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Guide to Evidence

Guide to Evidence Guide to Evidence Index

Adopted Date: 01/01/2021

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Table of Contents

A

ABUSE OF DISCRETION 

Appellate court’s review for 

  • § 102, Note. Purpose and Construction
  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Bowden evidence

Character evidence 

Collateral attacks

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Courtroom experiments and demonstrations

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Discharge of jurors 

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment 

Evidence of impeachment

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons    

Evidence of likelihood of sexual reoffense

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Evidence of prior consistent statements

  • § 613(b), Note. Prior Consistent Statements    

Evidence of prior possession of firearm

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Evidence of sexual behavior or sexual reputation 

Evidence of similar occurrences

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Exclusion as sanction 

Expert witness testimony 

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses 

First complaint doctrine 

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint 
  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis 

Opening statements 

Peremptory challenges

Scope of cross-examination

Sequestration of witnesses

Statistical summaries of compilations of raw data

Summonses for privileged records

Weapons evidence

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

ABUSE PREVENTION PROCEEDINGS 

Abuse Defined

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Evidentiary principles applicable

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Generally

  • § 1106 Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Termination of order

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

ACCUSED 

See DEFENDANT

ADJUDICATIVE FACTS 

  • § 201 Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts 

ADMISSIBILITY 

Additional reports of sexual assault 

  • § 413(b) Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis 

Authentication or identification as precedent of 

  • § 901  Authenticating or Identifying Evidence 

Blood alcohol/breathalyzer tests, refusal of 

Character evidence 

  • § 404 . Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts 
  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character 
  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness 
  • § 803(21). Reputation Concerning Character 

Character trait 

  • § 404 Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts 
  • § 405 Methods of Proving Character 

Collateral source payments

Compromise 

  • § 408 Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Computer simulations

Conduct, prior sexual 

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law) 

Conduct, specific instances 

Confessions

Copies 

  • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
  • § 1002 Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule) 
  • § 1003 Admissibility of Duplicate 
  • § 1004 Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content 
  • § 1005 Official Records 

Courtroom experiments and demonstrations

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons 

Crimes 

Curative

Depositions and affidavits

Determination of 

  • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof
  • § 104 Preliminary Questions 
  • § 403 Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons 

DNA evidence

Evidence not admissible against other parties or for other purposes

  • § 105 Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes

Evidence of insurance

Expert testimony 

  • § 702 Testimony by Expert Witnesses 
  • § 703 Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts 
  • § 704 Opinion on Ultimate Issue 
  • § 705 Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion 
  • § 706 Court-Appointed Experts 
  • § 1117(c). Expert Opinion Testimony

Expressions of sympathy 

  • § 409 Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical and Similar Expenses 

Extrapolation evidence

Eyewitness identification

  • § 1112  Eyewitness Identification

Firearm identification testimony

First complaint 

  • § 413(a)  Admissibility of First Complaint 

Habit 

  • § 406 Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual 

Hearsay 

  • Article VIII, Intro Hearsay
  • § 801 Definitions 
  • § 802 The Rule Against Hearsay 
  • § 803 Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial 
  • § 804 Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable 
  • § 805 Hearsay Within Hearsay 
  • § 806 Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant 
  • § 807 Residual Exception
  • § 1101(c)(3), Note. Certain Other Proceedings
  • § 1101(d). Motions to Suppress
  • § 1103 Sexually Dangerous Person Proceedings
  • § 1118(b). Hearsay in G. L. c. 123, § 35, Proceedings

Irrelevant evidence 

  • § 402 General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence 

Limited admissibility 

  • § 105 Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes 

Medical and hospital bills 

  • § 411, Note. Insurance 
  • § 803(6)(C), Note. Medical and Hospital Services 
  • § 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills and Reports 

Medical and hospital records 

  • § 803(6)(A), Note Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
  • § 803(6)(B) Hospital Records 
  • § 902(k) Certified Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Treatment and Medical History 

Medical reports

Mortality tables 

  • § 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports 

Negotiations 

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Offers to compromise 

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Photographs of victim

  • § 403, Note Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Pleas 

  • § 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements 

Prior statements of witnesses

  • § 613 Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

Profile evidence

Relevant evidence 

  • § 401 Test for Relevant Evidence 
  • § 402 General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence 
  • § 403 Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons 

Remedial measures 

  • § 407 Subsequent Remedial Measures 

Reports and records in child protective cases

  • § 1115 Evidentiary Issues in Care and Protection, Child Custody, and Termination of Parental Rights Cases

