluminum Pipe, Drainage DWVNoneNoneNoneNone
Brass Tube, Red, Seamless, Pipe, Standard SizesNoneB43-98WW-P-351a-1963None
Bronze Pipe Flanges and Flanged FittingsB16.24-1979NoneNoneNone
Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper TubesB16.26-2002NoneNoneNone
Cast Copper Alloy Solder-joint Pressure FittingsB16.18-2001NoneWW-T-00725-1967None
Cast Copper Alloy Solder-joint Drainage FittingsB16.23-2002NoneNoneNone
Copper Pipe, Seamless, Standard SizesNoneB42-98WW-P377d-1962None
Copper Pipe, Thread lessNoneB302-2002WW-P-377d-1962None
Copper Tube, Drainage DWVNoneB306-99NoneNone
Copper Tube, Water, Seamless, Types K, L, and MNoneB88-99WW-T-799d-1971NSF 61
Lead Pipes, Bends and TrapsNoneNoneWW-P-325a-1967None
Pipe Fittings, Bronze, 125 and 250 Lbs. CastB16.15-1994NoneWW-P-460b-1967None
Solder-joint Fittings, Pressure, Wrought Copper-copper and Copper AlloyB16.22-2001NoneWW-T-00725-1967None
Solder-joint Fittings, Drainage, DWV Wrought Copper and Copper AlloyB16.29-2002NoneNoneNone
Unions, Brass or Bronze, 250 lbs.NoneNoneWW-V-35a-1965None
Valves, Angle Check and Globe, Bronze, 125 lb. Screwed, Flanged or SolderNoneNoneWW-V51d-1967None
Non-Metallic Pipe and Fittings
Clay Pipe, Perforated, Standard and Extra StrengthNone*C700-2002SS-P-361ENone
Concrete Low Head Pressure Pipe ReinforcedNoneC361-2003aNoneNone
Concrete Pipe, PerforatedNone*C444-2003NoneNone
Concrete Pipe (Sewer, Storm Drain and Culvert) Non-reinforcedNone*C14-88SS-P-371e-1968None
Concrete Pipe, Pressure, Reinforced Concrete, Pretensioned ReinforcementNoneNoneSS-P-381A(1)-1989AWWA
(Steel Cylinder Type)  SS-P-381A(2)-1972C303-37
Concrete Pipe (Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer) ReinforcedNoneC76-89SS-P-375d-1970None
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80NoneD1527-99None NSF1See ASTM D2774 for underground installation procedure
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, (SDR-PR)None*D2282-99None

NSF14-2003

See ASTM D2774 for underground installation procedure

Socket-Type Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40None*D2468-96aNoneNSF14-2003
Socket-type Acrylonitrile- Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80NoneNoneNoneNSF 14-2003
Threaded Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80NoneNoneNoneNSF 14-2003
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent PipeNone*D2661-2001L-P-332B-1973

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM Appendix XI for installation procedures

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Drain, Waste & Vent Pipe Schedule 40 with Cellular CoreNoneF628-2001None

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM Appendix A1 for installation procedures

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Sewer Pipe and fittingsNoneD2751-96aNone

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM D2321 for underground installation procedures

Solvent Cement for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe and FittingsNone*D2235-2001NoneNSF 14-2003
Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Schedule 40None*D2104-2001None

NSF-14-2003

See ASTM D2774 for underground installation procedures

Non-Metallic Pipe and Fittings
Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80 Based on Outside DiameterNoneD2447-2001None

NSF14-2003

See ASTM D274 for underground installation procedure

Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, (SIDR-PR) Based on Controlled Inside DiameterNone*D2239-2001L-P315c-1972NSF 14-2003
   L-P-315c2-1975See ASTM D2774 for underground installation procedures
Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe and TubingNoneD3261-2003NoneNone
Butt Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Fittings, Schedule 40NoneNoneNoneNSF 14-2003
Butt Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80NoneNoneNoneNSF 14-2003
Plastic Insert Fittings for Polyethylene Plastic PipeNoneD2609-2000L-F-001546-1968NSF 14-2003
Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) TubingNoneF876-99NoneNSF14/61
Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Water Distribution SystemsNoneF877-99NoneNSF14/61
Metal Insert Fittings with Copper Crimp Rings for use with PEX TubingNoneF1807-97NoneNSF14/61
Cold Expansion Fittings with PEX Reinforcing Rings for use with PEX TubingNoneF1960-99NoneNSF14/61
Cold-expansion Fittings with Metal Compression Sleeves for use with PEX TubingNoneF2080NoneNSF 14/61
Stainless Steel Clamps for Securing SDR-9 PEX Tubing to Metal Insert FittingsNoneF2098NoneNSF 14/61
Polyethylene (PE) Plastic TubingNoneD2737-2001None

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM D2774 For underground installation procedures

Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot- and Cold-Water Distribution SystemNoneD2846-99None

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM Appendix X2 for Installation procedures

Socket-Type Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings) Schedule 40NoneF438-2001NoneNSF 14-2003
Socket-Type Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80NoneF439-2001NoneNSF 14-2003
Non-Metallic Pipe and Fittings
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80 and 120None*D1785-99L-P-1035A-1974

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM D2774 for underground installation procedures. See ASTM D2855 Section 4.2.14

Making Solvent-Cemented Joints with Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and FittingsNoneD2855-96NoneNone
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe (SDR-Series)NoneD2241-2000None

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM D2774 for underground installation Procedures. See Section 4.2.14

Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR)NoneF442-99NoneNone
Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80NoneF441-99None

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM D2846

Coextruded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe with a Cellular CoreNoneF891-2000

See ASTM

Appendixes X1, X2 X3 for Storage, Joining and Installation Procedures.

NSF 14-2003
Solvent Cements for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe and FittingsNoneF493-97NoneNone
Socket-Type Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40None*D2466-2001None

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM D2855. See Section 4.2.14

Socket-Type Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80None*D2467-99None

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM D2855. See Section 4.2.14

Solvent Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe and FittingsNone*D2564-96aNone

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM D2855
See Section 4.2.14

Primers for Solvent Cement Joints (PVC)F656-96aNoneNoneNone
Threaded Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80NoneF437-99NoneNSF 14-2003
Threaded Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80None*D2464-99NoneNSF 14-2003
Joints for IPS PVC Pipe Using Solvent CementNone*D2672-96aNone

NSF 14-2003

See ASTM D2774 for underground installation Procedures

See ASTM D2855

See Section 4.2.14

Non-Metallic Pipe and Fittings
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain Waste And Vent Pipe and FittingsNone*D2665-2000L-P-320a-1966NSF 14
Drain, Waste, and Vent (DWV) Plastic Fittings PatternsNoneD3311-94NoneNone
Type PSM Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and FittingsNoneD3034-2001None

D2321-74e

See ASTM for underground installation procedures. See ASTM D2855. See Section 4.2.14

Type PS-46 Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Gravity Flow Sewer Pipe and FittingsNoneF789-95aNone

None

See ASTM D2855. See Section 4.2.14

Underground Installation of Flexible Thermoplastic Sewer PipeNoneD2321-2000None

None

See ASTM D2855
See Section 4.2.14

Styrene-Rubber (SR) Plastic DrainNone*D2852-2002None

See ASTM D2321 for

Pipe and Fittings underground installation procedures

Solvent Cements for Styrene-Rubber (SR) Plastic Pipe and FittingsNone*D3122-95NoneNone
3.25-In. Outside Diameter Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, Vent Pipe and FittingsNoneD2949-2000aNoneNSF 14
Thermoplastic Accessible & Replaceable Plastic Tube & Tubular FittingsNoneF409-99aNoneNone
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and FittingsNoneD2729-96aNoneNone
Corrugated Polyethylene (PE) Tubing and FittingsNoneF405-98NoneNone
Pipe Jointing Materials and Gaskets, and Supports
Caulking, Lead Wool and Lead Pig Compression Joints and VitrifiedNoneNoneQQ-C-40(2)1970None
Clay Bell and Spigot PipeNone*C425-2002NoneNone
Joints for Plastic Pressure Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric SealsNone*D3139-98NoneNone
Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric SealsNone*D3212-96aNoneNone
Fixture Setting CompoundNoneNone

TT-P-001536

(1968) Revision of HHC 536a-1954

None
Pipe Jointing Materials and Gaskets, and Supports
Non-Metallic Gaskets for Pipe FlangesNoneNoneNoneASME B16.21-92
Neoprene Rubber Gaskets for Hub Spigot Cast Iron Soil-Pipe and FittingsNoneC564-97NoneNone
Pipe Hangers and SupportsNoneNoneWW-H-171d-1970*MSS-SP-58-83
Rubber Gaskets for Cast Iron Soil-Pipe and FittingsNoneC564-97NoneNone
Rubber Gasket Joints for Cast Iron Pressure Pipe and FittingsA21.11-2000NoneNone*AWWA C111-2000
Rubber Gaskets, Molded or Extruded, for Concrete Non Pressure Sewer PipeNone*C443-2001HH-G-160B-1968None
Rubber Gaskets, SheetNoneD-1330-2002NoneNone
Sealing Compound, Preformed Plastic, for Expansion Joints and Pipe JointsNoneNoneSS-S-00210:(1965)None
Sealing Compound, Sewer, Bituminous, Two-Component, Mineral-Filled Cold AppliedNoneNoneSS-S-168(2)1962None
Plumbing Appliances
Dishwashing Machines, HouseholdNoneNoneNone

*UL 749-1997

ASSE-1006-1989

Drinking Water Coolers, self-Contained, Mechanical RefrigeratedNoneNoneNone

*UL399-2002

*YK439-78

Food Waste Disposer Units, HouseholdNoneNoneQQ-G-001513-1968

*YK439-78

ASSE 1008-1989

Home Laundry EquipmentNoneNoneNone

*UL 560-1986

ASSE 1007-1992

**Water Heaters, Automatic Storage TypeZ21.10.1a-1998NoneNoneNone
**Water Heaters, Circulating TankZ21.10.3a-1998NoneNoneNone
**Water Heater, Electric storage TankNoneNoneW-H-196j(j)1971*UL 174-1996
**Water Heater, Oil Fired Storage TypeNoneNoneNone*UL 732-1997
**Water Heater, Side Arm TypeZ21.10.1-1998NoneNoneNone
Plumbing Fixtures and Appurtenances
Accessories (Land Use)NoneNone None
BathtubsA112.19.1M.1999None None
PlasticZ124.1.1995   
Fittings, Plumbing fixturesA112.18.1M-2003NoneNone 
Hand Held Showers, Performance RequirementsNoneNoneNone*ASSE 1014-1990
Hydraulic Requirements for Water Closet and UrinalsA112-19.6-1995NoneNoneNone
Individual Shower Control Valves, Anti-Scald TypeNoneNoneNone*ASSE 1016-1996
LavatoriesNoneNone None
Lavatory, Cultured MarbleZ124.3-1995NoneNoneCMI LS-2
Lavatories, PlasticZ124.3-1995NoneNone 
Plumbing Fixtures, General SpecificationNoneNone None
Plumbing Fixtures, Enameled Cast IronA112.19.1M-1999NoneNone 
With Supplement 1 - 1998 and Supplement 2 -- 2000
Plumbing Fixtures, Stainless SteelA112.19.32000NoneNoneWith Supplement 1
2002
Plumbing Fixtures, Vitreous ChinaA112.19.2-1998NoneNone 
With Supplement 1 - 2002
Plumbing Fixtures, Enameled SteelA112.19.4M-1994NoneNone 
With Supplement 1 -1999 and Supplement 2 2000
Pressurized Flushing Devices Plumbing Fixtures (Flushometers)NoneNoneNoneASSE 1037-1990
Shower Baths and Heads and Water Control ValvesA112.18.12003NoneNone 
Plastic Shower Receptors and Shower StallsZ124.2-1995NoneNoneNone
Sinks, Kitchen and Service, and Laundry TubA112.19.2 2002NoneNone 
A112.19.3--2000 With Supplement 1-2002
Supports for off-the-floor Plumbing Fixtures for Public UseA112.6.1-2002NoneNoneNone
Thermostatic Mixing Valves, Self-Actuated for Primary Domestic UseNoneNoneNone*ASSE 1017-2003
UrinalsNone NoneA112.19.2 2003
Toilets (Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures) (1.6 GPF Max.)A112.19.2 2003NoneNone 
Plastic Toilet Bowls & Tanks (1.6 GPF Max.)Z124.4-1996NoneNoneNone
Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances Suction Fittings for use in WhirlpoolA112.19.7-1995NoneNoneNone
Bathtub AppliancesA112.19.8-1996NoneNoneNone
Backflow Preventers
Air Gap StandardsA112.1.2-2002NoneNoneNone
Air Gap Drains for Domestic DishwashersNoneNoneNoneASSE 1021-2002
Vacuum Breakers, Anti-SiphonNoneNoneNoneASSE 1001-2002
Vacuum Breakers, Hose ConnectionNoneNoneNone*ASSE 1011-1993
Double Check with Intermediate Atmospheric VentNoneNoneNoneASSE 1012-2002
Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow PreventerNoneNoneNoneASSE 1013-1999
Double Check Valve, Back Pressure, Backflow AssemblyNoneNoneNoneASSE 1015-1999
Wall Hydrants, Freezeless, Automatic Draining, Anti-Backflow TypeNoneNoneNone*ASSE 1019-1999
Vacuum Breakers, Pressure TypeNoneNoneNoneASSE 1020-1994
Diverters for Plumbing Faucets with Hose Spray Anti-Siphon Type, Residential ApplicationNoneNoneNoneASME A112.18.1-2003
Miscellaneous and Installation Standards
Arrestors, Water HammerNoneNone ASSE 1010-1982
Toilet, Flush Tank, Fill Valves (Ballcocks)NoneNoneNone*ASSE 1002-1999
Enamel, Coal-Tar (Protective Coating)NoneNoneNone

*AWWA C203-91a

*AWWA C210-2003

Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) Sheeting for Concealed Water Containment MembraneNoneD4068-2001NoneNone
Clamps, hoseNoneNoneWW-C-440B(a)-1969None
Coating, Pipe, Epoxy, Fusion BondNoneNoneNone*AWWA C213-2001
Coating, Pipe, Thermoplastic Resin or Thermosetting, EpoxyNoneNoneL-C-530B-1970None
Connector, Water, Flexible CopperNoneNoneNoneIAPMO PS-14-99
Copper, Sheet and Strip for Building ConstructionNoneB370-98NoneNone
Clay Pipe, InstallationNone*C12-2003NoneNone
Clay Pipe, TestingNone*C301-98NoneNone
Cross-linked Polyethylene tubingNoneNoneNoneNSF 14 and 61
Drain, FloorA112.6.3-2001NoneNoneNone
Drain for Prefabricated and Precast ShowersNoneNoneNoneIAPMO PS-4-2000
Drain, RoofA112.6.4-2003NoneNoneNone
FluxNoneB813-2000elNoneNone
Lead, Sheet, Grade ANoneNoneQQ-L-201f(2)1970None
Plugs, Metallic CleanoutA112.36.2-2002NoneNoneNone
Relief ValvesZ21.22-1999NoneNoneNone
Recommended Practice for Making Solvent Cemented Joints with Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Plastic Pipe and FittingsNone*D2855-96NoneNone
Reducing Valves, Water Pressure forNoneNoneNoneASSE 1003-2002
Safe Handling of Solvent Cements Used for Joining Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings Solder, SoftNoneF402-99NoneNone
Shower Pan LinerA118.10-93NoneNoneNone
Tape, Pipe Coating, Pressure Sensitive PolyethyleneNoneNoneL-T-0075(1)-1966None
Tee, Diversion and Twin Waste ElbowNoneNoneNoneIAPMO PS-9-84
Thermoplastic Accessible and Replaceable Plastic Tube and Tubular FittingsNone*F409-200.NoneNSF 14-2003
Underground Installation of Flexible Thermoplastic Sewer PipeNone*D2321-2000NoneNone
Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure PipingNone*D2774-2001NoneNone
Trap Seal Primer Valves, Water Distribution TypeNoneNoneNoneASSE 1018-2001
Drainage TypeNoneNoneNoneASSE 1044-2001
Valve, BackwaterA112.14.1-1975NoneNoneIAPMO PS-8-77
Valve, Drain, Water eaterNoneNoneNoneASSE 1005-1999
Water Treatment Devices
Activated Carbon FilterNoneNoneNone

WQA S200-2000
NSF 42-2002
NSF 53-2002

Reverse OsmosisNoneNoneNone

WQA S300-2000
NSF 58-2002

DistillerNoneNoneNone

WQA S400-2000
NSF 42-2002
NSF 53-2002

Water FilterNoneNoneNoneWQA S200-2000
NSF 42-2002
NSF 53-2002
Water SoftenerNoneNoneNoneWQA S100-2000
NSF 44-2002
Water Vending MachineNoneNoneNoneNAMA Section 900-2001

NOTE: Standards on materials do not imply that these materials may be used for a specific service. Materials permitted for a specific service shall be specified under the various sections of 248 CMR.

NOTE: * A standard also listed or approved by ANSI.

** All Water Heaters must comply with M.G.L. c. 142

(d) Identification. Materials shall be identified as provided in the standard to which they conform.

(2) Allowable Materials.

(a) When installing fittings or piping for renovations or alterations within an existing soil stack, waste stack, vent stack or drain, the fitting or piping shall be of the same material as the existing stack or drain and be compliant with a joining method outlined in 248 CMR 10.07. Exception: In new residential construction cast iron pipe may be used exclusively with PVC for sound reduction.

(b) Sheet Lead. shall meet the following requirements:

  1. For a safe pan the sheet lead shall not be less than four pounds per square foot.
  2. For vent terminal flashing the sheet lead shall not be less than three pounds per square foot.
  3. For bends or traps the sheet lead shall not have less than an c inch wall thickness.

(c) Sheet Copper. Sheet copper shall not be less than 12 ounces per square foot when used in the following applications:

  1. safe pan;
  2. shower pan;
  3. flush tank linings;
  4. vent terminal flashing; or
  5. general use.

(d) Floor Flanges. A floor flange used for a toilet or other similar fixture shall conform to the following requirements.

  1. If the flange is composed of brass, the flange shall have a minimum thickness of c inch.
  2. If the flange is composed of cast iron the flange shall have a minimum thickness of ¼ inch, and the minimum caulking depth shall be two inches.
  3. If the flange is composed of hard lead, it shall weigh at least one pound nine ounces and be composed of lead alloy with not less than 7.75% antimony by weight.
  4. Copper and plastic flanges may be used.
  5. A plastic flange must meet current NSF Standards and shall be of the same material to which it connects.
  6. A flange shall be secured to the finished floor on which it sets by screwing or bolting and shall be connected to the specific piping by soldering, caulking or solvent welding as provided for in 248 CMR 10.07.

(e) Cleanouts. Cleanout plugs shall meet the following requirements.

  1. Shall be composed of brass or plastic.
  2. Shall meet the latest Standards.
  3. Shall have raised or countersunk square or hexagon heads.
  4. If a tripping hazard may exist, only a countersunk head shall be used.
  5. A plastic cleanout plug shall be of the same material to which it connects.

