Sir Edmund Andros
Painting: by Frederick E. Wallace, 1924

Royal Governor, Dominion of New England: 1686-1689

As Governor of the Colony of New York, Edmund Andros improved the Colony's defenses and settled a boarder dispute. He was knighted in 1681 and sent back to the American colonies as the Royal Governor of the Dominion of New England, which included New York and the Jerseys north to New Hampshire and Maine.

Not only would the rule of Andros be despised, but also it would end with him in chains. The colonies had been politically drifting from England's control, and it was Andros' task to reassert England's will. Andros attempted to consolidate his political power by forbidding town meetings, except for annual elections. He prohibited citizens from leaving the country without his consent, hence restraining any complaints from being carried to the King. Boston's Puritans were indignant when the right of marriage was removed from the clergy. They were further incensed when he took use of the Old South Church for Anglican services until King's Chapel was constructed.

At the news of the accession of William and Mary, the Boston colonials rebelled. Andros and his officials were held on Castle Island and then sent back to England as prisoners. Andros was exonerated and went on to become Governor of Virginia (1692-98). Former Governor Simon Bradstreet took over Massachusetts' leadership until the arrival of Sir William Phips in 1692.