Role of judge 

Similar occurrences, evidence of

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Statutes limiting 

  • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence 

Summaries 

Suppressed statements, for impeachment

  • § 511(d), Note. Use of Suppressed Statements

Test for 

Ultimate issue testimony 

  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue 

Writing or object used to refresh memory

ADMISSIONS 

Adoptive admission 

Binding 

By conduct 

By silence 

Defined, criminal case 

Evidentiary

Inconsistent statements by prosecutor 

Joint venture 

Judicial 

Made on face of settlement documents 

  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Nonbinding 

Of liability 

  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases
  • § 409(a)  Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

Party-opponent 

To sufficient facts

Vicarious admissions 

ADVERSE INFERENCE 

Abuse prevention proceedings 

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Child protective cases

  • § 1115(e)(3), Note. Parents Called by Adverse Party  
  • § 1115(g). Adverse Inference from a Party’s Failure to Appear    

Civil commitment hearings for substance use disorders

  • § 1118(c). Refusal to Testify in G. L. c. 123, § 35, Proceedings

Claim of privilege

  • § 525  Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege

Consciousness of guilt or liability 

Failure to call witness 

Failure to preserve material evidence or perform probative tests

Harassment prevention proceedings

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Missing witness 

Privilege against self-incrimination 

Psychotherapist-patient privilege 

ADVERSE PARTY 

Calling parent as witness by, in child protective cases

Calling social worker as witness by, in child protective cases

Deposition of

Entitlement to writing used by witness to refresh memory 

  • § 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory 

Interrogation of 

  • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence 

Notice of intent to use treatise to impeach witness 

Permission to use another part of admitted statement or record 

  • § 106(a). Remainder of Writings or Recorded Statements 

Prior consistent statements, introduction of

  • § 613(b), Note. Prior Consistent Statements    

ADVERSE WITNESS 

Impeachment of

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness 

Leading questions to examine

  • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence 

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

AFFIRMATION OR OATH 

  • § 603. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully 

ANCIENT DOCUMENTS 

APPELLATE REVIEW 

  • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

APPLICABILITY, EVIDENTIARY SECTIONS 

  • § 1101. Applicability of Evidentiary Sections 

ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE 

Adverse inference from, civil case 

Burden of proving

Corporations and shareholders 

Crime-fraud exception

Death of client

Defined

  • § 502, Note. Attorney-Client Privilege

Definition of terms used regarding 

Derivative attorney-client privilege

Exceptions 

General rule 

§ 502(b). General Rule of Privilege 

Ineffective assistance of counsel claim

Jointly represented clients

Law firms and clients 

Not self-executing

Waiver 

Who may claim 

Work-product doctrine

AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION 

Generally 

  • § 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence 

Of ancient documents 

Of computer records

Of copies of birth, marriage and death records

Of digital evidence

Of electronic or digital communication 

Of evidence in probation violation hearings

Of handwriting 

Of non-admitted evidence

Of official records

Of photographs

Of process or system 

Of public records or reports 

Of signature 

  • § 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony 

Of telephone conversation 

Of voice 

Of wills

  • § 903, Note. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

Preliminary determination of fact

Self-authentication 

  • § 902 Evidence That Is Self-Authenticating

Statutory provisions

B

BAPTISMAL CERTIFICATES 

  • § 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates 

BATTERED WOMAN SYNDROME

BEHAVIOR, PAST 

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law) 

BENEVOLENT STATEMENTS 

  • § 409. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical and Similar Expenses 

BEST EVIDENCE RULE (REQUIREMENT OF ORIGINAL) 

Admissibility of other evidence of contents 

  • § 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content 

Admissions of parties 

  • § 1007. Testimony or Statement of Party to Prove Content 

Applicability of 

Duplicates 

  • § 1003. Admissibility of Duplicates 

Electronic records 

  • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule) 

Official records 

Originals, requirement of 

  • § 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule) 

Role of judge and fact finder 

  • § 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder 

Summaries 

Writings/records defined 

  • § 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article 

BIAS 

Cross-examination to show 

Extrinsic proof to show 

In jury selection

Of complainant 

Of examiner in sexually dangerous person proceedings

Of expert witness 

Of judge in questioning witness 

Of juror 

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment 

Of spouse testifying against his or her spouse 

Of witness 

BLOOD ALCOHOL/BREATHALYZER TESTS 

Admission of 

Evidence regarding accuracy

Expert testimony 

Failure to take properly as evidence 

Reference to, in opening statement

Refusal as evidence

Reliability of

BOUNDARIES, REPUTATION CONCERNING 

  • § 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History 

BOWDEN DEFENSE 

BUSINESS RECORDS 

Admissibility 

Child protective cases

  • § 1115(b)(1), Note. Probation Records, Including Criminal Activity  Record Information (CARI)