(f) Building Drains (Inside Building). When the Sanitary Drain or Storm Drain is installed in a trench excavated to a uniform width and level and the trench will also encompasses the water service pipe, the drain piping shall be bell and spigot cast iron tarred soil pipe with lead and oakum joints.

(g) Storm and Sanitary Below Ground. The following materials may be used for storm and sanitary piping that is located below ground level, except for materials that are to be used for Special Hazardous Wastes (for Special Hazardous Wastes, See 248 CMR 10.13).

  1. Extra heavy cast iron soil pipe and fittings, coated tar or asphaltum may be used provided that the joints are made with packed oakum and molten lead or resilient gaskets.
  2. Iron size brass or copper pipe with cast brass drainage fittings.
  3. Hard drawn type K or L copper tubing, with cast brass drainage pattern fittings.
  4. Copper alloy tubing "Heavy" weight conforming to ASTM Standard, color coded aqua and incised marked as "Heavy" with cast brass drainage pattern fittings.
  5. Grade H or SL copper coated stainless steel tubing conforming to ASTM Standard, made of Type 430 or Type 439 stainless steel, marked in conformance with 248 CMR 10.06(2)(q); provided that the fittings are cast in the brass drainage pattern.
  6. ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) Schedule 40 pipe and fittings as specified under 248 CMR 10.06(2)(p).
  7. PVC (Polyvinyl-Chloride) Schedule 40 pipe and fittings as specified under 248 CMR 10.06(2)(o).
  8. Epoxy re-enforced fiberglass piping system may be used only for storm water drainage.
  9. Service weight cast iron soil pipe and fittings provided that the tarred or plain joints are made with packed oakum and molten lead or resilient gaskets.
  10. Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings.
    1. Hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings may be used if:
      1. they are manufactured in accordance with CISPI Standard 301-75; and
      2. the following test requirements are satisfied:
        1. Every manufacturer shall perform the pressure and leak test as required under 248 CMR 10.06(2)(v).
        2. Deflection Test. A test deflecting the free end of a ten-foot length of hubless cast iron soil pipe joined together with a coupling to a secured length of pipe. The test assembly shall be subjected to an internal hydrostatic pressure of ten P.S.I.G and a minimum deflection of one-inch per lineal foot and shall show no visible signs of leakage.
        3. Shear Test. The shear test requires the application of a uniformly distributed force or weight of 50 pounds-per-inch of nominal diameter of the pipe over an arc of 120E, along a longitudinal distance of 12 inches of the unsupported end of the two coupled lengths of pipe immediately adjacent to the assembled joint. The opposite end of the test assembly shall be rigidly secured and the entire unit shall be under an internal hydrostatic pressure of ten P.S.I.G. and shall show no visible signs of leakage.
        4. All tests shall be performed in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and certified as per 248 CMR 10.06(2)(v)5.
    2. Installations. Installations of hubless systems underground shall conform to 248 CMR 10.05(1)and (2)(a) through (d) and 10.06(1)(b).
    3. Trenching, Tunneling and Backfilling. Trenching, tunneling and backfilling procedures for hubless systems underground shall conform to 248 CMR 10.05(5)(a) through (d) and 10.06(2)(g)10.d.
    4. Hangers and Supports for hubless cast iron soil piping shall conform to the following requirements.
      1. General piping shall be installed with provisions for expansion, contraction or structural settlement.
      2. Material. Hangers, anchors and supports shall be composed of metal having sufficient strength to support the piping and its contents, except that piers may be composed of concrete or brick.
      3. Attachments to Buildings or Structures. Hubless cast iron soil pipe shall be supported in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations or as outlined in the most recent edition of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute (CISPI) Handbook.
      4. Base of Stacks. Bases of stacks shall be supported on concrete, brick laid in cement mortar or metal brackets attached to the building or structure.
      5. Hubless Fittings.
        1. There shall be a hanger installed at each change of direction.
        2. When joining three or more fittings, there shall be a minimum of one hanger for every three-feet or part thereof.
      6. Backfilling. The on-site licensed plumber or the holder of the permit for the underground hubless cast iron soil piping system shall notify the Inspector when the installation is to be backfilled. A licensed plumber shall be present during the backfilling procedure including when all concrete slabs are being poured. This notification provision shall not be subject to the 48 hour notice requirement of 248 CMR 3.05(3)(b).
  11. Ductile pipe and approved compatible drainage fittings.
  12. For Limited Use Only: Schedule 40 PVC, See 248 CMR 10.06(2)(o).

TEST FOR HUBLESS SOIL PIPE UNDERGROUND COUPLINGS

diagram showing Shear Test requirements and procedures to follow
diagram showing Deflection Test requirements and procedures

(h) Storm and Sanitary Above Ground. The following materials may be used for storm and sanitary piping that is located above ground level, except the following materials shall not be to be used for Special Hazardous Wastes (for Special Hazardous Wastes, See 248 CMR 10.13).

  1. Extra heavy cast iron soil pipe and fittings, tarred or plain provided that joints are made with packed oakum and molten lead or resilient gaskets.
  2. Service weight cast iron soil pipe and fittings provided that tarred or plain joints are made with packed oakum and molten lead or resilient gaskets.
  3. Hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings that are manufactured in accordance with CISPI Standard 301-75, and joined with a product approved clamp.
  4. Iron size brass or copper pipe with cast brass drainage fittings.
  5. Hard drawn Type K, L, M or DWV copper tubing having cast brass or wrought copper drainage pattern fittings;
  6. Copper alloy tubing "Heavy" and "Standard" weights conforming to ASTM Standard, color coded aqua and incised marked as either "Heavy" or "Standard" having cast brass or wrought copper drainage pattern fitting.
  7. Grades H, G, SL or SM copper coated stainless steel tubing conforming to ASTM Standard, manufactured of Type 430 or Type 439 stainless steel that are plainly marked in conformance with 248 CMR 10.06(2)(q) and provided that the relevant fittings are cast in a brass or wrought copper drainage pattern.
  8. Schedule 40 galvanized wrought iron or galvanized steel pipe provided that for sizes greater than two inches it has a plain or galvanized drainage pattern fittings.
  9. Schedule 40 galvanized wrought iron or galvanized steel pipe for cases when pipe and fittings are end grooved and are to be joined with an approved split and bolted galvanized steel coupling with gasket;
  10. Groove type couplings and fittings for applications that join storm water piping.
  11. ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) Schedule 40 pipe and fittings as specified under 248 CMR 10.06(2)(p).
  12. PVC (Polyvinyl-Chloride) Schedule 40 pipe and fittings as specified under 248 CMR 10.06(2)(o).
  13. For Storm Water Drainage Only. Approved epoxy re-enforced fiberglass piping system.
  14. Aluminum DWV pipe with pipe end cap protectors manufactured and installed with hubless cast iron fittings manufactured according to CISPI Standard 301 and joined with a Product-approved stainless steel no hub pipe clamp and elastomeric sealing sleeve.
  15. Ductile pipe and approved compatible drainage fittings.

(i) Vent Pipe and Fittings Below Ground. All materials listed under 248 CMR 10.06(2)(g)1. through 10.06(2)(g)11 may be used.
(j) Vent Pipe and Fittings Above Ground. For vent pipe and fitting above ground the following materials may be used.

  1. All materials listed under 248 CMR 10.06(2)(h)1. through 10.06(2)(h)15.
  2. Galvanized wrought or galvanized steel pipe not lighter than schedule 40, with cast iron or malleable iron screw or grooved end fittings, plain or galvanized.

(k) Water Service Piping (Outside Building). The materials used shall be those specified by the local municipality.
(l) Water Distribution Piping Below Ground (Inside Building). For water distribution piping that is installed inside a building and below ground, only the following materials may be used.

  1. Type K or L tubing incised marked with cast brass fittings.
  2. Copper alloy tubing "Heavy" weight conforming to ASTM Standard, color coded aqua and incised marked as "Heavy" with cast brass fittings.
  3. Copper core pre-insulated cement pressure pipe that is PVC coated.
  4. Any pipe, valve, pipe fitting, aerator, or faucet used in a potable water system shall comply with all applicable NSF-61 Standards.
  5. Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) tubing and fittings installed in accordance with 248 CMR 10.06 and 248 CMR 10.08.

(m) Water Distribution Piping Above Ground (Inside Building). For water distribution piping that is installed inside a building and above ground, only the following materials may be used:

  1. Iron size brass or copper pipe with cast brass fittings.
  2. Type K or L hard drawn copper tubing that is incised marked and has cast brass or wrought copper fittings.
  3. Copper alloy tubing "Heavy" and "Standard" weight incised marked, color coded aqua, conforming to ASTM Standard and having cast brass or wrought copper fittings.
  4. Exposed galvanized wrought iron or galvanized steel pipe and galvanized fittings only when used for replacement in existing buildings or structures or when used for replacement of large size water mains.
  5. CPVC (Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) pipe and fittings may be used in the following situations provided that none of this material is located within 24 inches of any connection to a hot water tank as defined in M.G.L. c. 142, § 17:
    1. for hot and cold water distribution that is located only in the dwelling portion of a residential dwelling, multiple family dwelling, hotel, motel, inn, condominium and similar building six stories or 60 feet in height; or
    2. for the exclusive cold water supply distribution beginning at the outlet of the water meter (or the control valve inside a building) directly dedicated to a drinking water fountain(s) in state licensed or accredited school buildings only.
  6. Mechanically grooved pipe couplings and fittings when the following requirements are satisfied.
    1. The couplings and fittings are used with exposed galvanized wrought iron pipe or exposed galvanized steel pipe on water supply distribution systems provided that the water supply systems operating condition temperature will not exceed 130?F.
    2. The coupling housings and fittings are cast of malleable galvanized iron as described in ASTM A-47 or all products that meet the requirements of ASTM A-269.
    3. The elastomeric gasket for the coupling has properties as designated by ASTM D-2000.
  7. Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing and Fittings.
    1. PEX may be used for residential dwellings/ buildings if the installation conforms to the following requirements:
      1. The PEX tubing is used for hot and cold water distribution in residential dwelling/buildings up to and including three stories in height.
      2. PEX tubing shall not be installed closer than 24-inches to any connection to a direct-fired water heater, tankless type hot water coil or heating boiler.
      3. Mechanical compression type fittings shall not be concealed and must be accessible.
      4. Fittings meet one of the ASTM, (standards for the fittings) listed in 248 CMR 10.06: Table 1 unless otherwise Product-approved by the Board as provided for under 248 CMR. 3.04.
      5. PEX tubing and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations and meet the U.L. flame spread requirements for return air plenums in commercial buildings in accordance with 780 CMR: The Massachusetts State Building Code.
    2. PEX tubing and fittings shall be used in commercial buildings if the installation conforms to the following requirements:
      1. PEX tubing is used in a commercial building for the purpose of conveying reverse osmosis or other similar technology processes that produce ("purified water" 248 CMR 10.03), from the point of treatment to a point or multiple points of use for drinking water.
      2. PEX tubing shall be installed at a point which, begins on the outlet side of a Product-Approved reverse osmosis, ("purified water") drinking water device and terminates at a point or multiple points of use e.g. Product-approved dispensers and faucets.
      3. PEX tubing and fittings are not to be used for steam flushing of water purification systems. Only type 316 stainless steel tube and fittings shall be used for this purpose.
  8. Polybutylene or polyethylene tanks when used for Storage Heaters and when the tanks have been reinforced with a Product-Approved material.
  9. 316 stainless steel tanks when used for storage heaters.
  10. Polybutylene, polyethylene, natural polypropylene, Type 1 Grade 1 polyvinyl chloride meeting ASTM standard D 1784 and D 1785, schedule 40 or 80 and cross-linked polyethylene shall be used for the purpose of conveying reverse osmosis purified water from a point of purification to a final point of use.
  11. The use of a Product-Approved polypropylene homopolymer drain tube assembly that is designed to be vertically mounted in the downturned outlet of a horizontally mounted relief valve provided that the capacity of the relief valve served by the approved drain assembly does not exceed 100,000 BTU per hour.
  12. Any pipe, valve, pipe fitting, aerator, or faucet used in a potable water system shall comply with all applicable NSF-61 Standards.

(n) Pipe, Fittings and Gaskets. Resilient gaskets specified for use with cast iron soil pipe shall be marked as follows.

  1. The exposed lip shall be marked clearly and legibly to include:
    1. Manufacturer's name and/or registered trade-mark;
    2. Neoprene;
    3. Date of manufacture; and
    4. ASTM standard.
  2. Gaskets for service weight cast iron soil pipe shall bear the letters "SV" on the exposed lip.
  3. Gaskets for extra heavy cast iron soil pipe shall bear the letters "XH" on the exposed lip.


(o) PVC Plastic Pipe and Fittings. The following requirements apply to PVC plastic pipe and fittings.

  1. PVC shall not be used for drains, waste or vents in commercial kitchens, laundry rooms, public toilet facilities or other commercial areas located in assisted living facilities, hotels, motels, inns or similar establishments, except where provided for elsewhere in 248 CMR 10.06, i.e. 248 CMR 10.06(2)(o)2.
  2. PVC, Schedule 40 Pipe and Fittings, may be used for the drains, waste and vent piping that serve the sanitary or storm drainage systems in the following buildings:
    1. residential dwellings;
    2. assisted living facilities;
    3. hotels;
    4. motels;
    5. inns;
    6. condominiums; and
    7. other residential buildings that are similar to 248 CMR 10.06(2)(o)2.a. through 10.06(2)(o)2.f. and that are no greater than ten stories in height.
  3. Limited use of PVC for Commercial Buildings. PVC pipe and fittings may be installed for limited purposes in commercial buildings or establishments, provided that the following requirements are satisfied.
    1. PVC is used for the drains, waste, or vents when the piping serves only the fixtures that are necessary to accommodate waste generated as a direct result of the conduct of business that is particular to the type of commercial establishment itemized in 10.06(o)(3)b.
    2. PVC Schedule 40 may by used in the following buildings:
      1. beauty salons;
      2. barber shops;
      3. manicure salons;
      4. pedicure salons;
      5. photo-labs; and
      6. in commercial buildings that incorporate patron areas for the purpose of serving alcohol, soda or other similar carbonated type beverages where the carbonated liquid waste shall drain directly into a floor sink or floor drain.
    3. The PVC Schedule 40 shall be installed in compliance with the following:
      1. No PVC schedule 40 pipe and fittings may be used for the toilet fixtures and other plumbing connections in the building.
      2. The piping shall be connected to a main drain or branch drain from other fixtures to provide a point of waste dilution.
      3. A label shall be affixed at the point of dilution that reads "Limited Use Waste Drain" in one inch high lettering shall identify the piping.
      4. The vent piping from the fixture discharging the waste shall extend to a point six inches above the flood rim of the fixture and then shall re-transition to cast iron or copper piping material as used throughout the rest of the commercial building.
  4. Use of PVC Schedule 40 for Dialysis Equipment. Type 1 PVC pipe and fittings may be used as indirect waste piping for dialysis equipment in medical buildings.
  5. PVC Schedule 40 perforated pipe may be used for subsoil drainage in commercial buildings.
  6. Pipe and Fittings shall be manufactured from Type I, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) materials having a deflection temperature of 169?F under a load of 264 P.S.I.G. when tested in accordance with ASTM D-648.
  7. PVC materials shall be classified as self-extinguishing when tested in accordance with ASTM D-635 and have a flamespread rating of 0-25 when tested in accordance with ASTM E-84.
  8. PVC materials shall meet the requirements of ASTM, CS, and/or NSF Standards.
  9. At the request of the Board, the manufacturer of PVC pipe shall submit to the Board the results of tests conducted by an Approved-testing-lab in compliance with 248 CMR 3.00.
  10. Identification of PVC Pipe.
    1. The pipe shall be in a light color such as beige, buff, grey, white, cream, and shall be marked in accordance with listed standards.
    2. The following Listed Standards shall appear on opposite sides of the pipe: Schedule 40, "Size", PVC, DWV-NSF stamp of approval, manufacturer's name and registered trademark, Type and Grade.
  11. Pipe and Fittings.
    1. Identification of Fittings. Fittings shall be in light color as for pipe and shall bear the following markings by molding on the body or hub:
      1. Manufacturer's name or registered trademark;
      2. NSF-DWV stamp of approval;
      3. PVC 1; and
      4. Size.
    2. Use PVC fittings ONLY with PVC pipe and ABS fittings ONLY with ABS. NEVER use PVC solvent weld on ABS pipe or ABS solvent weld on PVC pipe.
  12. Transition Fittings. Fittings used to connect PVC to other Product-approved materials shall meet the proper standard and comply with the requirements of 248 CMR 3.04:
  13. Installation. The following installation requirements and procedures shall be followed when assembling PVC and ABS piping materials.
    1. Solvent Welded Joint.
      1. Clean joining surfaces of pipe and fitting with PVC primer.
      2. With a natural bristle brush one inch or larger, apply a heavy coat of solvent cement to the pipe joining surface and then a light coat to the socket joining surface.
      3. Immediately insert the pipe to the full socket depth while rotating the pipe fitting ¼ turn to insure even distribution of solvent cement.
      4. Wipe excess solvent cement from the outside of the pipe at the shoulder of the fitting.
      5. Do not turn pipe spigot in the socket while wiping.
      6. If a fillet or bead of solvent cement is not visible after a joint is assembled, a heavier coat of solvent cement should be used on the pipe spigot.
      7. The assembly can be handled with care within two minutes.
      8. Do not attempt to adjust the joint after the solvent cement has set or damage will result.
      9. Pipe and fittings conforming to these standards will normally have an interference fit, which maintains pressure between the joining surfaces during the solvent cementing process. Fittings that do not have an interference fit shall have not more than 0.009 inch clearance to produce strong watertight joints.
      10. (NOTE --- CAUTION!) When using primers and solvents for plastics, plumbers and apprentices shall always follow directions carefully and be in a well ventilated area.
      11. The solvent cement shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D2564-67 or CS 272-65 latest issue. The cleaner is a solvent that has a limited effect on PVC but will remove dirt and grease. The solvent cement shall be labeled with the NSF Seal of Approval.
    2. Threaded Joints (I.P.S.). When threads are required or used for connecting PVC-DWV pipe to other materials:
      1. do not thread the pipe use proper PVC male or female threaded adapters for transitioning;
      2. note that threaded joints in a PVC-DWV system are primarily used for trap connections and clean out plugs.
  14. Supports.
    1. Conventional pipe clamps, brackets or strapping that have a bearing width of ¾ inch or more are suitable supports.
    2. Supports for horizontal runs of pipe 1½ inches or less in diameter shall be at three-foot centers as a maximum.
    3. Supports for larger diameters shall have a maximum spacing at four-foot centers.
    4. Trap arms shall be supported at the trap discharge.
    5. Vertical pipes shall be supported at each story height but not more than ten-foot intervals and elsewhere as required to maintain alignment.
    6. All supports shall permit expansion and contraction of the pipe without binding.
    7. Horizontal piping shall be supported at each change of direction.
  15. Thermal Expansion.
    1. Thermal expansion of PVC pipe occurs at the rate of approximately d inch per ten feet length per 100?F temperature change.
    2. In a PVC-DWV system an expansion allowance of ½ inch per ten feet length of pipe is required.
    3. Expansion fittings utilize a rubber o-ring that shall be lubricated with grease, petroleum jelly or other water-resistant grease to facilitate assembly.
    4. Protect the operating end of the expansion fitting from grime.
    5. Expansion joints shall be provided at every other branch interval up to and including ten stories in height.
    6. The expansion fitting shall be installed in a accessible location in horizontal runs exceeding 20 feet in length.
    7. Expansion joints shall not be required underground.
    8. Expansion fittings shall be installed as designed in proper alignment with the piping being served.
    9. The expansion joint shall be set for the maximum expansion or contraction rate based on the installation temperature and manufacturer's recommendations.
  16. Roof Flashing. The piping that penetrates through the roof shall be made weather tight with an approved flashing.
  17. Lead Joints.
    1. The piping shall be connected to cast iron soil pipe hubs using oakum and no less than one-inch of molten lead.
    2. Caulk the joint along the inside and outside edges after it has cooled for four minutes.
  18. Sleeving.
    1. The piping that penetrates concrete floors slabs or concrete walls shall be provided with sleeves. Maintain an annular space of one-inch between the pipe and sleeve.
    2. Pipes that penetrate concrete slabs placed on grade shall also provide a sleeve. Maintain an annular space of one-inch between the pipe and sleeve.
  19. Piping Trench Installations.
    1. Prepare a smooth, uniformly compacted trench bottom using sand. Place the pipe in uniform alignment and grade with a continuous bearing on the bottom quadrant of the pipe along its entire length.
    2. Using sand or other fine granular material, compact and backfill around the pipe to a point at least six-inches over the crown of the pipe.
    3. Do not allow large stones or pieces of earth to be dropped into the trench when completing the backfilling process.
    4. The requirements of the above four sentences shall be the responsibility of the on-site licensed plumber.
  20. Installation Through Fire-walls or Rated Fire Separation Walls.
    1. When piping passes through a rated fire separation wall or enclosure to another dwelling unit or space, the pipe shall be encased or shielded by a metal sleeve extended 20 inches on each side of the wall, floor or ceiling. The metal sleeve shall be 18 gauge (.040 in.) or heavier.
    2. The annular space between the metal sleeve and the piping shall be sealed with approved non-combustible fire retardant material installed in accordance with 780 CMR: The Massachusetts State Building Code.
    3. Alternate procedures and devices for fire-stopping may be used if installed in accordance with 780 CMR: The Massachusetts State Building Code.
    4. The piping connections that penetrate fire-walls and ceilings in one and two family passenger car garages located beneath dwelling units are exempt and are not required to be encased.
    5. The pipe penetrations should be sufficiently sealed by means of caulking or other approved materials to prevent the passage of smoke from space to space.

(p) ABS Plastic Pipe and Fittings. The following requirements apply to ABS plastic pipe and fittings:

  1. ABS shall not be used for drains, waste, or vents in the commercial kitchens, laundry rooms, public restrooms or other commercial areas located in assisted living facilities, hotels, motels, inns and similar establishments except where provided for elsewhere in 248 CMR 10.06, i.e. 248 CMR 10.06(2)(p).
  2. ABS - DWV (Acrylonitrile - Butadiene - Styrene) Schedule 40 Pipe and Fittings, may be used only for the drains, waste and vent piping that serve the sanitary or storm drainage systems in the following buildings:
    1. residential dwellings;
    2. assisted living facilities:
    3. hotels;
    4. motels;
    5. inns;
    6. condominiums; and
    7. other residential buildings that are similar to 248 CMR 10.06(2)(p)2.a. through 10.06(2)(p)2.f. and that are no greater than ten stories in height.
  3. Limited use of ABS for Commercial Buildings: ABS pipe and fittings may be installed for limited purposes in commercial buildings or establishments, provided that the following requirements are satisfied.
    1. ABS is used for the drains, waste, or vents when the piping serves only the fixtures that are necessary to accommodate waste generated as a direct result of the conducts of business that is particular to the type of commercial establishment as itemized in 10.06(2)(p)3.b.
    2. ABS may be used in the following buildings:
      1. beauty salons;
      2. barber shops;
      3. manicure salons;
      4. pedicure salons;
      5. photo-labs; and
      6. in commercial buildings that incorporate patron areas for the purpose of serving alcohol, soda or other similar carbonated type beverages where the carbonated liquid waste shall drain directly into a floor sink or floor drain.
    3. The ABS Schedule 40 shall be installed in compliance with the following:
      1. No ABS schedule 40 pipe and fittings may be used for the toilet fixtures and other plumbing connections in the establishment.
      2. The piping shall be connected to a main drain or drain from other fixtures to provide a point of waste dilution.
      3. A label at the point of dilution that reads "Limited Use Waste Drain" in one inch high lettering shall identify the piping.
      4. The vent piping from the fixture discharging limited use waste shall extend to a point six inches above the flood rim of the fixture and then shall transition back to compliant material in a commercial building.
  4. Installation. ABS-DWV pipe and fittings shall be installed
    1. using the same methods and requirements as stated in:
      1. 248 CMR 10.06(2)(o)13.a.ii. through x.;
      2. 248 CMR 10.06(2)(o)12.; and
      3. 248 CMR 10.06(2)(o)14. through 18.
    2. In addition, the following requirements shall be satisfied:
      1. For solvent welded joints clean joining surfaces of pipe and fittings shall be made with an ABS primer.
      2. Expansion joints are not required.
      3. An ABS solvent that is recommended by the manufacturer that meets the required standard shall be used for solvent welding or cementing in connecting the ABS materials.
      4. The solvent cement shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D2564-67 or CS 272-65 latest issues. The cleaner is a solvent that has a limited effect on ABS but will remove direct and grease. The solvent cement shall be labeled with the NSF Seal or Approval.
  5. Identification of Pipe and Fittings.
    1. Identification of Pipe and Fittings. The pipe and fittings shall be black in color and shall be marked in accordance with listed standard. The following markings shall appear on two (opposite) sides of the pipe:
      1. ABS-DWV Schedule 40 and the listed standard;
      2. NSF-DWV stamp of approval;
      3. Manufacturer's name and/or registered trademark;
      4. Type;
      5. Grade; and
      6. Size.
    2. Use PVC fitting ONLY with PVC pipe and ABS fittings ONLY with ABS pipes. NEVER use PVC Solvent weld on ABS or ABS solvent weld on PVC.

(q) Stainless Steel Tube Marking. Stainless steel tubing shall be in conformance with ASTM designated standard, Type 430 or Type 439, and shall meet the following marking requirements:

  1. Tubing Grade H or SL shall be color-coded blue.
  2. Tubing Grade G or SM shall be color-coded red.
  3. Tubing shall be marked at intervals no greater than three feet in length in letters not less than c inch in height, with the following:
    1. manufacturer's name or registered trademark; and
    2. the ASTM designation nominal diameter and grade.
  4. The name of the manufacturer shall be permanently incised in each tube at intervals not greater than 18 inches in length.


(r) Urinal Wastes. Urinal waste branches and urinal fixture wastes shall conform to the following:

  1. They shall be made of:
    1. extra heavy or service weight cast iron soil pipe and fittings with caulked joints
    2. threaded cast iron pipe with cast iron drainage fittings; or
    3. iron size copper or brass pipe with cast brass drainage fittings.
  2. Resilient gaskets and no hub clamps with elastomeric sealing sleeves shall not be used when in direct contact with urinal wastes drains or branches until a intersecting point of dilution with other fixtures in the drainage system is attained.
  3. PVC and ABS schedule 40 plastic pipe and fittings may be used only in residential type buildings. (Refer to 248 CMR 10.07(4)(f) for (alternative) schedule 80 nipple requirements for carriers.)

(s) Sumps and Tanks for Sewage. All sumps and tanks for receiving sewage removed by mechanical or ejector methods, shall be constructed as follows:

  1. Concrete. Three-inch minimum wall.
  2. Cast Iron. Minimum ¼ inch thickness.
  3. Steel.
    1. Minimum d inch thickness for above ground.
    2. For below ground installation the sump or tank shall be encased in concrete having a thickness of at least three-inches.
  4. Fiberglass. Reinforced polyester resin glass fibers that comply with ANSI listed standards.

(t) Single Stack Sanitary Drainage System-("So-Vent"). An engineered single stack system employing the use of aerator and de-aerator fittings, designed in compliance with Cast Iron Sovent Design Manual No. 802 and ANSI standard ASME/ANSI B16.45-87 may be used in buildings provided the following requirements are satisfied:

  1. Every such system shall be:
    1. designed or engineered by a qualified person;
    2. plans of such system shall be approved by a Massachusetts registered professional engineer; and
    3. Special-Permission must be sought and granted by the Board pursuant to 248 CMR 3.04 before installation of such system.
  2. Piping material shall be Type K, L, M, or DWV hard drawn copper tubing or cast iron.
  3. All fittings shall be made of cast brass or drawn wrought copper or cast iron and must be of DWV design.
  4. No part of a copper system shall receive the waste from urinals.
  5. Any change or redesign in the So-Vent system shall be subject to the requirements of 248 CMR 10.06(2)(t).
  6. Every So-Vent system shall have at least one full size vent stack that meets the following requirements:
    1. The diameter of the full size vent stack is no smaller than three inches.
    2. The vent stack shall run undiminished in size from the base of the soil or waste stack to a point 18 to 24 inches above the roof or reconnect to a stack vent installed in accordance with 248 CMR 10.16(4)(b).

(u) Alternate Materials, Methods, and Systems. The provisions of 248 CMR 10.06 are not intended to prevent the use of materials, methods or systems that are not specifically authorized or prescribed by 248 CMR 10.06, provided such alternate materials, methods and systems meet the standards, use and intent of 248 CMR 10.06 and the Board has granted Product-approval, a Variance, or a Test-site status pursuant to 248 CMR 3.00.

Diagram showing No-Hub Coupling Test Configuration Design

(v) Pressure and Leak Test Procedure for Stainless Steel Couplings Used on Cast Iron Hubless Soil Pipe. Every manufacturer shall perform the tests as outlined in 248 CMR 10.06(2)(v) for the purpose of determining liquid and/or gas leaks for pressures which may exist in a sanitary and/or storm drainage system. The administration of the test shall meet the following requirements:

  1. The testing shall be performed by an Approved-testing-lab pursuant to 248 CMR 3.04(4).
  2. Testing shall be completed at the expense of the manufacturer who shall perform such test.
  3. The Approved-testing-lab shall give at least two weeks advance notice to the Board of the date scheduled for the test.
  4. The test shall be conducted with:
    1. hubless pipe and fittings manufactured in compliance with CISPI Standard Specification 301 latest issue; and
    2. joints that have been assembled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and/or recommendations.
  5. The test shall be for an eight-hour period of time, under a 30-foot hydrostatic head of water and at 13-P.S.I.G. and shall show no visible signs of leakage.
  6. The test assembly shall employ gauges at each end with means of expelling air and the gauges shall be graduated so that, at maximum test, the indicator on the gauges shall be approximately mid-point on said gauges.
  7. The test results shall be certified by the Approved-testing-lab that conducted the testing and also by a Massachusetts registered professional engineer or a registered engineer having a reciprocal agreement with the Board of Professional Engineers for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
  8. The test assembly and configuration shall employ pipe and fittings listed and as shown in 248 CMR 10.06, Figure 1 and shall be installed in accordance with the pertinent provisions of 248 CMR 10.00.
  9. All repair and transition friction type couplings and clamps shall conform to the requirements stated in 248 CMR 10.06(2)(v).

(w) Vacuum Drainage System. An engineered vacuum system that employs specifically designed fixtures, piping arrangements and vacuum pumps that are designed and installed in compliance with the manufacturer's recommendations may be used in a building or structure provided that in addition to being in conformance with 248 CMR 1.00 through 10.00 the following requirements are satisfied:

  1. Each system shall be designed or engineered by a Massachusetts registered professional mechanical engineer and Special-Permission must be granted by the Board.
  2. Piping material shall be type K, L, M or DWV hard drawn copper or cast iron.
  3. All fittings shall be made of cast brass or hard drawn wrought or cast iron and must be of DWV design.
  4. Any change or redesign in the vacuum drainage system shall be subject to the requirements of 248 CMR 10.06(2)(w) and 10.23.

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10.07: Joints and Connections

  1. Consistency of Materials. When installing a fitting or inserting piping into an existing portion of a soil stack, waste stack, vent stack or drain, the fitting or piping shall be of the same material as the existing stack or drain using a joining method outlined in 248 CMR 10.07.
  2. Types of Joints for Piping Materials.
    1. Copper Tubing Joints (Potable Water Supply Systems in Buildings).
      1. Joints shall be made with one of the following:
        1. Copper water tube complying with ASTM B88.
        2. Cast bronze fittings complying with ANSI Standard B16-18.
        3. Wrought copper fittings complying with ANSI-ASME B16-22.
        4. Flared or brazed connections for all underground piping inside the building. The joining method of copper underground shall be brazed or flared fittings.
      2. Joints may employ the use of cast bronze flanges complying with ANSI Standard B16-24.
      3. The joining method between copper and copper alloy tube and fittings shall be by soldering in accordance with ASTM B828-standard practice for making capillary joints by soldering of copper and copper alloy tube and fittings-latest issue or brazing in accordance with ANSI/AWS C3.4.
      4. Fluxes used in the soldering or brazing of copper and copper alloy tube and fittings shall meet one of the reference standards listed in 248 CMR 10.06: Table 1 and be lead free.
      5. Filler metals for soldering or brazing of copper and copper alloy tube and fittings shall meet one of the reference standards listed in 248 CMR 10.06: Table 1 and be lead free.
      6. Fluxes used with brazing filler metals or solder filler metals shall be lead free.
    2. Burned Lead. Every burned (welded) lead joint:
      1. shall be lapped; and
      2. the lead shall be fused together to form a uniform weld at least as thick as the lead being joined.
    3. Caulked Cast Iron Soil Pipe. Every lead caulked joint for cast iron bell and spigot soil pipe shall:
      1. be firmly packed with oakum or hemp;
      2. be filled with molten lead that is not less than one inch-deep and does not extend more than c inch below the rim of the hub;
      3. not have paint, varnish, or other coatings on the jointing material until after the joint has been tested and approved; and
      4. have lead run in one continuous pour and shall have the lead caulked tight.
    4. Expansion. Every expansion material shall conform with the type of piping in which it is installed.
    5. Flared.
      1. Copper Tubing. Every flared joint for soft-copper water tubing shall be expanded with a flaring tool.
      2. Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX). Every flared (metal insert or cold expansion) joint for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) water tubing shall be:
        1. made with fittings meeting approved standards; and
        2. installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommended procedures.
    6. Hot Poured. Hot poured compound for clay or concrete sewer pipe or other materials shall conform to the following requirements:
      1. It shall not be water absorbent and when poured against.
      2. A dry surface shall have a bond of greater than or equal to 100 P.S.I.G. All surfaces of the joint shall be cleaned and dried before pouring. If wet surfaces are unavoidable, a suitable primer shall be applied.
      3. The compound shall not soften sufficiently to destroy the effectiveness of the joint when subjected to a temperature of 160?F.
      4. The compound shall not be soluble in any of the waste carried by the drainage system.
      5. Approximately 25% of the joint space at the base of the socket, shall be filled with jute or hemp.
      6. A pouring collar, rope or other device shall be used to hold the hot compound during pouring.
      7. Each joint shall be poured in one operation until the joint is filled. Joints shall not be tested until one hour after pouring.
    7. Mechanical (Flexible or Slip Joint).
      1. Cast Iron Pipe or Ductile Iron Pipe. Every mechanical joint in cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe shall be:
        1. made with a flanged collar, rubber ring gasket, and appropriate number of securing bolts; or
        2. made with a preformed molded ring secured by pulling the pipe together in such a way as to compress the molded ring.
      2. Clay Pipe. Flexible joints between lengths of clay pipe may be made by using resilient materials both on the spigot end and in the bell end of the pipe.
      3. Concrete Pipe. Flexible joints between lengths of concrete pipe may be made using rubber materials both on the spigot end and in the bell end of the pipe.
      4. Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe No-hub. Joints for hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings shall be made with:
        1. elastomeric sealing sleeve; and
        2. stainless steel clamp, clamping screw and housing.
      5. Split Couplings. Galvanized couplings made in two or more parts, with compression gaskets, may be used with grooved end pipe and fittings as specified under 248 CMR 10.06.
      6. Aluminum DWV Pipe. Joints for connecting aluminum DWV pipe or aluminum DWV pipe to hubless cast iron fittings shall be made with:
        1. an end capped adaptor; and
        2. an elastomeric sealing sleeve and stainless steel clamp, clamping screw and housing.
    8. Plastic.
      1. ABS, PVC and CPVC.
        1. Every joint in ABS, PVC and CPVC piping, except as specified under 248 CMR 10.13: Piping and Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, shall be made with fittings by solvent weld connections.
        2. Solvent weld connections shall be made only with solvent cement manufactured specifically for the materials to be joined.
      2. Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX).
        1. All joints shall be made with fittings that a joined in the following manner:
          1. metal insert fittings with copper crimp rings;
          2. stainless steel press sleeves;
          3. cold expansion fittings with (PEX) reinforcing rings; or
          4. compression fittings (with formed gaskets) or mechanical joints.
        2. All joints connecting to other materials shall be made with a transition fitting.
        3. All joining methods are to conform to existing standards found in 248 CMR 10.06, Table 1 unless a Variance has been granted by the Board as specified in 248 CMR. 3.04(2)
        4. Exception: Metallic fittings used in purified water systems shall be type 316 stainless steel.
    9. Precast Requirements.
      1. Every precast collar shall be formed in both the spigot and bell of the pipe in advance of use.
      2. Collar surfaces shall be conical with side slopes of three-degrees with the axis of the pipe and the length shall be equal to the depth of the socket.
      3. Prior to making joint contact, surfaces shall be cleaned and coated with solvents and adhesives as recommended in the standard.
      4. When the spigot end is inserted in the collar, it shall bind before contacting the base of the socket.
      5. Material shall be inert and resistant to both acids and alkalies.
    10. Slip Requirements.
      1. Every slip joint shall be made using approved packing or gasket material, or ground joint brass compression rings.
      2. Ground joint brass connections that allow the adjustment of tubing while providing a rigid joint when made up shall not be considered slip joints.
      3. Slip joints may be used on the inlet ("house-side") of the trap only.
    11. Soldered.
      1. Every soldered joint for tubing shall be made with fittings.
      2. Surfaces to be soldered shall be properly cleaned, reamed and returned to-full-bore.
      3. The joints shall be fluxed properly and fastened using lead free solder.
      4. Joints in copper water tubing shall be made by appropriate use of brass or wrought copper water fittings and be properly soldered together.
      5. Soldered joints in copper alloy tube and fittings shall be fabricated in accordance with ASTM B-828 and shall utilize solder fluxes that meet the requirements of ASTM B-813.
      6. Solder filler metals used in the fabrication of solder joints in potable water applications shall be lead free.
    12. Threaded.
      1. Every threaded joint shall conform to American National Taper Pipe Thread.
      2. All burrs shall be removed.
      3. Pipe ends shall be reamed and returned to size of full bore, and all chips shall be removed.
      4. Product-approved pipe compounds and tapes shall be used on male threads only.
      5. Threaded joints used in the piping systems of the potable water supply system of a building shall be made with lead free polyetrafluorethylene sealant (such as TeflonR), which shall be applied to the male thread only.
      6. Threads in drainage fittings shall be tapped to provide proper grade and slope.
    13. Unions.
      1. Drainage System.
        1. Unions may be used only in the trap seal or on the inlet side of the trap.
        2. Unions shall have metal-to-metal ground seats.
      2. Water-supply System. Unions in the water-supply system shall be metal-to-metal with ground seats.
    14. Wiped.
      1. Every joint in lead pipe or fittings, or between lead pipe or fittings and brass or copper pipe, ferrules, solder nipples, or traps, shall be full wiped joints.
      2. Wiped joints shall have an exposed surface on each side of a joint that is greater than or equal to ¾ inch in width and be as thick as the material being joined.
      3. Wall or floor flange lead-wiped joints shall be made by the use of a lead ring or flange placed behind the joints at the wall or floor.
      4. Joints between lead pipe and cast iron, steel, or wrought iron shall be made by means of a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or bushing.
    15. razed Joints.
      1. Brazing flux, when required, shall meet the requirements of ANSI/AWS A5.31.
      2. Brazing filler metal and brazing fluxes utilized for the fabrication of brazed joints in domestic water supply and potable water distribution system piping shall be lead free.
    16. ictaulic Joints:
      1. The victaulic press shall be used for joining pipes and fittings for copper, galvanized Schedule 40 and stainless steel pipe.
      2. The victaulic press 304 system shall be used for joining victaulic type 304 stainless steel pipe that meets the requirements of ASTM A-269 grade 304/304L (TP 304 UNS designation 530400).
  3. Types of Joints Between Different Piping Materials.
    1. Cast Iron to Copper Tubing. Every joint between cast iron and copper tubing shall be made by the use of a brass caulking ferrule and properly soldering the copper tubing to the ferrule.
    2. Cast Iron to Vitrified Clay.
      1. Every joint between cast iron piping and vitrified clay piping shall be made either of hot poured bitumastic compound or by a preformed bituminous ring.
      2. This ring shall, after ramming, completely fill the annular space between the cast iron spigot and the vitrified clay hub.
    3. Copper Tubing to Threaded Pipe Joints.
      1. Every joint transitioning from copper tubing to threaded pipe shall be made by the use of brass or wrought copper adapter fittings.
      2. The joint between the copper pipe and the fitting shall be properly soldered and the connection between the threaded pipe and the fitting shall be made with a standard nominal pipe size connection.
    4. Lead Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, or Steel. Every joint between lead and cast iron, wrought iron, or steel pipe shall be made by means of wiped joints to a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, bushing, or by means of a mechanical adapter.
    5. Threaded Pipe to Cast Iron. Every joint between wrought iron, steel, or brass, and cast iron pipe shall be either caulked or threaded or shall be made with approved adapter fittings.
    6. Special Joints and Connections. Unless specifically outlined in 248 CMR 10.07 or other applicable sections of 248 CMR 10.00, unlike piping materials shall be joined or connected to by use of adapters, transition fittings, prefabricated sealing ring or sleeve.
    7. ABS or PVC Plastic to Other Materials.
      1. Threaded Joints.
        1. ABS or PVC (DWV) joints when threaded shall use the proper male or female threaded adapter.
        2. Only thread tape or lubricant seal or other Product-approved material as recommended by the manufacturer shall be used.
      2. Cast Iron Spigot Hub Joints.
        1. Joints shall be connected by caulking with lead and oakum or by the use of a compression gasket that is compressed when the plastic pipe is inserted in the cast iron hub end of the pipe.
        2. No adapters are required for this connection.
      3. No Hub Joints.
        1. Joints where the outside diameter of the two pipes or fittings to be joined are uniform in diameter may be joined with an elastomeric sealing sleeve and stainless steel no hub clamp.
        2. PVC to ABS connection shall be implemented by:
          1. using a DWV male to female adaptor; or
          2. by a no hub clamp.
    8. Aluminum DWV Pipe to Hubless Cast Iron Pipe or Fittings. Joints for connecting aluminum DWV pipe or aluminum DWV pipe to hubless cast iron fittings shall be made with an elastomeric sealing sleeve and stainless steel clamp, clamping screw and housing and end protector caps.
  4. Connections Between Drainage Piping and Certain Fixtures.
    1. Connections between drainage pipes and toilets, floor outlet service sinks, pedestal urinals, earthenware trap standards or other similar fixtures with floor outlets shall be fastened with brass, wrought copper, hard lead, iron or plastic flanges, that is caulked, soldered or solvent welded to the flanged connection.
    2. A gasket, washer or setting compound between the fixture and the flange is required.
    3. Only brass or stainless steel nuts and bolts shall be used.
    4. The floor flange shall be fastened to a structurally firm base.
    5. The use of commercial putty or plaster as a setting compound is prohibited.
    6. Schedule 80 PVC or ABS threaded nipples may be used to connect toilets and urinals to carriers of such fixtures.
  5. Tightness. Joints and connections in the plumbing system shall be gastight and watertight for the pressure required by test, with the exceptions of those portions of perforated or open joint piping that are installed for the purpose of collecting and conveying ground or seepage water to the underground storm drains.
  6. Waterproofing of Openings.
    1. Joints terminating at the roof around roof drains and vent pipes shall be made watertight by the use of lead, copper, aluminum, or other flashing or flashing materials.
    2. Caps for extended roof flanges shall be made to fit tight to the inside circumference of the vent pipe. The cap shall not decrease the pipe opening by more than the thickness of the cap material.
    3. Exterior wall openings shall be made watertight.
  7. Increasers and Reducers. When interconnecting pipes and fittings, fittings and fittings, or pipes and fittings that have different sizes the size of the increaser or reducing fittings shall be selected and installed so as to prevent the restriction of flow between the interconnection.