 Criminal cases

Electronic records

Establishing foundation for

Jury instruction regarding

Personal knowledge of facts stated in

Police reports admissible as

Weight of evidence

C

CARE AND PROTECTION CASES

See CHILD PROTECTIVE CASES

CERTIFICATES

Attested to by nontestifying experts

Death certificate

From registry of motor vehicles

Of baptism

  • § 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

Of copy of official/public record

Of drug analysis

Of marriage

Of working firearm

Prima facie evidence

CHAIN OF CUSTODY

  • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

CHARACTER EVIDENCE

Admissibility of

  • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character
  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness
  • § 803(21). Reputation Concerning Character

Essential element

For truthfulness

Generally

Of defendant

  • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case, (A)
  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character
  • § 608(a), Note. Reputation Evidence

Of parent, in child protective cases

  • § 1115(b)(1). Probation Records, Including Criminal Activity Record Information (CARI)

Of victim

  • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

Of witness

  • § 404(a)(3). Exceptions for a Witness
  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness
  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Other crimes, wrongs, or acts

Profile evidence

Proof of character

  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

Reputation

  • § 405(a). By Reputation
  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Truthfulness or untruthfulness

CHARACTER TRAIT

Admissibility

Defendant

Essential element

Proof

  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

Reputation as evidence of

CHILD ABUSE

Department of Children and Families (DCF) reports

Drug and alcohol treatment records

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

Religious privilege

Sexual abuse

  • § 503(d)(7). Child Abuse or Neglect
  • § 803(24). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Proceeding to Place Child in Foster Care
  • § 1115(d). Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

Spousal disqualification

Spousal privilege

CHILD PROTECTIVE CASES

Admissibility of evidence

Adoption plans

Adverse inference from party’s failure to appear

  • § 1115(g). Adverse Inference from a Party’s Failure to Appear    

Bonding and attachment studies

Children’s out-of-court statements

Judicial findings from prior proceedings

Official/public records and reports

Testimony

Written court reports

CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE

Of authenticity or identity of an item

Of declarant’s guilt

Of declarant’s state of mind

Of identity of person

Of nature of a place or a thing

CIVIL CASES

Abuse of discretion

Claims of privilege

Closing argument

Compromise offers and negotiations

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Consciousness of liability

Disclosure of facts/data by expert witness

  • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Expert testimony, basis of

  • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Expert witnesses

  • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses
  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue
  • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion
  • § 706. Court-Appointed Experts

Expressions of sympathy

  • § 409(a) Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

Industry and safety standards

  • § 414 Industry and Safety Standards

Inferences

Judicial admissions

Judicial notice

  • § 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts
  • § 202. Judicial Notice of Law

Jury exposure to extraneous material

  • § 606(b), Note During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Opening statement

Peremptory challenges of potential jurors

  • § 1116 Peremptory Challenges of Potential Jurors

Presumptions

Prima facie evidence

Privilege against self-incrimination

Scope of cross-examination

Sequestration of witnesses

  • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Spoliation or destruction of evidence

  • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Spousal disqualification

Statements of facts of general interest

Statutory hearsay exceptions

Ultimate issue

  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Unavailability of witness

  • § 804(a). Criteria for Being Unavailable, (3)

Views

CIVIL COMMITMENT HEARINGS FOR ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS

Admissibility of hearsay

  • § 1118(b). Hearsay in G. L. c. 123, § 35, Proceedings

Expert testimony

  • § 1118(a). Civil Commitment Proceedings Pursuant to G. L. c. 123, § 35, for Individuals with Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders   
  • § 1118(b), Note. Hearsay in G. L. c. 123, § 35, Proceedings

Privileges and disqualifications

  • § 1118(b). Hearsay in G. L. c. 123, § 35, Proceedings

Requirements for commitment

  • § 1118(a). Civil Commitment Proceedings Pursuant to G. L. c. 123, § 35, for Individuals with Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders   