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10.08: Traps and Cleanouts

(1) Fixture Traps.

(a) Separate Traps for Each Fixture.

  1. Separate Trapping Required:
    1. Individual plumbing fixtures shall be separately trapped by a water seal trap placed as close as possible to the fixture outlet.
    2. The developed length distance from the fixture outlet to the trap weir shall not exceed 24 inches.
    3. No fixture shall be double trapped.
  2. A fixture need not be separately trapped. Exceptions to the separate trapping requirements are as follows:
    1. Fixtures having integral traps.
    2. A combination plumbing fixture may be installed on one trap provided one compartment is not more than six inches deeper than the other and the waste outlets are not more than 30 inches apart.
    3. One trap may be installed for not more than three single compartment sinks or lavatories, immediately adjacent to each other, and in the same room. The trap is to be centrally located when three such fixtures are installed. The center to center measurement of the waste outlets shall not exceed 30 inches apart.
    4. The waste for a domestic type dishwasher may be separately trapped, or may connect to the manufactured inlet side opening of a food waste grinder. A "wye" fitting may be installed between the outlet of the food waste grinder and the inlet of the trap serving the kitchen sink.

(b) Size of Fixture Traps.

  1. Fixture trap size (nominal diameter) shall be sufficient to drain the fixture rapidly and in no case less than outlined in 248 CMR 10.08: Table 1 (Minimum Size of Fixture Traps).
  2. No trap shall be larger than the drainage pipe into which it discharges.
Plumbing FixtureTrap Size in Inches
Bathtub (with or without overhead shower)
Bidet
Clothes washer (domestic)
Combination sink and wash tray
Combination sink and wash tray with food waste grinder unit
Dental unit or cuspidor
Dental Lavatory
Drinking fountain
Dishwasher, commercial2
Dishwasher, domestic
Floor drain2
Food waste grinder
Kitchen sink, domestic, with food waste grinder unit
Kitchen sink (two compartments)
Kitchen sink, domestic
Lavatory, common
Lavatory (barber shop, beauty parlor or surgeon's)
Lavatory, (multiple type) (wash fountain or wash sink)
Laundry sink (one or two compartments)
Shower stall2
Sink (surgeon's)
Sink (flushing rim type, flush valve supplies)3
Sink (service type with floor outlet trap standard)3
Sink (service trap with P trap)2
Sink, commercial (pot, scullery, or similar type)2
Sink, commercial (with food grinder unit)2

(c) Prohibited Traps. The following type traps are prohibited.

  1. Traps which depend upon moving parts to maintain their seal.
  2. Bell traps.
  3. Crown vented traps.
  4. Separate fixture traps which depend on interior partitions for their seal.
  5. Full "S" traps.

(d) Design of Traps.

  1. Fixture traps shall be self-scouring and shall have no interior partitions except where such traps are integral with the fixture.
  2. Slip joints or couplings may be used on the trap inlet or within the trap seal of the trap if a metal-to-metal ground joint is used.
  3. Each fixture trap, except a trap that is cast integrally or in combination with the fixture in which the trap seal is readily accessible or except when a portion of the trap is readily removable for cleaning purposes, shall have an accessible cleanout plug of ample size that is protected by the water seal.

(e) Fixture Trap and Connection Material (HOUSE SIDE) shall meet ASME A112.18.2-2002.

  1. Fixture traps shall be made of cast brass, with a wall thickness of not less than .01 inches, or of schedule 40 ABS or PVC.
  2. Cast iron traps may be used in connection with floor drains, slop sinks, building (house) traps, conductors (when necessary) and similar installations, weights and thicknesses to comply with like materials under 248 CMR 10.06.
  3. Slip nuts used to connect fixture and appliance outlet piping to the trap, shall be composed of brass, copper or schedule 40 ABS or PVC.
  4. Tubing traps made of brass or copper shall be of a thickness equal to a minimum of 17 gauge.
  5. When devices including strainers, P. O. (pull out) plugs, tail pieces, waste arms, bathtub wastes and overflows, and any other similar fixture to trap connection, when of metal, shall be made of brass or other non-corrosive metal, and the device shall have a thickness greater than or equal to 17 gauge.
  6. All items listed in 248 CMR 10.08(1)(e)4. and 10.08(1)(e)5. when made of ABS or PVC may be used, provided that they all comply with ASME A112.18.2 for PVC and ABS Tubular Traps and Fittings.

(f) Trap Seal. Each fixture trap shall have a liquid seal of not less than two inches and not more than four inches, except where for special conditions, a deeper seal may be required.

(g) Trap Setting and Protection. Traps shall be set level with respect to their water seals and, where necessary, shall be protected from freezing.

(h) Building Traps.

  1. Building (House/running traps) traps shall not be installed, unless in the opinion of the Inspector they are necessary.
  2. Each building trap when installed shall be provided with a cleanout and with a relieving vent or fresh air intake which need not be larger than ½ the diameter of the drain to which it connects.

(i) Acid Resistant Trap. Where a vitrified-clay or other brittleware, acid-resistant trap is installed underground, it shall be embedded in concrete extending six inches beyond the bottom and sides of the trap.

(2) Drainage Pipe Cleanouts.

(a) Location. Cleanouts shall not be placed more than 50 feet apart in all horizontal drainage piping and branch drain piping that is four inch nominal diameter or less. On piping that is over four inch nominal diameter the cleanouts shall not be more than 100 feet apart.

(b) Underground Drainage. Cleanouts, when installed on an underground drainage piping, shall be:

  1. extended vertically to or above the finished grade level; or
  2. extended to an accessible location immediately outside the building.

(c) Change of Direction. Accessible cleanouts shall be installed:

  1. at each change of direction of the building drain; or
  2. at each change of direction of horizontal waste or soil lines and branch lines, that are greater then 45°.

(d) Concealed Piping. Cleanouts on concealed piping shall be extended through and terminate flush with the finished wall or floor; or pits or chases may be left in the wall or floor, provided they are of sufficient size to allow removal of the cleanout plug and proper cleaning of the system.

(e) Base of Stacks. A cleanout shall be provided at or near the base of each vertical storm water conductor, waste or soil stack.

(f) Inaccessible Stack Cleanouts. For buildings with concrete floors (slabs) or with less than 18 inches of crawl space under the floor, or where a stack cleanout is not easily accessible, the following shall be provided in lieu of a cleanout at the base of the stack.

  1. The building drain shall be extended to the outside of the building and terminated in an accessible area.
  2. The accessible area for the cleanout shall be not more than five feet beyond the foundation/building wall.

(g) Building Drain at Foundation Wall.

  1. There shall be a cleanout on the building drain so located as to provide accessibility in direct line through the building drain to building sewer.
  2. If necessary a pit or manhole shall be provided in a location determined by the Inspector.
  3. When cast iron soil pipe and fittings are used, the joining methods shall comply with 248 CMR 10.07(2)(c)1. and shall be installed as diagramed in 248 CMR 10.22: Figure 18.

(h) Direction of Flow. Every cleanout shall be installed so that the cleanout opens in the direction of the flow of the drainage line or at right angles thereto.

(i) Cleanout Size. Cleanouts shall be of the same nominal size as the pipes up to four inches and not less than four inches for larger piping.

(j) Cleanout Clearances.

  1. Large Pipe - 18 Inch Clearance: Cleanouts on three inch or larger pipes shall be so installed that there is a clearance of not less than 18 inches for the purpose of clearing stoppages.
  2. Small Pipe - 12 Inch Clearance: Cleanouts smaller than three inches shall be so installed that there is a 12-inch clearance for the purpose of clearing stoppages.

(k) Cleanouts Shall Be Kept Uncovered and Accessible.

  1. Cleanout plugs shall not be covered with cement, plaster, or any other permanent finishing material.
  2. Where it is necessary to conceal a cleanout plug, a covering plate or access door shall be provided which will allow ready access to the plug for removal.

(l) Cleanout Equivalent. The cleanout equivalent may be satisfied by one of the following methods if accepted by the Inspector:

  1. a fixture trap that incorporates a union connection;
  2. a fixture with an integral trap; or
  3. roof drains that are readily removable without disturbing concealed roughing work.

(m) Connections to Cleanouts Prohibited. Cleanout openings shall not be used for the installation of any new or additional plumbing, except when:

  1. approved in writing by the Inspector; and
  2. where another end-cleanout of equal access and capacity is provided.

(n) Manholes for Large Pipes.

  1. For underground "dedicated system" piping that is over ten inches in diameter and is outside a building, manholes shall be provided and located at every change of size in diameter, alignment, grade or elevation and at intervals of not more than 300 feet except when the total developed length of the drain is less than 150 feet cleanouts may be installed at 75 foot intervals.
  2. Manholes shall conform to current standards and engineering practices.

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10.09: Interceptors, Separators and Holding Tanks

(1) Interceptors, Separators and Holding Tanks.

(a) Interceptors Required.

  1. Interceptors and separators shall be provided to prevent the discharge of oil, gasoline, grease, sand, and other substances, that are harmful or hazardous to the building drainage system, the public sewer, or sewage treatment plant or other sewage treatment processes.
  2. No wastes other than those requiring treatment or separation shall be discharged into any interceptor or separator.

(b) Separators or Holding Tanks Required.

  1. Requirements.
    1. Gasoline, oil and sand separators subject to 248 CMR 10.09(1)(c). An applicant for a plumbing permit to install a separator that is subject to 248 CMR 10.09(1)(b) in the MWRA (Massachusetts Water Resource Authority) Sewage District, shall file a notice with the MWRA. This notice shall be filed at the same time as the plumbing application for a permit is filed with the Inspector.
    2. Except as provided in 248 CMR 10.09(4)(c), there shall be floor drains installed in all commercial motor vehicle:
      1. parking and storage accommodations;
      2. repair garages, repair facilities or auto body repair facilities;
      3. service facilities with or without grease racks and grease pits;
      4. wash rack areas;
      5. wash areas (including automatic car wash structures); and
      6. facilities where motor oils, gasoline, anti-freeze and similar hazardous liquid wastes are potentially generated or may potentially spill.

        The floor drains waste shall be conveyed through waste piping installed in accordance with 248 CMR 10.15 and shall discharge into a gas, sand and oil separator installed in accordance with 248 CMR 10.09(4)(d)1.a. and 248 CMR 10.23: Figure 15 and be connected to a municipal sewer system. In unsewered areas, a holding tank that meets the requirements of 310 CMR 15.00: The State Environmental Code, Title 5: Standard Requirements for the Siting, Construction, Inspection, Upgrade and Expansion of On-site Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems and for the Transport and Disposal of Septage (The Department of Environmental Protection) and policies shall be used in lieu of a municipal sewer connection.

    3. Connections to municipal sewers shall be installed and maintained in accordance with 314 CMR 7.00.
    4. All holding tanks and the associated drainage and vent piping is considered a dedicated system as defined in 248 CMR 10.03(b). The chamber of the holding tank shall be vented independently back to the building it serves and through the roof in accordance with 248 CMR 10.09(4)(f)(1).
    5. The entire installation within the property line shall comply with all related provisions of 248 CMR 3.00 through 10.00.
  2. Vents for Floor and Trough Drains. The vents for the floor/trough drains that convey waste to a gasoline, oil and sand separator shall be independent of the sanitary DWV systems. Vents for the floor/trough drain(s) in facilities served by a gasoline, oil and sand separator may connect to the chamber vent of the separator no less than six inches above the flood level rim of the floor/trough drain fixture.
  3. Floor Drains and Trough Drains Required. Separators and floor drains/trough drains shall be required in condominium structures or multi family residential structures with residential garages:
    1. that have over six car capacity and have living units above or below; and
    2. if the vehicles share a common area.
  4. Facilities, as defined in 248 CMR 10.09(1)(b) not connected to a municipal sewer system or a holding tank, as defined in 248 CMR 10.09(1)(b), constructed, existing, and operating prior to January 9, 1992 shall:
    1. connect to a municipal sewer system as per the requirements of 248 CMR and 314 CMR 7.00 and all other applicable laws, codes, rules, and regulations;
    2. connect to a holding tank (as defined in 248 CMR 10.09(2)(b); or
    3. seal the floor drains with caps or plugs in accordance with 248 CMR 10.07, provided that, an application for sealing of floor drains that includes a WS-1 form from the Department of Environmental Protection Waste Minimization Program Procedures (DEP Form WS-1) is filed and approved by the Inspector before commencing any work. A copy of the form indicating the Inspector's approval shall be returned to the DEP by the applicant, as indicated on the document.

(d) Approval of Separators.

  1. Size, Type and Location.
    1. The size (capacity), type, and location of each separator, shall be in conformance with 248 CMR 10.22: Figure 15 (Gasoline-oil and Sand Separator). Alternate design separators may be used see 248 CMR 3.04(2) or (3).
    2. No wastes other than those requiring treatment or separation shall be discharged into any separator.
  2. All Separators to Follow Type Approved. No separator shall be installed which does not comply in all respects with drawings and specifications shown in the appropriate section of 248 CMR 10.00.
  3. Municipalities Interconnected with Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) Sewerage System.
    1. In all cities and towns, where the sewage disposal is discharging into the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Sewage System, separator installations shall be inspected by the Inspector and approved by the MWRA.
    2. Notice of a pre-planned separator installation shall be submitted to the MWRA before an application for a plumbing permit is filed with the Inspector pursuant to 248 CMR 3.05.

(e) Separation of Liquids. A mixture of light and heavy liquids having different specific gravities may be treated and then separated in a receptacle.

(f) Venting.

  1. Interceptors and separators shall be so designed that they will not become air bound, when closed covers are used.
  2. Each interceptor shall be properly chamber vented to comply with 248 CMR 10.16 and each separator to comply with Drawing and Specification (248 CMR 10.22: Figure 15 ).

(g) Accessibility.

  1. Each interceptor and separator shall be so installed that it is readily accessible.
  2. The removal of the cover shall be accessible for the purpose of service and maintenance.
  3. The use of ladders or moving of heavy objects in order to service interceptors or separators shall constitute a violation of accessibility.

(h) Maintenance. Interceptors and separators shall be maintained in efficient operating condition by the periodic removal of accumulated grease, scum, oil, or other suspended substances, solids and silt deposits accumulated at the bottom of the interceptor or separator.

(2) Grease Traps and Interceptors When Installed Inside of Buildings.

(a) Grease traps and interceptors shall be installed in the following establishments to prevent the discharge of fats, oils, and grease into the drainage system:

  1. restaurants;
  2. cafeterias;
  3. hotels;
  4. hospitals;
  5. institutional facilities;
  6. factories;
  7. clubs;
  8. bars where food is prepared and served; and
  9. all commercial kitchens; food and meat packing and processing establishments; super markets, bakeries, and other establishments where fats, oils and grease may be introduced into the building sanitary drainage system in quantities that can cause waste line obstruction or hinder sewage disposal,

(b) Grease traps and interceptors may be installed on individual fixture waste branches.

(c) Plumbing fixtures to be protected by grease traps and interceptors shall include:

  1. pot sinks (with bowl depths exceeding ten inches);
  2. scullery sinks (with bowl depths exceeding ten inches),
  3. floor drains;
  4. floor sinks;
  5. automatic dishwashers regardless of temperature;
  6. pre-rinse sinks;
  7. soup kettles or similar devices;
  8. wok stations; and
  9. automatic hood wash units;

(d) In unsewered areas refer to 310 CMR 15.00: The State Environmental Code, Title 5: Standard Requirements for the Siting, Construction, Inspection, Upgrade and Expansion of On-site Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems and for the Transport and Disposal of Septage relative to grease removal at installations from which large quantities of grease can be expected to discharge.

(e) Floor Drain Exception: Floor drains that may encounter grease residue and are specifically designed for this purpose may conduct grease to an outside grease interceptor. Grease interceptors may be installed on a separate building drain and shall only receive the discharge from fixtures or equipment which would allow fats, oils or grease to be discharged to the sanitary drainage system.

(f) Food Waste Grinders and Pre-rinse Sinks.

  1. The waste from dishwasher pre-rinse sinks that are not equipped with food waste grinders shall be discharged to the drainage system through a grease trap interceptor.
  2. A dishwasher pre rinse sink drain not equipped with a food waste grinder that conveys the waste discharge to a dish washing machine drain as shown in 248 CMR 10.22: Figure 22 shall be a minimum diameter of two inch. The total developed length of the horizontal waste drain from the dishwasher pre-rinse sink outlet to the weir of the dish washing machine trap shall not exceed eight feet.
  3. The waste discharge from a commercial food waste grinder (garbage disposal) shall not discharge to the sanitary drainage system through a grease trap. Dishwasher pre-rinse sinks equipped with food waste grinders shall be discharged in accordance with 248 CMR 10.10(8)(b), (c), and (d).

(g) Sizing, Testing and Rating.

  1. Grease traps and interceptors shall not be installed unless sized, tested, and certified according to PDI-G101 or ASME A112.14.3 or ASME A112.14.4.
  2. Grease traps and interceptors must bear the certification seal of the Plumbing and Drainage Institute (P.D.I.) or AMSE. The Board may authorize the use of alternate design traps and interceptors in accordance with 248 CMR 3.04(2) or (3).

(h) Capacity. Installed grease traps and interceptors shall have a grease retention capacity of not less than two pounds of grease for each G.P.M (gallon-per-minute) of flow.

(i) Flow Control Device.

  1. Grease traps and interceptors shall be equipped with flow control devices. A flow control device may be equipped with a vented (air intake) or be of an integral non-vented design. Integral non-vented flow control device shall be placed in accordance with manufacturers recommendations. A flow control device is required to be installed between the fixture and the grease trap/interceptor in accordance with manufacturers instructions.
  2. The flow control device is designed to regulate the flow and discharge rate of waste water through the trap or interceptor.
  3. The vented external flow control device air intake when installed in combination with a Grease Trap, may terminate to the free atmosphere provided it terminates a minimum of six inches above the flood level rim of the fixture(s) being served.
  4. The vented external flow control devices when installed in combination with a Grease Interceptor may connect to the sanitary venting system of a building or structure provided that the external flow control and fixture(s) are protected by a trap installed in accordance with all applicable provisions of 248 CMR 10.00.
  5. A flow control device will not be required for interceptor/separators that are designed to provide a retention capacity of 30 minutes or less.

(j) Water Cooled Interceptors/Separators. The use of water- cooled interceptors/separators is prohibited.

(k) Interceptors Not Required.

  1. Grease traps and interceptors are not required for residential building(s), structure(s), dwellings or dwelling units or any private residence.
  2. Grease traps and interceptors shall be required in buildings deemed residential that incorporate commercial cooking accommodations.

(l) Treatment Agents and Chemicals. Chemicals, liquids or agents of any type used for the primary purpose of emulsification and separation of grease that by formula allow grease to be transferred or conveyed from the trap or interceptor to the drainage system are prohibited.

(m) Maintenance.

  1. Grease and accumulated solids shall be removed from traps and interceptors and disposed of in accordance with applicable Federal, State and Local health code requirements by the owner or his/her agent. Federal, State and Local laws, regulations and by-laws may require monitoring and registration of installed traps and interceptors.
  2. The local board of health official(s) or similar authority having jurisdiction may require other methods or programs to monitor maintenance of grease traps and interceptors.
  3. A laminated sign shall be stenciled on or in the immediate area of the grease trap or interceptor in letters one-inch high. The sign shall state the following in exact language:

IMPORTANT This grease trap/interceptor shall be inspected and thoroughly cleaned on a regular and frequent basis. Failure to do so could result in damage to the piping system, and the municipal or private drainage system(s).

(n) Procedures for Sizing Grease Interceptors.

  1. Grease traps and interceptors shall be sized in accordance with the following Recommended Procedures For Sizing Grease Interceptor and 248 CMR 10.22: Figure 22.
  2. Recommended Procedures and Formulas for Installing Grease Traps and Interceptors. As a general rule it is recommended that traps and interceptors be sized in accordance with the formulas indicated in 248 CMR 10.09: Tables 1 through 3. It is favorable policy to size the interceptor so that its rated capacity is never less than 40% of the individual fixture capacity in gallons. In the example below the actual fixture capacity is 59.8 Gals. and 40% of this would be 23.9 Gals. It is understood that a drainage period other than one or two minutes can be used.

248 CMR 10.09: Table 1: RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR SIZING GREASE TRAPS AND INTERCEPTORS INSIDE BUILDINGS

EXAMPLE (Single Compartment)

STEP 1. Determine the cubic content of the fixture by multiplying length x width x depth, (of each comp)A sink 48" long by 24" width by 12" deep.

Cubic content 48" x 24" x 12" = 13,824 cu. in. or Cubic contents 4' x 2' x 1' x 7.5 Gals. = 60 Gals.

STEP 2. Determine the total capacity in gallons.

1 gallon = 231 cubic inches

Contents in Gallons 13,824/231 = 59.8 Gals.
STEP 3. Determine actual drainage load. The fixture is usually filled to approximately 75% of the capacity with waste water. The items being washed displace about 25% of the fixture content. Actual drainage load = 75% of fixture capacity.Actual Drainage Load .75 x 59.8 Gals. = 44.9Gals
STEP 4. Determine the flow rate and the drainage period. In general, good practices dictate a one minute drainage period, however where conditions permit, a two minute period is acceptable. Drainage period is the actual time required to completely empty the fixture.Calculate flow rate for 1 minute period.

Flow rate 44.9 Gals.1/min. = 44.9 G.P.M.

For 2 minute period

Flow rate 44.9 Gals./2min. = 22.5 G.P.M.

STEP 5. Select the interceptor which corresponds to the flow rate calculated Note: Select larger size when flow rate falls between two sizes listed. 
NOTE: The example above is representative of acceptable method(s) when purchasing an interceptor based on the total fixture flow rate capacity in gallons. When purchasing an interceptor based on grease retention pounds only, multiply the total gallon flow rate capacity of the fixture by two.

248 CMR 10.09 Table 2: SIZING FORMULAS FOR LARGE CAPACITY GREASE INTERCEPTORS (INSIDE OR OUTSIDE BUILDINGS)

For Restaurants:Other Establishments with Commercial Kitchens:
(S) X (GS) X (HR/12) X (LF) = Effective Capacity of Grease Traps and Interceptors in Gallons(M) X (GM) X (LF) = Effective Capacity of Grease Traps and Interceptors in Gallons
WHERE:WHERE:
S = Number of Seats in Dining Area

GS = Gallons of Waste Water Per Seat:

HR = Number of Hours Restaurant is Open.

LF = Loading Factor

Use 25 Gallons for Restaurants with China Dishes and/or automatic dishwashers

Use 10 Gallons for Restaurants with Paper or Baskets and No Dishwashers.

M = Meals Prepared Per Day

GM = Gallons of Waste Water Per Meal (Use 5 Gallons)

LF = Loading Factor

Use 1.00 with dishwashing machines and 0.75 without dishwashing machine.

Loading Factors: 
Use 2.00 Interstate Highway,

Use 1.00 Main Highway,

Use 0.75 Other Highways

Use 1.50 Other Roadways

Use 1.25 Recreational Areas

 

248 CMR 10.09: Table 3: CAPACITY OF GREASE TRAPS AND INTERCEPTORS

Total Flow Through Rating (g.p.m)Grease Trap/Interceptor Retention Capacity (pounds)
48
612
714
918
1020
1224
1428
1530
1836
2040
2550
3570
50100

(3) Grease Interceptors Installed Outside of the Buildings

(a) General Requirements for Outside Interceptors. When an outside grease interceptor is installed, the entire installation within the property line shall comply with 248 CMR 10.03: Dedicated Systems, and the installation shall be designed by a registered professional mechanical engineer.

(b) This installation shall require a chamber vent which shall:

  1. be piped to the inside of the building in compliance with 248 CMR 10.16(5)(e); and
  2. shall be not less than four inch minimum pipe diameter.

(4) Special Use Installations.

(a) Sand Interceptors -- Floor Drains.

  1. Wherever a floor drain discharges waste to an oil and gasoline separator, the floor drain shall be equipped with an approved sediment and sand control basket, or the floor drain shall discharge through a sand interceptor.
  2. Multiple floor drains may discharge into one sand interceptor.

(b) Sand Interceptors -- Commercial Establishments. Sand and similar interceptors for heavy solids shall:

  1. be so designed and located as to be readily accessible for cleaning; and
  2. have a water seal of not less than six inches.

(c) Laundries. Commercial laundries shall be equipped with an interceptor having a wire basket or similar device, removable for cleaning, that will prevent passage into the drainage system of solids ½ inch or larger in size, string, rags, buttons, or other materials detrimental to the public sewerage system.

(d) Bottling Establishments. Bottling plants shall discharge their process waste into an interceptor that provides for the separation of broken glass or other solids, before discharging liquid wastes into the drainage system.

(e) Slaughter Houses. Slaughtering room and dressing room drains shall be equipped with interceptors approved by the Plumbing Drainage Institute which shall prevent the discharge into the drainage system of feathers, entrails, and other materials likely to cause stoppage of the drainage system.