Respondent’s refusal to testify

  • § 1118(c). Refusal to Testify in G. L. c. 123, § 35, Proceedings 

Rights of respondent

  • § 1118(a). Civil Commitment Proceedings Pursuant to G. L. c. 123, § 35, for Individuals with Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders   

Substance use disorder defined

  • § 1118(a), Note. Civil Commitment Proceedings Pursuant to G. L. c. 123, § 35, for Individuals with Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders   

CIVIL COMMITMENT HEARINGS FOR MENTAL ILLNESS

Applicability of law of evidence

Appointment of guardian

Expert opinion testimony

Hospital records

Medical bills, records, and reports

Privileges

  • § 1117(e). Psychotherapist-Patient and Social Worker–Client Privileges 

Requirements for commitment

CLOSING ARGUMENT

Arguing that witness should be believed because appeared to testify

Asking jurors for justice for victim

Asking jurors to use common sense, apply common experience

Attacking credibility

Burden of proof

Collateral sources/outside source of compensation

Commenting on criminal defendant’s courtroom appearance or conduct

Commenting on criminal defendant’s credibility

Commenting on criminal defendant’s silence or testimony

    Commenting that witness has no motive to lie

    Critical stage of trial

    Denigrating of constitutional rights

    Improper argument

    Improper vouching

    Jurors

    Measures to prevent improper argument

    Missing witness, arguments concerning

    Misstatements of law

    Misstating evidence

    Permissible argument

    Prearrest silence, use of for impeachment purposes

    Pre–closing argument conference

    Reading from or quoting transcript or stipulation

    Reference to damages

    Reference to evidence as uncontradicted or uncontested

    Reference to facts not in evidence

    Reference to plea agreement

    Reference to view

    Resort to stereotypes

    Responses to improper argument

    Retaliatory reply

    Shifting the burden of proof

    Statements concerning role of jury

    Time allowed

    Use of chalks

    Use of evidence for purpose other than for which admitted 

    Use of props

    Use of rhetorical questions

    COLLATERAL ATTACKS

    • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

    COLLATERAL SOURCE RULE

    COMMON INTEREST DOCTRINE

    COMMUNICATIONS, PRIVILEGED

    See PRIVILEGES AND DISQUALIFICATIONS

    COMPETENCY OF WITNESS

    Court, discretion of

    Court personnel

    • § 605. Competency of Judge as Witness

    Criminal defendant

    Expert

    • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
    • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
    • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue
    • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

    General rule

    Judge

    • § 605. Competency of Judge as Witness

    Juror

    • § 606. Juror’s Competency as a Witness

    Mental capacity

    Minor

    • § 601 Competency
    • § 610, Note. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

    COMPLETENESS, WRITTEN AND ORAL

    COMPROMISE

    Admissibility

    • § 408 Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

    Negotiations

    • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases
    • § 409(b). Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

    Offers to

    • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases
    • § 409(b). Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

    COMPUTER AND ELECTRONIC RECORDS

    CONDUCT

    Habit

    • § 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

    Of defendant

    Of witness

    • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

    Past behavior

    • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

    Personal knowledge of

    • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

    Routine practice as evidence of inadmissible conduct

    • § 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

    Sexual, prior

    • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

    Specific instances

    CONDUCTING THE TRIAL

    CONFESSIONS

    Admissibility of

    Allied mental health or human services professional privilege

    • § 508(d) Mental Health Counselor Exception, (2)

    Of joint venturer

    Preference for recording certain custodial interrogations

    Psychotherapist-patient privilege

    Religious privilege

    Social worker–client privilege

    • § 507(c). Exceptions, (2)
    • § 1117(e). Psychotherapist-Patient and Social Worker–Client Privileges, (2)(b)

    Unrecorded

    CONFRONTATION CLAUSE

    Abuse prevention proceedings

    Address of witness

    Admission of party-opponent

    Analysis

    Applicability of

    Availability of declarant

    • § 803, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial
    • § 804, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

    Certificates

    Child witnesses

    Dying declarations

    • § 804(b)(2) , Note. Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

    Excited utterances of declarant who is not a witness at trial

    Expert testimony

    Forfeiture of right to confrontation, by wrongdoing 

    • § 804(b)(6) , Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

    Massachusetts law versus Federal law

    Out-of-court statements

    • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
    • § 804, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