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10.10: Plumbing Fixtures

  1. Fixture Materials and Quality. Plumbing fixtures shall be constructed from Product-approved materials, have smooth and impervious surfaces and be free from defects, and, except as provided elsewhere in 248 CMR 10.00, shall conform to the applicable standard listed in 248 CMR 10.06: Table 1.
  2. Overflows.
    1. Design. When any fixture is provided with an overflow, the waste shall be arranged so that the standing water in the fixture cannot rise in the overflow when the stopper is closed or remain in the overflow when the fixture is empty.
    2. Connection. The overflow from any fixture shall discharge into the drainage system on the inlet or fixture side of the trap, except that the overflow from a flush tank serving a toilet or urinal shall discharge only into the fixture served.
  3. Installation.
    1. Cleaning. All fixtures must be installed so as to afford easy access for cleaning both the fixture and the area about it.
    2. Joints. Where a fixture comes in contact with walls and floors, the joint shall be watertight.
    3. Securing Fixtures. Floor outlet fixtures and wall hung fixtures shall be rigidly secured to the finished floor or wall by screws or bolts, or other methods in compliance with manufacturers instructions and codified in 248 CMR 10.05(7).
    4. Wall-hung Bowls. Wall hung toilet bowls shall be rigidly supported by a concealed metal Product-approved fixture carrier so that no strain is transmitted to the toilet discharge connection, or the wall.
    5. Setting. Fixtures shall be set plumb, level and in proper alignment with reference to adjacent walls.
  4. Prohibited Fixtures. The following fixtures are prohibited.
    1. A pan, valve, plunger, offset, washout, frost proof latrine, or other toilet which has an invisible seal, mechanical seal or an unventilated space.
    2. A toilet that has walls that are not thoroughly washed at each discharge.
    3. A toilet that may enable siphonage of the contents of the bowl back into the tank.
    4. Trough urinals and floor stall urinals.
    5. Wall hung urinals connected to an exposed trap.
  5. Toilets.
    1. Public Use. A toilet for public use shall be of the elongated type.
    2. Flushing Device. A toilet tank shall have sufficient capacity to flush properly the toilet bowl with which it is connected.
    3. Float Valve and Ballcocks. A float valve or ballcock in a toilet flush tank shall be of anti-siphon design and shall provide sufficient water to refill the trap seal in the toilet bowl.
    4. Flushometer Valves.
      1. A flushometer valve shall be so installed that it will be readily accessible for repairing.
      2. When the valve is operated, it shall complete the cycle of operation automatically opening and closing positively under the service pressure.
      3. At each operation the valve shall deliver water in sufficient volume and at a rate that will thoroughly flush the fixture and refill the fixture trap.
      4. Means shall be provided for regulating the flushometer valve flow.
      5. Not more than one fixture shall be served by a single flushometer valve.
      6. Protection against backflow shall be provided as specified in 248 CMR 10.14(7).
    5. Seats. A toilet shall be equipped with a seat of smooth non-absorbent material. The seat of a toilet that is provided for public or semi-public use shall be of the open front type.
    6. Alternative Technology Toilet Systems.
      1. Areas subject to 310 CMR 15.00 or where sewers are unavailable innovative alternative technology toilets may be installed in place of a liquid sealed toilet. These are considered plumbing fixtures under 248 CMR 10.00 and therefore the permit requirements must be satisfied.
      2. The alternative technology toilet system shall be manufactured to NSF-41 standards and shall be installed in compliance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  6. Urinals.
    1. Urinal Fixtures.
      1. Only pedestal urinals and wall hung urinals with integral traps shall be used.
      2. Urinals shall be flushed only by means of an automatic flushing tank or flushometers equipped with a back flow preventer.
    2. Automatic Flushing Tank. A tank that flushes more than one urinal, shall be automatic in operation; and shall be of sufficient capacity to provide the necessary water to flush and cleanse properly all urinals simultaneously.
    3. Materials Surrounding Urinals for Public or Semi-public Use.
      1. The floor areas one foot in front of the urinal lip and one foot on each side of the urinal, and the wall areas to four feet above the floor, shall be finished so as to be non-absorbent.
      2. Wood and fiber boards are prohibited in the above noted areas.
    4. Every urinal shall be side shielded for privacy.
  7. Shower Baths, Stalls and Compartments.
    1. Shower Head Supply Riser. Every shower head supply riser or extension from the shower valve to the shower head outlet, whether exposed or not, shall be securely attached to the structure.
    2. Shower Waste Outlet.
      1. Waste outlets serving shower stalls and compartments that are not part of bathtubs shall be no less than two inches in diameter, shall have removable strainers not less than three inches in diameter, and shall have strainer openings not less than ¼ inch in minimum dimension.
      2. In shower rooms or in an area that multiple shower heads are installed and the individual shower space, area, stall or compartment is not provided with an individual waste outlet, the waste outlet shall be so located that the floor is designed and pitched so that waste water from one shower head area does not flow over the floor area serving another shower head area.
      3. Waste outlets shall be securely fastened to the waste pipe and make a watertight connection thereto.
    3. Shower Compartments.
      1. Shower compartments and stalls shall have at least 900 square inches of floor area and be not less than 30 inches in minimum dimension measured from its finished interior dimension as the side of a rectangle, altitude of a triangle or diameter of a circle or other angular shape.
      2. The minimum required area and dimension shall be measured from its finished interior dimension at a height equal to the top of the threshold and at a point tangent to the centerline of the threshold.
      3. The wall area above built-in tubs having installed shower heads and in shower compartments or stalls shall be constructed of smooth, non-corrosive, and non-absorbent, waterproof materials to a height not less than six feet above the floor level. Such walls shall form a watertight joint with each other and with the bathing tub, floor receptor, shower floor or base.
      4. The waste outlet opening for individual shower compartments shall be two inches in diameter.
    4. Shower Floors or Receptors.
      1. Floors or receptors under shower compartments shall be laid on or be supported by a smooth and structurally sound base.
      2. Floors under shower compartments, other than those laid directly on the ground surface or where prefabricated shower base receptors have been provided, shall be lined and made watertight by the provision of suitable shower pans of durable Product-approved materials.
      3. Shower pans shall turn up on all sides at least above the finished threshold level.
      4. Shower pans shall be securely fastened to the waste outlet at the seepage entrance making a watertight joint between the pan and the outlet.
      5. Floor surfaces shall be constructed of smooth, non-corrosive, nonabsorbent, and waterproof materials.
    5. Shower Controls.
      1. When a flow control valve or shower head is designed to completely shut-off and is installed on the outlet pipe from a shower control unit, check valves shall be provided in the hot and cold water supplies to the unit to prevent by-passing of hot or cold water. An exception to the requirement above is when Product-approved shower control units are designed to prevent bypassing.
      2. All showers, shower stalls, shower compartments, gang showers, and shower baths, either multiple or single, shall be equipped with an approved adjustable self-cleaning and draining shower head.
      3. The water supply to a shower head shall be supplied through a Product-approved individual thermostatic, pressure balancing or combination thermostatic/pressure balancing valve complying with ASSE 1016. The device shall conform to the following requirements:
        1. the device shall incorporate a design that limits the maximum deliverable temperature of hot water to 112EF; and
        2. the device shall be designed to prevent bypassing of water.
      4. Automatic Temperature Control Mixing Valves:
        1. A central type automatic temperature control mixing valve may be used in lieu of individual thermostatic, pressure balancing or combination thermostatic/pressure balancing valve complying with ASSE 1070, provided that the temperature control mixing valve limits the maximum temperature of the hot water supplied to individual shower controls to 112EF during all periods when showers are in use.
        2. A thermometer is required in the outlet piping of the automatic central control mixing valve for inspection and adjustment of temperature.
        3. Check valves are required on the hot and cold water inlets to the automatic central control mixing valve.
        4. The automatic temperature control mixing valve is a secondary control for hot water that is supplied to individual shower stations and is in addition to the primary controls used to maintain the water temperature in the domestic hot water system.
        5. When the temperature in the hot water supply piping to a shower stations is controlled by an automatic temperature control mixing valve, individual shower controls may be Product-approved two handle or single handle shower valves.
        6. All automatic temperature control mixing valve devices shall be adjusted by the installing plumber, prior to a Final Inspection in accordance with (248 CMR 10.04(3)(e). The device shall be set to deliver tempered water at a temperature not to exceed 110EF to 112EF.
  8. Food-waste Grinder Units.
    1. Residential or Domestic Food-waste Grinder-waste Outlets. Domestic food-waste grinder units shall be connected to a drain of not less than 1½ inches in diameter.
    2. Commercial Food-waste Grinder Outlets.
      1. Commercial food-waste grinder units shall be connected to a drain of sufficient size to serve the unit, but in no case connected to a drain of less than two inches in diameter.
      2. Commercial food-waste-grinder units shall be connected and trapped separately from other fixtures or compartments.
      3. These grinders shall be separately connected to a waste stack or branch drain.
    3. Water Supply Required. All food-waste grinder units shall be provided with an adequate supply of cold water from faucets at sufficient flow rate to insure proper functioning of the unit.
    4. Commercial Food-waste Grinders Required. All establishments summarized in 248 CMR 10.09(2)(a), (restaurants, cafeterias, hotels…) that are served by a municipal sanitary sewer and can seat 20 patrons or more shall incorporate food waste grinders.
  9. Drinking Fountains.
    1. Design and Construction. A drinking fountain shall conform to the listed ANSI standard in 248 CMR 10.06: Table 1.
    2. Protection of Water Supply. Stream projectors shall be assembled to provide an orifice elevation as specified by ANSI Air Gaps in Plumbing Systems and ANSI Backflow Preventers. See 248 CMR 10.06: Table 1.
  10. Floor/Trough Drains.
    1. Floor/Trough Drains.
      1. Floor/Trough drains shall have integral or separate traps providing a minimum water seal of three inches. The Floor/Trough drain shall incorporate removable strainers.
      2. The Floor/Trough drain shall be constructed so that it can be readily cleaned, and the drain inlet shall be easily accessible at all times.
      3. Floor/Trough drains subject to backflow shall be provided with back water valves.
      4. Size of Floor/Trough Drains. Floor/Trough drains shall be of a size to serve efficiently the square foot floor area to be served or the purpose for which they are intended. The Floor/Trough drain outlet pipe shall not be less than two inches in nominal diameter.
      5. Proper Installation and Protection Against Loss of Trap Seal.
        1. The design and installation of floor drains and trough drains shall be at a grade to enable complete floor drainage from all directions.
        2. All floor drains and trough drains shall be installed with a, readily accessible automatic trap-priming device, except that floor drains or trough drains that will receive a continuous or semi-continuous discharge from other indirect waste fixture(s) pursuant to 248 CMR 10.12 may be allowed by the Inspector.
      6. Special Hazardous Wastes. Floor drains that may receive special hazardous waste shall comply with 248 CMR 10.13.
  11. Dishwashing Machines.
    1. Waste Discharge.
      1. Domestic. The waste discharge shall comply with 248 CMR 10.08(1)(a)(2)(d).
      2. Commercial. Commercial dishwashing machines that discharge by gravity shall be indirectly connected, except when the machine is located above or within five feet of a trapped floor drain, the waste may be connected directly to the inlet side of a properly vented floor drain trap.
      3. Commercial. Dishwashing machines that incorporate drainage discharge by pumping shall discharge waste to the sanitary drainage system in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
    2. Portable Dishwashers. Portable dishwashing machines (domestic) may discharge over the rim of a properly trapped and vented fixture.
  12. Automatic Clothes Washing Machine.
    1. Water Supply. The water supplies to clothes washers shall be protected against backflow by the use of an air gap or a back flow preventer.
    2. Waste Discharge.
      1. Domestic Machines.
        1. The waste from a clothes washer shall discharge through an air break into a laundry utility sink or standpipe.
        2. The standpipe shall extend to a minimum height of 30 inches above the base of the machine and shall not be less than 1½ inches in diameter.
      2. Laundromats (Commercial). The minimum size of a trap and standpipe for commercial clothes washing machines shall be not less than two inches in diameter, and shall connect to a drain of sufficient size to receive the simultaneous discharge of 75% of all clothes washing machines connected thereto.
  13. Multiple Type Lavatory (Wash Sink). Provided that hot and cold or tempered water for hand washing is available for each 20 inch interval of a multiple use lavatory sink, every 20 inch unit of usable length or circumference or of a straight-line or circular multiple use lavatory shall be considered equivalent to one lavatory as it affects the drainage and water supply piping sizes and fixture usage requirements.
  14. Garbage/Trash Receptacle Washers.
    1. Garbage/Trash receptacle washers shall be separately trapped and vented.
    2. The fixture receiving the waste from garbage/trash receptacles shall be provided with a removable basket or strainer to prevent discharge of large particles into the building drainage system.
    3. Any water supply connection shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or Product-approved backflow prevention device.
  15. Special Fixtures and Specialties. Baptisteries, ornamental and lily pools, aquaria, ornamental fountain basins, fish tanks and similar constructed decorative water monuments when provided with water supplies, shall be protected from back siphonage.
  16. Sacrarium.
    1. The liquid discharge from a Sacrarium shall be conducted separately and directly to a drywell in the ground, and shall not be used for any other drainage purpose.
    2. In no case shall the waste from a Sacrarium be connected to the building storm drainage, or sanitary drainage waste and vent system.
    3. The waste from a Sacrarium shall not be trapped or vented.
  17. Minimum Facilities for Dwellings. Whenever plumbing fixtures are installed, the minimum number of each type of fixture shall comply with the requirements of 105 CMR 410.00: Minimum Standards of Fitness for Human Habitation (State Sanitary Code, Chapter II, and shall conform with 248 CMR 10.02(6)(b).
  18. Minimum Facilities for Building Occupancy Other Than Residential.
    1. Application of Standards and Establishing Occupancy.
      1. Applicability of Changes: the requirements set forth in 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1: Minimum Facilities for Building Occupancy shall apply only to plumbing system installation, alteration or extension projects in which the process of designing the plumbing work to be performed begins on or after June 3, 1994.
      2. When determining the number of plumbing fixtures after the population has been established by the authority having jurisdiction, should a fraction occur, round up to next fixture.
    2. Classification of Places of Assembly.
      1. Assembly (General).
        1. All places in which alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverages are sold, or offered for sale, to be consumed on the premises; any room or space used for public or private banquets, feasts, dances, socials, card parties, weddings or for lodge or meeting halls or rooms; skating rinks, gymnastics, public swimming pools,billiard, pool, bowling, and table tennis rooms; halls or rooms used for public or private catering purposes, funeral parlors, recreation rooms; broadcasting studios; private club sand all other places of similar occupancy shall be classified as general places of assembly.
        2. Toilet facilities for each sex shall be provided in the amount specified in 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1 for assembly.
      2. Assembly (Dedicated).
        1. All places of worship, arenas, stadiums,theaters, cinemas, restaurants, pubs, and nightclubs shall be classified as dedicated places of assembly and toilet facilities for each sex male and female shall be provided in the amount specified in 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1 for dedicated assembly.
        2. Where the capacity is more than 2,000 persons,the number of toilets for the first 2,000 persons shall be calculated using the ratios in248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1. For the number of persons in excess of 2,000, the number of toilets shall be calculated at ratio of one per 100 for women and one per 200 for men.
        3. c. In restaurants, pubs and nightclubs where the total combined number of employees and patrons that can be accommodated at any one time is less than 20 individuals and the total gross space is less than 1,200 square feet, one unisex, handicapped accessible toilet facility for use by both employees and the patrons shall meet the minimum fixture requirements of 248 CMR.
      3. Nothing in 248 CMR 10.10(18)(b)2.a. through c. shall apply to single or multiple family dwellings, or to a place of incarceration or detention, a convent, or a monastery.
      4. Plumbing fixtures for employees shall be included in 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1 for this type of occupancy.
      5. When the occupancy ratio of 50% for each sex is not used to define fixture counts, the Inspector shall be notified in writing before construction begins, indicating the occupancy of each sex for the purpose of establishing fixture amounts.
    3. Assembly (Places of Worship - Church, Synagogue etc.).
      1. In no case shall there be less than one toilet and one lavatory provided for each sex to accommodate a congregation worship area.
      2. Refer to 248 CMR 10.10(15) and 10.10(16) for baptistery and Sacrarium requirements.
      3. For places of worship, which also have a function hall/multi-purpose area, the fixture number requirements for the halls/areas shall be calculated separately.
      4. If sufficient fixtures are installed to accommodate the total occupancy for the worship area and the fixtures are located within 300 feet of toilet facilities in the same building the requirements of 248 CMR 10.10(18)(c)1. and 248 CMR 10.10(18)(c)3. shall not apply.
    4. Bathing Beach Toilet Facilities (Public). When the occupancy of a beach area can exceed 4,000, toilets for the capacity in excess of 4,000 shall be installed at the rate of one per 1,000 for women, and one per 2,000 for men.
    5. Day Care Toilet Facilities.
      1. Refer to 102 CMR 7.00: Standards for the Licensure or Approval of Group Day Care and School Age Child Care Programs (Office for Children), for requirements regarding plumbing fixtures for this type occupancy.
      2. Unisex toilet facilities (one toilet, and one lavatory) may be installed for children six years of age or younger. 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1 shall apply where more fixtures are required.
    6. Police Station Lockup/Detention Area Facilities.
      1. A combination toilet and lavatory with a protective detention shroud shall be provided in each cell in where a person is detained for any part of a 24 hour day.
      2. The lavatory shall be connected to the hot and cold water distribution systems.
      3. Where individual toilet facilities are not required by 248 CMR 10.10(18)(f)1., fixtures shall be installed at the rate listed in 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1 for this type occupancy.
    7. Dormitory Toilet Facilities.
      1. Toilets in dormitory toilet facilities shall be of the elongated style and shall be equipped with solid plastic non-porous seats of the open front type.
      2. In a toilet facility that contains more than one toilet or a toilet and an urinal, each toilet and urinal shall be separated by walls or partitions that will provide privacy.
      3. Toilets, showers and lavatory facilities shall be accessible from within the building and shall be placed so that passing through any part of another dwelling unit or room is not required.
      4. One laundry utility sink shall be installed for each 50 persons.
      5. Toilet facilities, shower rooms and bathing rooms for males and females shall be separate and so designated.
    8. Educational (School, College and University etc.) Toilet Facilities.
      1. Each toilet facility shall have at least one lavatory except as provided by 248 CMR 10.10(18)(h)2.
      2. In kindergarten or primary grades, unisex toilet facilities may be installed for children six years of age or younger. Lavatories may be installed in classroom areas or the toilet rooms. 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1 shall apply where more fixtures are required.
      3. In auditoriums and multipurpose rooms that will be used at any time for community service, toilet facilities shall be provided as follows:
        1. Women: one toilet for each 200 seats or majority fraction thereof.
        2. Men: one toilet for each 600 seats and one urinal for each 200 seats or majority fraction thereof.
        3. Women and men's toilet facilities shall be located within 300 feet.
      4. Separate toilet facilities shall be provided for teachers and other staff employees. These toilet facilities shall be in addition to the requirements of 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1, See Educational Use Group E (staff) for teacher occupancy toilet facility requirements.
      5. In addition to 248 CMR 10.10(18)(h) 4., there shall be separate toilet facilities for kitchen (staff) employees, which shall comply with the requirements of 248 CMR 10.10(18)(i)1. through 3. and Table 1, Educational Use Group E (staff) for kitchen employee toilet facility requirements.
      6. All secondary and post secondary schools that conduct sporting programs or physical activities on the school premises or grounds and include a gymnasium where the activities may be conducted shall provide separate men and women shower facilities to accommodate the students.
      7. All schools, which incorporate vocational trade programs where students may happen to become unclean due to work activities, shall comply with 248 CMR 10.10(18)(h)6.
      8. Emergency Wash Stations are required and shall be installed in the laboratory classrooms of schools, college's and universities where flammable liquids and open flame devices are used. See 248 CMR 10.13(1)(l).
    9. Employee Toilet Facilities for (Non-industrial) Establishments.
      1. In each establishment where people are employed, there shall be separate toilet facilities for male and female employees. The toilet facilities shall be located in the tenant establishment and shall be plainly designated for male or females.
      2. Toilet facilities in establishments referred to in 248 CMR 10.10(18)(j)1. within two branch levels shall be acceptable. Toilet facilities shall not be required for mezzanines. See 248 CMR 10.03: Mezzanine. In no case may a toilet facility be located more than 300 feet in developed direct distance away from the regular place of daily work activity of any person for whose use it is required. Except where elevators accessible to the employees are provided.
      3. Unisex toilet facilities may be allowed if they meet the requirements of 248 CMR 10.10(18)(m).
      4. In business or commercial establishments (except industrial) that contain less than 1,200 gross square feet of floor area or do not have reasonable access (within 300 feet and on the same floor) to core or common toilet facilities, one toilet room located within the establishment provided with the number of fixtures according to the standard set forth in 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1 for employee facilities, shall meet the minimum requirement.
      5. In every business or commercial establishment where only one person is employed or works, there shall be one toilet and one lavatory for use by the tenant provided in the establishment or a core toilet facility shall be located within 300 feet of the tenant establishment. Core or common facilities (defined in 248 CMR 10.10(18)(i)4.), located on the same floor as the establishment being serviced and having separate designated male and female toilet facilities may be used to meet this requirement. The number of fixtures in the core or common toilet facilities shall be in accordance with 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1 for employee toilet facilities (non-industrial).
      6. Where core toilet facilities are permitted and are in compliance with the occupancy requirements as outlined in 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1 additional designated (male and female) toilet facilities shall be permitted within the establishment. These fixtures shall not be credited towards the fixture count requirements of 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1.
    10. Employee Toilet Facilities for (Industrial) Buildings.
      1. In every industrial establishment, all toilet facilities, where such toilet facilities include the number and type of plumbing fixtures, the floors, walls, windows, ceilings, lighting, ventilation, doors, partitions, design and location of the toilet facilities, shall comply with 454 CMR 2.00, Toilets in Industrial Establishments.
      2. Separate toilet facilities shall be provided for each sex and shall be plainly so designated male and female. See 248 CMR 10.03: Mezzanine.
      3. The number of toilets and lavatories shall be provided within reasonable access (as defined in 248 CMR 10.10(18)(j)4.) and in accordance with 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1 for industrial facilities.
      4. Distance of direct access for industrial establishments requires that; in no case may a toilet facility be located more than 300 feet in developed direct distance away from the regular place of daily work activity of any persons for whose use it was designed. Except where service elevators, accessible to the employees, are provided.
      5. Each 20 linear-inches, or 18-inch circumference-inches of usable sink access will be considered the equivalent of one lavatory.
      6. In industries and manufacturing facilities with departments where there is excessive exposure to substances or liquids or where the work performed may create dust and grit conditions, one lavatory sink may be required for every five persons and in all cases, a potable water supply of hot and cold water shall be provided.
    11. Medical and Health Care Building Toilet Facilities.
      1. In all medical and health care buildings there shall be separate designated toilet facilities on each floor for male and female patients and visitors.
      2. The toilet facilities may be located in a common or core area on each floor so long as the toilet facilities are within 300 feet of all offices.
      3. Accessibility to the toilet facilities shall be direct; it shall not require going from one medical office through another for access to the toilet facilities.
      4. Handicap toilet facilities are required on each floor.
      5. A minimum of one drinking fountain shall be installed for each set of toilet facilities.
    12. Covered Malls Toilet Facilities.
      1. In all covered malls there shall be separate designated public toilet facilities for male and females. These toilet facilities shall be centrally located in the common core area on each floor.
      2. These facilities are in addition to the requirements of 248 CMR 10.10(18)(i) regarding toilet facilities for male and female employees.
      3. When the occupancy exceeds 9,000, toilets shall be installed at the rate of one per 1,500 for women and one per 3,000 for men. Lavatories shall be installed as listed in 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1.
    13. Handicap Toilet Facility Requirement. Facility for the physically handicapped person:
      1. Plumbing fixtures shall be installed in conformance with 521 CMR 30.0: Public Toilets (for fixture dimension requirements only).
      2. When public toilet facilities are to be installed, handicap plumbing fixtures shall comply with the requirements of 248 CMR 10.10(18)(m).
      3. Unisex handicap toilet facilities may be allowed by the Board by the variance process as outlined in 248 CMR 3.04(2):
        1. A variance is not required if the fixtures in an existing or proposed men's and women's toilet facility and the fixtures in a unisex handicapped toilet facility meet the minimum fixture requirements of 248 CMR 10.10(18): Table 1. A unisex toilet may be counted only one time toward the total minimum fixture requirements.
        2. These toilet facilities shall be kept clear of obstructions at all times in accordance with 105 CMR.
      4. Wherever drinking fountains are provided, a drinking fountain shall accessible to the physically impaired.
      5. Additional sanitary facilities for the physically impaired; handicap toilet stalls placed within a fully compliant 248 CMR. toilet facility may also provide an additional accessible handicap lavatory within the toilet stall area. The lavatory placement shall comply with the requirements of 521 CMR.
    14. Toilet Facilities General.
      1. Toilet facilities accessible to the public which have two or more toilets or urinals, or two or more thereof in any combination, shall provide a floor drain equipped with an automatic trap priming device and a valved hose connection equipped with a backflow preventer. The hose connection is for the purpose of floor cleaning in the toilet facility.
      2. Floor drains shall be installed in the vicinity of the urinal(s) and placed at a grade to enable floor drainage to the floor drain from all directions.
      3. Toilets for public use shall be of the elongated style and the seats shall be solid plastic, non-porous and of the open front type. Refer to 248 CMR 10.10(5)(a) through (e).
      4. When a urinal(s) is provided in a toilet facility the floor areas one foot in front of the urinal lip and one foot on each side of the urinal and the wall areas to four feet above the finished floor surface, shall be protected by non-absorbent building products and material. Wood and fiber boards are prohibited in these areas. Refer to 248 CMR 10.10(7)(c).
      5. In a toilet facility with more than one toilet, or with a toilet and a urinal, each toilet shall be enclosed. Each urinal shall be side shielded for privacy.
      6. When two or more urinals are required, a shield shall be provided between urinals.
    15. Laundries. Laundry facilities requirements. A washing machine connection that consists of a piping arrangement that includes a cold water supply, hot water supply and a sufficient drain connection shall be provided in conformance with the following:
      1. One and Two Family Dwelling: At least one washing machine connection.
      2. Multiple Dwellings:
        1. Non-elderly Housing: In multiple dwellings that are not restricted to the elderly, one washing machine connection for every ten dwelling units, or fraction thereof.
        2. Elderly Housing: In housing that is restricted to the elderly, one washing machine connection for every 20 dwelling units or faction thereof.
        3. The washing machine connection shall be located so that each occupant in the dwelling has access to the washing machine that may be affixed to the washing machine connection.
    16. Urinals.
      1. Urinals may be substituted for toilets where indicated in 248 CMR 10.10(19): Table 1 are listed by percentage.
      2. Urinals listed for elementary, secondary, post secondary and industrial factory/warehouse are in addition to the toilets required.
      3. When urinals are used at least one shall be set for handicapped use.
    17. Bathroom Group Defined. a bathroom group shall consist of one bath tub or shower stall, one toilet, and one lavatory.