    Prior recorded testimony

    Privileged communications

    Records and reports

    Safety concerns of witness

    • § 501, Note. Privileges Recognized Only as Provided

    Scope of cross-examination

    Sequestration of defendant

    • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

    Sexual offender registry records

    Spousal disqualification

    Statements of nontestifying codefendant

    State-of-mind evidence

    • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

    Testimonial versus nontestimonial statements

    Testimony from witness outside defendant’s presence

    Waiver of right to confrontation

    Witness’s feigned memory loss and

    Witness’s refusal to answer questions about collateral matters

    CONSCIOUSNESS OF GUILT

    Arguing during closing argument

    Conduct that may be offered as evidence

    Conduct that may not be offered as evidence

    Facts included in trial testimony but not in pretrial statement

    False statements of defendant

    Generally

    Jury instruction

    Rebuttal evidence

    Testimonial nature of evidence

    Use of defendant’s prearrest conduct or silence

    CONSCIOUSNESS OF INNOCENCE

    • § 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements
    • § 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

    CONSCIOUSNESS OF LIABILITY

    Arguing during closing argument

    Conduct that may be offered as evidence

    Generally

    Jury instruction

    Rebuttal evidence

    CONTENTS OF WRITINGS, PROOF

    Best evidence rule

    • § 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

    Copies

    Other evidence

    • § 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content

    Summaries

    Testimony

    • § 1007. Testimony or Statement of Party to Prove Content

    CONVICTION

    Admission insufficient in itself to warrant

    As evidence of character

    Based on immunized testimony

    Court record of prior conviction, prima facie effect of

    Definition of, for purpose of impeachment

    • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Due process clause

    Evidence of

    • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Impeachment of witness by use of

    • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness
    • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
    • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Prior convictions of complainant

    Prior convictions of defendant

    Proof of

    • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Redaction of nature of

    • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Reference to, in closing argument

    Restitution after

    Role of prosecutor in obtaining

    Sufficient evidence for, arguing lack of in closing argument

    Use of in sexually dangerous person proceedings

    Wrongful convictions

    COPIES, ADMISSIBILITY OF

    • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
    • § 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)
    • § 1003. Admissibility of Duplicate
    • § 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content
    • § 1005. Official Records

    COURT

    Appointment of experts

    Calling of witnesses by

    Closing arguments

    Court-appointed experts

    Directing an offer of proof be made

    • § 103(c). Court’s Statement About the Ruling; Directing an Offer of Proof

    Discretion

    Examining of witness by

    Expert testimony, discretion as to

    • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

    Function

    • § 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder

    Opening statements

    Reopening case, discretion to

    Statement about evidence, objection, or ruling

    • § 103(c). Court’s Statement About the Ruling; Directing an Offer of Proof

    COURTROOM EXPERIMENTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS

    • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

    CREDIBILITY OF WITNESS

    Attacking credibility

    Attorney commenting on, in closing argument

    Collateral source payments and

    Complainant/alleged victim

    Cross-examination on

    Defendant

    Disputes as to

    • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

    Evidence relevant to

    • § 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

    Experts

    • § 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

    Impeachment of

    • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness
    • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness
    • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
    • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
    • § 801(d)(1)(A), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

    Improper vouching

    No motive to lie

    Offers to compromise and

    • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

    On preliminary question of fact

    Opinion of other witness

    Personal opinion of attorney about

    Police officers

    Prior inconsistent statements and

    Recent contrivance and

    Rehabilitation of

    • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis   

    • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay

    • § 801(d)(1)(B) , Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

    Religious beliefs and

    • § 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

    Trier of fact as judge of

    Vicarious admissions and

    Victim

    Witness cooperation agreements and

    • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

    CRIMES

    Conviction of

    • § 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts
    • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Crime-fraud exception

    Evidence of other

    • § 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts
    • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Evidence third-party committed

    • § 1105 Third-Party Culprit Evidence

    Remoteness in time of evidence from date of

    • § 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence

    Restitution for

    Violation of G. L. c. 209A order punishable as

    • § 1106, Note Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceeding

    CRIMINAL CASES

    Abuse of discretion

    Access to third-party records

    • Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records  from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases
    • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

    Admissibility of records

    • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
    • § 803(6)(C), Note. Medical and Hospital Services
    • § 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports

    Admission of party-opponent

    Certificates

    Character evidence of accused

    • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case, (A)

    Closing arguments (see CLOSING ARGUMENT)

    Confrontation clause (see CONFRONTATION CLAUSE)

    Consciousness of guilt (see CONSCIOUSNESS OF GUILT)

    Consciousness of innocence

    • § 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements
    • § 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

    Disclosure of facts, data by expert witness

    • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

    Excited utterance, confrontation of

    • § 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

    Exclusion of witnesses

    • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

    Expert testimony, basis of

    • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

    Expert witnesses

    • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

    Identity of informer

    Identity of protected witness

    Inadequate police investigation

    • § 1107. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

    Inferences

    Judicial notice of facts

    Judicial notice of law

    Missing witness

    Opening statements (see OPENING STATEMENT)

    Out-of-court statements

    Preliminary facts

    Presumptions

    Prima facie evidence

    Privileges (see PRIVILEGES AND DISQUALIFICATIONS)

    Rebuttal evidence

    Reopening

    Restitution

    Right to confront and cross-examine witnesses

    Right to trial by jury

    Scope of cross-examination

    Sexual assault cases (see SEXUAL ASSAULT)

    Spoliation or destruction of evidence

    • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

    Statements against interest

    State-of-mind evidence

    Stipulations

    Substantial risk of a miscarriage of justice

    • § 103(e). Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice 

    Suppressed statement used to impeach

    Suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

    Third-party culprit

    Third-party records

    • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

    Ultimate issue opinion

    • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

    Unavailable witness

    Views

    Work-product doctrine

    CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY

    See LACK OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY

    CROSS-EXAMINATION

    Abuse prevention and harassment prevention proceedings

    • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

    Bias

    By court

    Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

    Character witness

    Civil commitment hearings for individuals with alcohol and substance use disorders

    • § 1118(a). Civil Commitment Proceedings Pursuant to G. L. c. 123, § 35, Individuals with Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders

    Complainant in sexual assault case

    • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
    • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

    Confrontation clause (see CONFRONTATION CLAUSE)

    Conviction of crime

    • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Defendant

    Defendant’s character witness

    • § 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

    Defendant’s right to in criminal cases

    Exclusion of evidence

    Expert witness

    Eyewitness

    Fairness to Commonwealth

    For impeachment purposes

    • § 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case
    • § 405(a). By Reputation
    • § 511(d) Use of Suppressed Statements
    • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness
    • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Judicial discretion to limit

    Leading questions

    Limitation on, of experts

    • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
    • § 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

    Limits on length of

    Meaningful opportunity for

    Mode and order of examining witnesses

    • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

    Prior statements

    • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility
    • § 801(d)(1). A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement, (A)

    Rape-shield statute

    Reasonable and good faith basis for

    Recross-examination

    Regarding facts or data underlying expert opinion

    Regarding object or writing used to refresh memory

    Restitution hearing

    Scope of

    Sexual assault counselor

    Sexual behavior or sexual reputation

    Sexually dangerous person proceedings

    Unavailable declarant

    CUMULATIVE EVIDENCE

    • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

    CURATIVE ADMISSIBILITY

    CURATIVE INSTRUCTIONS

    • § 103(a), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error.§ 1113(c), Note. Objections
    • § 1113(c) . Objections

    D

    DAMAGES

    Admissibility of collateral source payments in determining

    Admissibility of evidence of damages sought

    • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

    Admissibility of medical report of deceased physician in determining

    Admissibility of settlement with another defendant in determining

    For breach of doctor-patient confidentiality

    Mitigation of

    • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

    Reference to damages during closing argument

    DECLARANT

    Availability

    Care and protection case reports

    Credibility, attacking or supporting

    • § 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

    Defined

    Motive of

    Multiple out-of-court declarants, statements of in single report or writing

    • § 805 , Note. Hearsay Within Hearsay

    Need for personal knowledge

    • § 602, Note. Need for Personal Knowledge

    Statements to law enforcement agent

    State of mind of

    DEFENDANT

    Admissibility of postarrest, post-Miranda silence

    Admission/adoption by silence

    Admission by conduct

    Admission to sufficient facts

    Blood alcohol tests and refusal of

    Blood sample-DNA match

    Burden of proof and

    Challenges to the sufficiency of an affidavit

    Challenging evidence of defendant’s cooperation

    Character of

    • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
    • § 405. Methods of Proving Character
    • § 608(a), Note. Reputation Evidence

    Closing argument

    Claim of privilege

    Closing argument

    Competency of

    Consciousness of guilt (see CONSCIOUSNESS OF GUILT)

    Consciousness of innocence

    • § 410 , Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements
    • § 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