 

Table 1: Minimum Facilities For Building Occupancy. (*Optional by owner)

Building ClarificationUse GroupToiletsUrinals MalesLavatories Each SexDrinking FountainBath/ShowerOther FixturesPertinent Regulations
248 CMR 10.10(19)
FemalesMales
TheatersA-11 per 301 per 6050%1 per 1001 per 1000 1 service sink per floor(b), (i)1., (m), (n), (p)
Nightclubs, PubsA-21 per 301 per 5050%1 per 75   (b), (m), (n), (p)
RestaurantsA-31 per 301 per 6050%1 per 200   (b), (m), (n), (p)
Hall, Museums, Libraries Etc.A-31 per 501 per 10050%1 per 200   (b), (i)1., (m), (n), (p)
Coliseums, ArenasA-31 per 301 per 6050%1 per 150   (b), (i)1., (m), (n), (p)
House of WorshipA-41 per 501 per 10050%1 per 200   (b), (c), (m), (n), (p)
Stadiums Etc.A-51 per 301 per 6050%1 per 150   (i)1., (m), (n), (p)
PoolA-51 per 40 bathers1 per 40 bathers33%1 per 60 bathersAt least one source1 for every 40 bathers (i)1., (m), (n), (p). See 105 CMR for bather load.
Bathing (Public Beaches) 1 per 2001 per 50033%1 per 1000 1 per 10001 Service Sink(d), (m), (n), (p)
Day Care Facility (Child)E-I-31 per 201 per 20 1 per 20  1 Service Sink(e), (m), (n)
(Staff)N/A1 per 201 per 2533%1 per 40   (i), (m), (n), (p)
Detention Facility (Detainee)I-31 per 61 per 833%1 per 6 1 per 8 (f), (m), (p)
(Staff)N/A1 per 201 per 2533%1 per 40   (i), (m), (n), (p)
Dwellings (Single)ROne Bathroom Group and One Kitchen Sink (o), (q)
(Multiple)ROne Bathroom Group and One Kitchen Sink per Unit (o), (q)
(Hotel/Motel)ROne Bathroom Group per Unit (m), (q)
(Dormitories)R-21 per 61 per 833%1 per 8 1 per 81 Service Sink per Floor(g), (m), (n), (p)
Educational (Kindergarten)E1 per 201 per 20 1 per 201 per 75 1 Service Sink Per Floor(h), (i), (m), (n), (p)
(Elementary)E1 per 301 per 601 per 601 per 601 per 75  
(Secondary)E1 per 301 per 901 per 901 per 901 per 75  
(Post Secondary)E1 per 901 per 1801 per 1801 per 1801 per 75  
Staff)E1 per 201 per 2533%1 per 40   
Employee (Non-Industrial)* 1 per 201 per 2533%1 per 40 1 per 15*1 Service Sink per Floor(i), (m), (n), (p)
Building ClarificationUse GroupToiletsUrinals MalesLavatories Each SexDrinking FountainBath/ShowerOther FixturesPertinent Regulations 248 CMR 10.10(19)
FemalesMales
Employee (Industrial Factory/Warehouse and Similar UsageF1 per 151 per 201 per 401 per 30 1 per 15 (j), (m), (n), (p)
Institution Hospital (Private/Semi)I1 per Room

Nursing Homes: 1 toilet and 1 lavatory with direct access from each bedroom (shared by 8 beds max), can be unisex.

 1 per Room1 Per each set of rest-rooms1 per 15 (in ICU)

1 per 12 (inpatient facilities other than ICU)

1 per 6 patients (Psychi-atric Hosp.)

1 per 8 (Rehab facility)

1 Service Sink Per Floor(i), (m), (n)
Nursing Homes (Ward) 1 per 81 per 1033%1 per 10 1 per 151 Service Sink Per Floor(i), (m), (n), (p)
Malls (Covered)M1 per 7501 per 150050%1 per 20001 per 2000 (i), (l), (m), (n), (p)
Medical/Health Care BuildingB1 per 451 per 5550%1 per 2001 Per each set of restrooms1 per each set of restrooms(i), (k), (m), (n), (p)
Office BuildingsB1 per 201 per 2533%1 per 501 per Floor (i), (m), (n), (p)
Retail (Mercantile)M1 per 201 per 2033%1 per 40  (i), (m), (n), (p)
Waiting Rooms (Airports, Railroad and Bus Stations)A1 per 351 per 7550%1 per 2001 per 500 (b), (m), (n), (p)

 

  1. Funeral Establishment Preparation Rooms. Funeral establishment preparation rooms shall comply with the provisions of 239 CMR 3.07.
    1. The preparation room of a Funeral establishment shall be provided with a floor drain and flooring that is compliant with 239 CMR 3.07(3).
    2. The preparation room shall include a flushing rim sink and the preparation room shall be protected by proper backflow devices.
    3. An additional reduced pressure zone backflow preventer shall be installed on the water distribution system to the building at the outlet side of the meter or main control valve.
    4. Emergency Wash Stations shall be installed and be compliant with the provisions of 239 CMR.

Top


10.11: Hangers and Supports

  1. General. Piping shall be installed with provisions, when necessary, for expansion, contraction or structural settlement.
  2. Material. Hangers, anchors, and supports shall be of metal or other material of sufficient strength to support the piping and its contents, except that piers may be of concrete, brick, or other Product-Approved material.
  3. Attachment to Building. Hangers and anchors shall be securely attached to the building at sufficiently close intervals to support the piping and its contents.
  4. Intervals of Supports.
    1. Vertical Piping. Vertical pipe of the following materials shall be supported at not more than the following distance intervals:
      1. Cast iron soil pipe -- at base and at each story height.
      2. Threaded pipe (SPS) -- every other story height.
      3. Copper tubing -- at each story height but not more than ten-foot intervals.
      4. Plastic (PVC and ABS) pipe at each story height, but not more than ten foot intervals and elsewhere as required to maintain proper alignment.
      5. Stainless steel tubing at each story height, but not more than ten foot intervals.
      6. Aluminum DWV --- at each height, or at intervals not exceeding ten feet.
    2. Horizontal Piping. Horizontal pipe of the following materials shall be supported at not more than the following distance intervals.
      1. Cast Iron Soil Pipe -- five foot intervals except that where ten-foot lengths of cast iron soil pipe are used, ten-foot intervals between supports are acceptable.
      2. Threaded pipe -- 12 foot intervals.
      3. Copper tubing (1¼ inches or less) -- six-foot intervals.
      4. Copper tubing (1½ inches or over) -- ten-foot intervals.
      5. Plastic (PVC and ABS) pipe (1½ inches or less) -- three-foot intervals, (two inches or over) --- four-foot intervals, (Refer to 248 CMR 10.06(2)(o) and 248 CMR 10.06(2)(p).
      6. Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing shall meet the following requirements:
        1. the maximum hanger spacing is to be 32-inch intervals for all sizes;
        2. the tubing is to be secured rigidly to studs or joist with hangers and supports that enable adequate expansion and ease of movement;
        3. Plumber shall consult the individual manufacturers recommendations for other specific installation methods.
      7. Stainless steel tubing at each story height, but not more than ten foot intervals.
      8. Stainless Steel Tubing (1¼ inches or less) -- six-foot intervals.
      9. Stainless Steel Tubing (1½ inches or over) -- ten-foot intervals.
      10. Aluminum DWV pipe -- ten foot intervals.
      11. CPVC pipe sizes one inch or less shall be supported at three-foot intervals and sizes 1¼ and greater shall be supported at four-foot intervals.
  5. Base of Stacks.
    1. Bases of cast iron stacks shall be supported on concrete, brick laid in cement mortar, metal brackets attached to the building, or by other methods approved by the Inspector.
    2. Other piping material shall be so anchored as to take the load off the stack at the base.
  6. Piping in Masonry.
    1. Piping which is installed in and parallel to the faces of reinforced concrete or masonry walls shall be installed in adequately sized pipe space chases formed in the concrete or masonry walls.
    2. The pipe chase spaces shall be accessible, or the piping shall be otherwise installed free of the reinforced concrete or masonry.

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10.12: Indirect Waste Piping

  1. Indirect Wastes Required.
    1. Food Handling Establishments.
      1. Food handling establishments engaged in the storage, preparation, selling, serving, processing, or in any manner the handling of food shall provide: indirect waste piping for refrigerators, refrigerator coils, walk-in freezers or coolers, ice compartments, ice making machines, steam kettles, steam tables, potato peelers, egg boilers, coffee urns, coffee, soda and beverage trays and all similar types of enclosed equipment.
      2. Dishwashing pre-rinse sinks installed in combination with a commercial dishwasher, pot sinks, scullery sinks and other sinks are excluded from the indirect waste requirement and shall be directly connected to the sanitary drainage system.
      3. Single compartment culinary/produce sinks or individual culinary/produce sink compartments specifically designated and *labeled for produce preparation shall convey the waste from these fixtures or compartments indirectly to a properly trapped and vented floor sink. The produce preparation compartment shall be authorized and approved by the Local Board of Health or other designated municipal health official.
      4. The produce preparation label must be a laminated sign with letters two-inches in height that reads: "This Compartment ONLY Is Designated For Produce Preparation."
      5. All indirect waste shall discharge through an air gap or air break into a properly trapped and vented receptor except that an air gap is required where the indirect waste pipe may be under vacuum (less than atmospheric pressure).
    2. Connections from Water Distributions System. Indirect waste connections shall be provided for drains, overflows, or relief lines from the water distribution system by means of an air gap.
    3. Sterilizers. Appliances, devices, or apparatus such as stills, sterilizers and similar equipment requiring waste connections and used for sterile materials shall be indirectly connected by means of an air gap.
    4. Drips or Drainage Outlets. Appliances, devices or apparatus not regularly classed as plumbing fixtures but which have drips or drainage outlets, may be drained by indirect waste pipes discharging into an open receptacle through either an air gap or air break.
    5. Clear Water Wastes.
      1. Expansion tanks, fire sprinkler systems, air conditioning equipment, drip or overflow pans, or similar devices that waste clear water only, shall discharge waste into the building storm drainage system. The clear water waste shall discharge through an indirect waste by means of an air gap, except:
      2. The waste discharge from safe waste pans serving water heaters or hot water storage tanks is exempt from this requirement and may discharge to a properly trapped and vented fixture by means of an air gap to the sanitary drainage system.
      3. Clear water condensate waste that is produced in cumulative amounts of 12.5 gallons per hour or 300 gallons per day or less in buildings by air conditioning equipment, air compressor blow-down discharge (free of petroleum hydrocarbons) or other similar apparatus or appliances may be discharged to the sanitary drainage system in accordance with 248 CMR 10.12(1)(a)5. The clear water waste requirement is not withstanding any local ordinance, by-law, rule or regulation to the contrary.
    6. Swimming Pools.
      1. Pipes that convey waste water from swimming or wading pools including pool drainage, back wash from filters, water from scum gutter drains or floor drains which serve walks around pools, shall be installed as an indirect waste.
      2. Circulation pumps may be utilized to lift waste water when the indirect waste line is below the sewer grade.
      3. The indirect waste shall discharge into the storm drainage system through an air gap.
      4. All indirect waste from swimming pools shall be free of chlorine prior to discharge to the storm drainage system.
    7. Pressure Tanks, Boilers and Relief Valves. The drains from pressure tanks, boilers, relief valves and similar equipment when connected to the storm drainage system shall discharge through an indirect waste by means of an air gap.
    8. Safe Waste Required.
      1. A safe waste pan shall be installed under a water heater or hot water storage tank that is installed in a position elevated above any occupied space.
      2. The safe waste pan shall be installed under water heaters and hot water storage tanks where there is occupancy below and shall be piped indirectly to a properly trapped and vented fixture.
      3. The Minimum size waste pipe is to be 1¼-inch pipe.
      4. Where floor drains and other acceptable points of indirect discharge are installed, no safe waste shall be required.
    9. Safe Waste Pans.
      1. Safe waste pans shall be at least two inches deep and have a minimum clearance of two inches around the base of the hot water storage tanks.
      2. Safe waste pans shall be installed for hot water storage tanks that are six gallons in capacity or larger. See 248 CMR 10.22: Figure 14.
    10. Materials for the Discharge Piping of Safe Waste Pans. Materials shall comply with materials covered under 248 CMR 10.06 relating to commercial and residential installations.
  2. Air Gap or Air Break Required. All indirect waste piping shall discharge into the building sanitary or storm drainage system through an air gap or air break, as set forth in 248 CMR 10.12(1)(a)5. and in no instance shall the indirect waste be trapped ahead of the air gap or air break.
    1. Methods of Providing an Air Gap. The air gap between the indirect waste and the building sanitary or storm drainage system shall be at least twice the effective diameter of the drain served and shall be provided by one of the following methods:
      1. To a Receptor:
        1. Extend the indirect waste pipe to an open, accessible individual waste sink, floor drain, or other fixture which is properly trapped and vented.
        2. The indirect waste shall terminate a sufficient distance above the flood level rim of the receiving fixture to provide the required air gap, and shall be installed in accordance with 248 CMR 10.00.
      2. To the Inlet Side of Trap: Provide an air gap in the drain connection on the inlet side of the trap which receives the waste from the indirect waste.
    2. Methods of Providing an Air Break. When an air break is required between the indirect waste and the building sanitary or storm drainage system, the distance to which the outlet of the indirect waste pipe extends below the flood level rim of the receptacle into which it is discharging shall be prescribed in 248 CMR 10.00.
  3. Receptors or Sumps.
    1. Installation. Indirect waste receptors and sumps serving indirect waste pipes shall not be installed in toilet facilities or in any location that is an inaccessible or unventilated space such as a closet, storeroom or crawl space.
    2. Cleanout Location. If the indirect waste receptor is set below floor level, it shall be equipped with a running trap adjacent thereto with the trap cleanout brought level with the floor.
    3. Strainers and Baskets. Every indirect waste receptor shall be equipped with a readily removable metal basket over which all indirect waste pipes shall discharge, or the indirect waste receptor outlet shall be equipped with a beehive strainer not less than four inches in height.
    4. Splashing to be Prevented. All plumbing receptors receiving the discharge of indirect waste pipes, shall be of a design and capacity so as to prevent splashing or flooding of the adjacent area.
    5. Domestic or Culinary Fixture Prohibited as Receptors. No plumbing fixture which is used for domestic or culinary purposes shall be used to receive the discharge of an indirect waste pipe, except that in a residence a kitchen sink is acceptable for use as a receptor for dishwashers and portable clothes washing machines.
    6. The Stand Pipe Receptors. The stand pipe receptor for an automatic clothes washing machine shall be installed in one of the following ways:
      1. The stand pipe receptor shall be individually trapped and vented.
      2. The stand pipe shall be no more than 30 inches nor less than 18 inches above its trap and in no case shall the trap be installed below the floor.
      3. The stand pipe receptor shall be installed in the cover of a floor drain provided that the cover is properly tapped to receive the stand pipe.
      4. The floor drain or trench drain shall be sized based on the discharge rate of the automatic clothes washer.
  4. Condenser Sumps.
    1. No steam condenser waste pipe shall directly connect to any part of a sanitary or storm drainage system, nor shall any water above 150EF be discharged into any part of a sanitary or storm drainage system.
    2. Steam condenser piping may require temperature control by discharging to an approved boiler blow-off tank. Steam condenser piping shall be connected by discharging into an indirect waste receptor connected to the sanitary drainage system.
  5. Installation of Indirect Waste Piping.
    1. Accessibility. Indirect waste piping shall be installed so as to enable ready access for flushing, cleaning, or replacement.
    2. Material, Slope, Sizing, and Approval.
      1. The piping material to be used, its size and the slope at which it is installed shall meet the requirements of 248 CMR 10.00.
      2. Any fixture or piece of equipment to be indirectly wasted that has a waste outlet smaller than 1¼ inches in diameter shall be connected to an indirect waste pipe one size larger than said outlet.
    3. Indirect Waste Piping Described.
      1. Individual Indirect Waste. An indirect waste which connects to one waste outlet and extends to the receiver shall be classified as an Individual Indirect Waste.
      2. Indirect Waste Main. An indirect waste which connects to more than one waste outlet and extends to the receiver shall be classified as an Indirect Waste Main.
      3. Indirect Waste Branch Main. A branch from an indirect waste main which connects to more than one waste outlet shall be classified as an Indirect Waste Branch Main.
      4. Indirect Waste Branch. An indirect waste which connects to one waste outlet and extends to either an indirect waste main or an indirect waste branch main shall be classified as an Indirect Waste Branch.
    4. Traps.
      1. Prohibited. A trap shall not be installed on an indirect waste main or on an indirect waste branch main.
      2. Where Allowed. On any indirect waste branch or individual indirect waste where it is necessary or desirable to prevent the flow of air from inside the indirect waste piping through the indirect waste branch.
    5. Air Circulation Through Indirect Waste Piping.
      1. Provision shall be made so that air can circulate freely through an individual indirect waste, an indirect waste main or an indirect waste branch main.
      2. Only an indirect waste branch may be trapped and when the trapping of indirect waste branch or branches will interfere with the free flow of air through the indirect waste main or branch main, additional ventilation outlets shall be provided to enable the free flow of air.
      3. An indirect waste stack receiving the discharge from fixtures on two or more floors shall be extended to the outer air as required for a stack vent.
  6. Multiple Occupancy.
    1. When a system of indirect waste piping serves buildings or premises having more than one tenant occupancy, it shall be designated as a "Central Indirect Waste System" and connection to it from separate tenant occupancies shall be designated as "Separate Indirect Waste Systems."
    2. Separate indirect waste systems shall be connected to "Central Indirect Waste Systems" as follows:
      1. The indirect waste branch to a separate occupancy shall be trapped, and this trap shall serve as a secondary indirect waste receiver for the separate indirect waste system.
      2. The indirect waste branch to a separate occupancy may be from a horizontal indirect waste main or branch main, or from an indirect waste stack.
    3. Secondary Indirect Waste Receivers.
      1. Traps serving secondary indirect waste receivers shall be protected from siphonage by adequate individual battery of stack vents.
      2. Vents on indirect waste piping systems shall not be connected to the vents of any other piping system but shall be extended separately to the outer air as required for stack vents.