    Courtroom appearance and conduct, commenting on

    Credibility, commenting on

    Criminal responsibility examination

    Cross-examination of

    • § 104(d). Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

    Custodial interrogation, preference for recording 

    Denial of

    Denigration of constitutional rights

    Entrapment defense

    Ethnic or racial bias against

    • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

    Eyewitness identification of

    Failure to call witness

    Impeachment of

    Intent of

    • § 503(d)(3), Note. Patient Raises the Issue of Own Mental or Emotional  Condition as an Element of Claim or Defense

    Lack of criminal responsibility

    Lost or destroyed evidence and

    • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

    Martin hearing, presence at

    Mental or emotional condition of

    • § 503(d)(3), Note. Patient Raises the Issue of Own Mental or Emotional  Condition as an Element of Claim or Defense
    • § 511(a)(3), Note. Compelled Examination

    Motive

    Opening statement of

    Pleas

    • § 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

    Prearrest silence

    Presumption of sanity

    Presumptions, generally

    Prior conviction of

    • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Prior crime, wrong, or act, permitted use of

    Privilege against self-incrimination

    • § 511. Privilege Against Self-Incrimination

    Psychotherapist-patient privilege

    • § 503(d)(3), Note . Patient Raises the Issue of Own Mental or Emotional Condition as an Element of Claim or Defense

    Refusal to take test or supply police with real or physical evidence

    Religious beliefs or opinions

    • § 610, Note. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

    Restitution by

    Right not to testify

    Right to confront witnesses (see CONFRONTATION CLAUSE )

    Right to fair trial

    Right to offer evidence

    • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

    Right to present complete, full defense

    • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
    • § 412(b)(3), Note. Exceptions
    • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
    • § 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence     

    Right to present evidence that another may have committed crime

    • § 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

    Right to trial by jury

    Seeking exculpatory information about Federal informant

    Sequestration of

    • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

    Silence or testimony, commenting on

    Statements made during competency examination

    Statements made during suppression hearings

    State of mind of

    Substantial risk of a miscarriage of justice and

    • § 103(e), Note. Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice

    Suppressed statements, use of

    Testimony of

    Third-party culprit evidence

    Unfair prejudice and

    • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

    View, presence at

    Voluntariness of statement

    Waiver of right to confrontation

    Witness cooperation agreements

    • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

    DEFINITIONS

    Relating to allied mental health or human services professional privilege

    Relating to attorney-client privilege

    Relating to contents of writings and records

    • § 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article

    Relating to digital evidence

    Relating to domestic violence victims’ counselor privilege

    Relating to hearsay

    Relating to interpreter-client privilege

    Relating to mediation privilege

    Relating to medical and hospital services, for hearsay purposes

    Relating to medical peer review privilege

    Relating to parent-child disqualification

    Relating to psychotherapist-patient privilege

    Relating to religious privilege

    Relating to sexual assault counselor–victim privilege

    Relating to sign language interpreter–client privilege

    Relating to social worker–client privilege

    DELIBERATIONS

    Of judge

    • § 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege

    Of jury

    • § 511(a)(2), Note. Refusal Evidence
    • § 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment
    • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)
    • § 1113(d), Note. Duty of the Court

    Of  legislator

    Of medical peer review committee

    • § 513(b)(1). Proceedings, Reports, and Records of Medical Peer Review  Committee
    • § 513(d). Testimony Before Medical Peer Review Committee

    DEPOSITIONS, USE OF AT TRIAL

    DESTRUCTION OF EVIDENCE

    As evidence of consciousness of guilt

    As evidence of consciousness of liability

    Burden of proof

    • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

    Exclusion of other evidence as sanction

    Judge’s discretion to impose sanctions

    • § 1102. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

    Missing evidence in possession of another party

    • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence  

    No tort cause of action for

    • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

    Remedial action in criminal cases

    • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

    DETERMINATIONS

    Admissibility

    • § 105. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties  or for Other Purposes
    • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

    Preliminary

    DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

    DIGITAL EVIDENCE

    Application of law

    Audio and video evidence

    Authentication

    Definitions

    Discovery

    E-mailed evidence

    Evidence on personal electronic device

    Evidence on storage media

    Excluded evidence

    Hearsay

    Inspection of, on personal electronic device

    Presentation

    Preservation

    Printing of evidence

    Self-represented litigants

    Stipulations

    Use of courtroom recording system

    Virtual proceedings

    DIRECT EXAMINATION

    Admitting prior consistent statement on

    Cross-examination not limited to scope of

    Denial of

    Leading questions

    Limiting instructions

    • § 105, Note. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes

    Limits on length of

    Manner and order of

    • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

    Of expert witnesses

    On plea agreement

    • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

    Prior consistent statements during

    Redirect examination (see REDIRECT EXAMINATION )