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10.13: Piping and Treatment of Special Hazardous Wastes

(1) General.

(a) In no case shall special hazardous wastes discharge into the plumbing system without being thoroughly diluted, neutralized, or treated by passing through a properly constructed and acceptable diluting or neutralizing device.

(b) The required diluting or neutralizing device shall be automatically provided with a sufficient intake of diluting water or neutralizing medium so as to make its contents non-injurious before being discharged into the drainage system.

(c) All plans and specifications for special hazardous waste piping and treatment systems shall be prepared by a registered professional engineer and shall be submitted to the local Inspector.

(d) Systems requiring special consideration by the engineer are those handling organisms containing recombinant DNA molecules, radioactive, nuclear, solvents and perchloric wastes.

(e) When required, the plans, specifications, and other pertinent data, as requested, shall be submitted by the designer to the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) or other authorities for their review and approval.

(f) Permits shall be applied for on the basis of plans approved under 248 CMR 10.13(1)(c) and inspections shall be conducted for the work described in 248 CMR 10.13 in accordance with the requirements noted in 248 CMR 10.13.

(g) All special hazardous wastes shall be conveyed in separate piping systems

(h) 248 CMR 10.13 shall include, but shall not be limited to, all special hazardous wastes such as organisms containing recombinant DNA molecules, chemical, nuclear, radioactive, deionized liquids, acids, perchloric, solvents and alkalines from laboratories and industrial activities.

(i) Nuclear or radioactive waste treatment and/or disposal shall conform to the standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, N.R.C.

(j) Color Marking requirements:

  1. Lines conveying special hazardous wastes shall be painted yellow.
  2. This requirement may be met by painting three inch wide bands at intervals of not more than 25 feet and at points where piping passes through walls, floors and roofs, in which case the bands shall be applied to the piping on both sides of the walls and both above and below the floor or roof.
  3. Snap-on bands marked "special hazardous wastes" may be used and spaced as described herein for painted bands.
  4. Points of outlet for special hazardous wastes shall also be color-coded yellow.

(k) Special hazardous waste of material treatment and/or disposal shall be conducted in conformance with 310 CMR 30.00: Hazardous Waste (DEP) and local bylaws.

(l) Emergency Wash Systems shall meet the following requirements:

  1. The systems shall be required in every school, college, university, or building laboratory newly constructed or renovated, or any room used for similar purposes wherein:
    1. corrosive or flammable liquids are handled;
    2. chemicals are stored or used; or
    3. where open flame devices are used.
  2. The systems shall include Drench/Deluge Showers, Hand Held Body/Face washers and Deck Mounted Drench Hoses.
  3. The permanently mounted showers shall be located as close to the main door of the laboratory as possible (to provide escape route), but shall not be located greater than 50 feet from an experimental area.
  4. The permanently mounted shower shall be capable of discharging a continuous spray at a rate of 30 Gallons Per Minute.
  5. The systems shall be tempered to between 70EF and 90EF and be installed in a manner that prevents the stagnation of water in the piping that supplies permanently mounted showers and face/eye wash stations.
  6. An exception to the tempered water requirement is: in existing buildings where tempered water is inaccessible, cold potable water shall be permitted with prior permission of the fire prevention safety officer and Inspector.
  7. Existing laboratories shall be compliant with the most recent provisions of 527 CMR 10.02(2): Fire Extinguishers from the Board of Fire Prevention Regulations.

(2) Product-approved Materials: Fixtures and Piping Systems.

(a) List of Fixture Materials.

PRIMARYSECONDARY (optional)
1. High silicon (14.5% cast iron)A. All items 1 - 8 Primary
2. PolypropyleneB Poly-Vinyl Chloride (PVC)
3. Polyethylene
4. Glass
5. Chemical stoneware
6. Stainless Steel Type #316-18-8
7. Chemical resistant monolith epoxy resins
8. Polyvinylidene Fluoride(PVDF)

(b) All materials listed in 248 CMR 10.13(2)(a) shall be installed and joined in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendation and 248 CMR 10.11.

(c) Pipes shall be furnished in straight lengths and each length shall be marked with the manufacturer's name and the type of material.

(d) For applicable material standard, refer to 248 CMR 10.06.

(3) Installation Methods for Special Hazardous-waste Piping: Installation for special Hazardous-waste piping shall conform to 248 CMR 10.13(3): Tables 1 and 2:

248 CMR 10.13(3): TABLE 1

PIPE AND FITTINGS PRIMARY

MaterialsJoining MethodsAbove GroundBelow Ground
High Silicon cast ironAcid Resistant Packing with caulked lead joint or Mechanical ClampYesYes
Glass PipeMechanical ClampYesYes
(a)(c)
Polypropylene Sch. 40 or 80Heat FusionYes
(b)(e)
Yes
(e)
Polypropylene Sch. 40 or 80Mechanical Joints Clamp or FlangeYes
(b)(d)(e)
Yes
(c)(e)
PolyethyleneHeat FusionYes
(b)(e)
Yes
(e)
PolyvinylideneHeat FusionYes
(b)(d)
Yes
PolyvinylideneMechanical JointsYes
(b)(d)
No

(a) Buried glass pipe shall be sleeved with rigid foam casing.

(b) Shall be flame retardant above ground.

(c) Only stainless steel mechanical joint clamps or heat fusion joining method shall be used underground.

(d) Flanges may be used above ground with proper gasket material for corrosive resistance to the waste carried and compatibility with the piping material.

(e) I.P.S. threaded joints may be used on schedule 80 polypropylene, polyethylene.

248 CMR 10.13(3): TABLE 2

PIPE AND FITTINGS SECONDARY

MaterialJoining MethodsAbove GroundBelow Ground
a. All items listed above for primaryall items listed above for primaryYesYes
b. Poly Vinyl ChlorideInjection Bonding, Solvent cement, Approved mechanical jointsYesYes

(3) Vents Serving Special Hazardous Wastes. Vent pipes shall not be connected to vents of the sanitary system but shall be extended through the roof with acid resistant pipe vents from biomedical facilities and shall be designed in accordance with the NIH guidelines.

(4) The Design and Installation of New Special Hazardous Waste Systems Including Additions, Renovations, Alterations or Revisions To Existing Systems.

(a) The owner shall submit a notarized letter stating the materials to be disposed of, or discharged into the special hazardous waste system. This letter shall be attached to the plans submitted per the requirements in 248 CMR 10.13(1), and will be the basis of the engineer's design.

(b) The special hazardous waste system receiving the discharge of corrosive liquids, regardless of the size or number of fixtures, shall be installed separately from the other parts of the building plumbing system.

(c) The waste shall terminate at a point ten feet beyond the outlet of the final treatment or the inner face of the exterior foundation wall and shall be a minimum size of four inches.

(d) That portion of piping from the outlet of the neutralizing and treatment device to a point ten feet beyond the inner face of the foundation wall shall be of a material that is Product-approved specifically for special hazardous waste systems.

(e) Pumps that discharge special hazardous waste shall be constructed of pressure rated pipe and fittings, and be of material compatible with Product-approved material specifically for special hazardous waste systems.

(f) Pump wetted parts, pit lining, pit frames, and pit covers shall be constructed of materials chemically resistant to the liquids being collected and discharged.

(g) Alternate design of a system, materials and/or termination points shall be considered only where evidence is presented that the standard contained in 248 CMR 10.13(4)(a) through (f) cannot reasonably be complied with. Before a permit may be issued, plans for an alternative special hazardous waste system shall be submitted to the Inspector for review and approval .

(5) Plumbing Layouts for Laboratory Sinks and Tables.

(a) General. The installation of waste and venting system for piping handling special hazardous liquids shall be the same as sanitary waste and vent piping, except as modified in 248 CMR 10.13.

(b) Traps. A trap serving a fume hood or similar type piece of enclosed equipment may not be used to serve another fixture outside the hood enclosure and more than one fume hood may not be served by the same trap.

(c) Individual Venting of Traps.

  1. Individual vents shall be provided whenever a battery waste and vent system is not being used.
  2. When more than one fixture is served by a single continuous waste and vent, the branch fittings to receive the discharge from traps need not be at the same elevation.

(d) Battery Systems of Waste and Vent Piping.

  1. The main horizontal branch drain shall be one pipe size larger than that required by the fixture units connected to it. (Figure cup sinks as one fixture unit.)
  2. Horizontal piping size three inches and smaller shall have a minimum slope of ¼ inch per foot.
  3. In battery venting, the vent shall be connected to the drain between the last and second last branches to fixture traps and a relief vent shall be connected to the main drain between the waste stack and the first branch to fixture trap on all but the highest connection to a stack.
  4. Additional relief vents are required on battery systems of waste and vent piping when the total number of traps served on any one main drain or branch main drain exceeds six, and each additional relief vent may serve from one to five additional traps.
  5. Minimum size of relief vents shall be two inches.
  6. Any branch from a main battery waste which has a separate trap vent may be considered as a relief vent and every branch waste having a developed length exceeding ten feet shall be individually vented.
  7. The vent for a main battery waste shall be at least ½ the diameter of the horizontal branch drain.
  8. Floor drains may be connected to the horizontal main battery drain with traps below the floor. In such cases:
    1. the minimum size of the branch shall be not less than three inches;
    2. the main branch to which the floor drain waste is connected need not be larger than the branch to the floor drain;
    3. a separate trap vent is not required unless the developed length from the centerline of the floor drain trap inlet exceeds 15 feet.
    4. Floor drain traps shall be included in determining relief vent requirements.
  9. Whenever the main horizontal branch of battery waste piping is below the floor on which the fixtures occur, either a drum trap or a P trap may be used and a cleanout shall be installed in the vertical waste above the floor. See 248 CMR 10.22: Figure 11.

(6) Sizing for Neutralizing Sumps

(a) The normal laboratory sink will produce on the average about ten gallons per hour of affluent and this is the basis which should be used to size the neutralizing sump.

(b) The smallest size sump to be used should have a capacity of five gallons which will handle a single laboratory sink or a cup sink.

(c) To size a sump for more than one sink, the following Table 3 should be used.

248 CMR 10.13, TABLE 3

Maximum Number of Sinks HandledTank Capacity In GallonsMinimum Inlet Outlet and Vent Sizes
152
415*2
8303
16554
25100**4
401504
602004
752504
1003504
1505004

*Sumps 15 gallons and larger shall be chamber vented.

**When in the judgement of the professional engineer, a neutralizing tank is to be equipped with a pH system, the pH system should be equipped with an audio-visual alarm. The regulatory agency may also require an "outflow" recorder for pH. The alarm and recorder shall function when the system is operating.

(c) The neutralizing materials to be used should be either:

  1. For dilute acid waste water.
    1. Limestone in pieces of one to three inches diameter size range must contain a high calcium carbonate content in excess of 90%.
    2. If the neutralizing medium selected is limestone, then its fill level must be from the sump tank bottom to the invert of the inlet pipe.
  2. For Acidic and Alkaline Waste. Caustic Soda (NaOH) and Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) or other neutralizing agents may be added through metering pumps to control the pH.

(d) Maintenance of Neutralizing Sumps.

  1. To insure the correct operation of this system, it shall be inspected monthly (by removing the cover, checking the level of limestone chips and adding chips if necessary) and neutralizing materials be replaced or replenished as required.
  2. A sign shall be stenciled on or in the immediate area of the sump in letters one inch high. This sign shall read:

    IMPORTANT "This sump must be inspected on a regular and frequent basis and the neutralizing medium or agent replaced when necessary. Failure to do so will result in serious damage to the piping system."

(e) Materials of Sumps:

  1. The following materials are Product-Approved by the Board:
    1. High-Density Polyethylene***
    2. Chemical Stoneware
    3. Polypropylene
    4. Fiber Glass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)***
    5. Precast or poured in place concrete chambers with a liner resistant to the hazardous waste being discharged.
    6. The use of materials other than those specified above must be Product-approved by the Board.
  2. Sumps 15 gallons and larger shall be chamber vented.
  3. When in the judgment of the professional engineer, a neutralizing tank is to be equipped with a pH system, the pH system should be equipped with an audio-visual alarm. The regulatory agency may also require an "outflow" recorder for pH. The alarm and recorder shall function when the system is operating.
  4. Sump material subject to distortion by heat or other factors, when in use, such as Fiber Glass Reinforced Plastic, must be restrained or enclosed.

(f) Curbing Around Sumps. DEP standards require curbing around sumps above certain sizes.

(7) Discharge of Waste Through Troughs.

(a) Laboratory furniture and casework which utilize troughs for the discharge of wastes shall be independently trapped, wasted or vented unless the waste outlet is within 30" of a properly wasted and vented sink.

(b) Where troughs or floor trenches are required to intercept floor spills, or are required for tank or equipment drainage, the outlets from the trough or trenches shall be equipped with acid resisting grating and lining and the system shall be trapped and vented as hereinbefore specified.

***Sump material subject to distortation by heat or other factors, when in use, must be restrained or enclosed.

(8) pH Adjustment Tanks.

(a) Where it is inadvisable or impractical to install a neutralizing sump with either marble or limestone chips to bring pH factor of waste materials up to neutral zone or where the pH factor of anticipated wastes may vary from acid range through neutral zone and up into the alkaline range a pH adjustment tank shall be provided.

(b) pH adjustment tanks may be installed for partial or entire building systems.

(c) pH adjustment tanks will consist of an acid/alkaline resisting tank, receiving wastewater from one or more sinks. The tanks shall meet the following requirements:

  1. This tank is to be sized according to 248 CMR 10.13(6).
  2. The tank is to have an agitator, which will operate when lab sinks and cup sinks or other hazardous waste fixtures are in use.
  3. The tank will also have a sensor, to detect the pH of tank contents, within a range of two to 12 (alkaline), where the sensor shall be electrically connected to a control panel. This control panel is to be connected to acid/alkaline pumps. Acid/alkaline pumps are to be inserted into tanks containing neutralizing agents to bring tank contents up from an acid pH or down from an alkaline pH to a range of six to nine. The discharge of each pump is to run directly to the top of the adjustment tank. See schematic sketch in 248 CMR 10.13(8): FIGURE 1.

(d) When in the judgement of the professional engineer a neutralized tank is to be equipped with a pH system, the pH system shall be equipped with an audio-visual alarm, which shall function at all times the system is operating

(e) The regulatory agency may also require an "outflow" recorder for pH, which shall function at all times the system is operating.

(f) Solvent bearing waste shall not be introduced into the building drainage system or sewer but shall be disposed of according to the applicable regulations of the DEP, EPA or other appropriate regulating agency.

(g) Acidic wastes shall be neutralized before being discharged into the building's drainage system.

FIGURE 1

schematic sketch of pH adjustment system

(9) Recombinant D.N.A. Laboratory Wastes

(a) Viable organisms containing recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as defined in the latest revision of the National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH guidelines), except those qualifying as Good Large Scale Practice (GLSP) organisms, shall not be introduced into the building drainage system or sewers without first being sterilized, treated or inactivated as described in 248 CMR 10.13(9)(b) and (c).

(b) In laboratories where both fermentation and purification take place, the waste for each shall be treated by methods proven to be effective and appropriate for the specific type of waste (as required by Massachusetts Law, 310 CMR 30.000: Hazardous Waste, and Water Resource Commission, Regulation of Waste into Sewerage Works) prior to their discharge into the building's drainage system or sewer.

(c) Laboratory wastes, generated by biomedical research or production laboratories, which contain viable recombinant DNA organisms not qualifying as GLSP organisms, shall be sterilized or treated according to the regulations and standards of the National Institute of Health (Recombinant DNA Guidelines and the Laboratory Safety Monograph) or the applicable requirement of other agencies having jurisdiction. The owner of the laboratory shall:

  1. submit the proposed treatment procedures to the registered professional engineer who prepares the plans and specifications of the hazardous waste system;
  2. submit the proposed treatment procedures to the relevant authorities, including the Inspector; and
  3. receive their approval prior to connection to the building's drainage system.

(d) Waste containing recombinant DNA organisms shall be:

  1. Sterilized or treated at the point of origin or, where there is more than one point of origin, these wastes may be collected in a central holding tank for sterilization and treatment.
  2. The holding tank is to have a sampling device and a high water alarm.
  3. The alarm shall be activated when the tank's contents have reached a predetermined level.
  4. The sampling device is to consist of a pump or other device or means to transfer a selected sample into the control area of the laboratory for verification that it contains no living organisms.
  5. When the sample contains no living organisms, the contents of the tank can then be allowed to enter the sewer system. If the sampling process discovers live cells, the contents of the tank shall be re-sterilized and re-tested before being allowed to enter into the sewer. See reference cited below concerning "steam sterilization" and "chemical disinfection."

(e) Testing and Monitoring.

  1. The adequacy of treatment methods as selected by an institution is to be monitored on a periodic basis.
  2. Biomedical research or production laboratories shall maintain records indicating the results of such testing.
  3. In the event of a testing failure, the system is to be corrected immediately.

(f) Neutralizing chambers or tanks employing marble or limestone chips shall not be used to adjust pH for wastes generated by biomedical research or production laboratories.

(g) Approved and recommended references for "steam sterilization" and "chemical disinfection".

  1. Laboratory Safety Monograph (A supplement to the NIH Guidelines of Health and Human Services Section 11-E-8, Selecting Chemical Disinfectants in Recombinant DNA Research, 102-105.
  2. Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation 3rd Ed. Edited S. S. Bock, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1983. (Part 1 Chemical and Physical Sterilization, Chapter 1 Sterilization by Heat.)

(10) Industrial Wastewater. When usage of either a neutralizing sump or a pH adjustment tank would be inadequate to treat the industrial wastewater discharge and therefore not comply with applicable regulatory limits on hazardous waste, an industrial wastewater treatment system shall be designed by an engineer and plans and specifications shall be submitted to the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) or other authorities as required.

(11) Secondary Containment.

(a) When a secondary containment system for hazardous waste is specified, it must be installed by a licensed plumber in compliance with 248 CMR 10.13.

(b) The system must be able to withstand a ten-foot hydrostatic head pressure.

(c) The outer system shall be air tested to five P.S.I.G. for ten minutes.

(d) The gauge used shall be calibrated in increments no greater than 1/10 P.S.I.G.

(e) The system shall allow for thermal expansion and contraction, and inner and outer piping support.

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REGULATORY AUTHORITY
248 CMR 10.00: M.G.L. c. 112, § 61; M.G.L. c. 142, §§ 13 and 21.