    Testimony about fear of testifying during

    • § 607, Note. Who May Impeach a Witness

    Testimony about prior criminal conviction during

    • § 607, Note. Who May Impeach a Witness
    • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Using treatise to bolster

    DISCLOSURE OF FACTS, EXPERT WITNESS

    • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

    DISCOVERY

    Admissibility of depositions and other discovery material at trial

    Electronic

    Inadvertent disclosure during

    Of communications between allied mental health professional and client

    Of communications between domestic violence counselor and victim

    Of communications between psychotherapist and patient

    Of communications between sexual assault counselor and victim

    Of communications between social worker and client

    Of documentation of basis of expert’s firearm identification opinion

    • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

    Of identity and location of protected witness

    Of investigatory information of law enforcement

    • § 515, Note. Investigatory Privilege

    Of medical peer review committee proceedings, reports, and records

    Of sealed criminal record

    • § 609 , Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

    Of tax returns

    • § 519. State and Federal Tax Returns

    Of third-party records

    • § 1108, Note. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal  Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

    Of trade secrets

    Pretrial discovery

    • § 1108, Note. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal  Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

    Reciprocal discovery process for criminal responsibility examinations

    Rising cost of

    Using cross-examination for

    • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

    Violation of a discovery rule

    Work-product doctrine

    DNA

    Analyses, hearsay statements contained in

    Analysts

    Collection of samples

    Distinction between nonexclusion and inconclusive

    • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

    Expert testimony regarding

    Inconclusive results

    “Likelihood ratios”

    • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

    Match

    Nuclear DNA analysis

    • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

    Profiles

    • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
    • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

    Substitute analyst

    • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

    Testing process

    • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

    DOCUMENTS

    Affecting interest in property, records of

    • § 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

    Affecting interest in property, statements in

    • § 803(15). Statements in Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

    Ancient

    Attorney-client privilege

    Civil commitment proceedings for alcohol and substance use

    • § 1118(a), Note. Civil Commitment Proceedings Pursuant to G. L. c. 123, § 35, for Individuals with Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders

    Confidentiality statutes regarding

    Department of Children and Families documents

    • § 1115(b)(2)(B). DCF Action Plans, Affidavits, Foster Care Review Reports, Case Review Reports, Family Assessments, Dictation Notes, and G. L. c. 119, § 51B, Investigation Reports

    Discovery 

    Duplicates

    • § 1003. Admissibility of Duplicates 

    Failure to produce

    • § 1004(c), Note. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content

    Foreign public

    Held by State agency

    Impounding versus sealing

    Jury consideration of documents not in evidence

    • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

    Medical peer review committee documents 

    • § 513. Medical Peer Review Privilege

    Public records

    Requirement of original (best evidence rule)

    • § 1002 Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

    Settlement documents

    • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

    Sexually dangerous person proceedings

    Summaries of

    Tax returns

    • § 519 State and Federal Tax Returns

    Third party documents and records

    • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)     

    Used to refresh witness’s memory

    Work-product doctrine

    Writings and records

    E

    ELECTRONIC AND COMPUTER RECORDS

    ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION

    ELECTRONIC DISCOVERY

    ELECTRONIC EAVESDROPPING

      E-MAIL

      ENTRAPMENT DEFENSE

      EVIDENCE

      Abuse

      • § 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

      Admissibility (see ADMISSIBILITY )

      Ballistics identification

      Battered woman syndrome

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
      • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

      Best evidence rule (see BEST EVIDENCE RULE )

      Blood alcohol tests and refusal of (see BLOOD ALCOHOL/BREATHALYZER TESTS)

      Character

      • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
      • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

      Character trait

      • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
      • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

      Circumstantial (see CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE )

      Competent

      • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

      Computer simulations

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Concealment of evidence

      Consciousness of guilt

      Consciousness of innocence

      • § 410 , Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements
      • § 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

      Consciousness of liability

      Courtroom experiments and demonstrations

      • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Credibility of

      Criminal profile evidence versus character evidence

      Cumulative

      • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

      Destruction of (see DESTRUCTION OF EVIDENCE)

      Digital (see DIGITAL EVIDENCE)

      Discovery (see DISCOVERY )

      DNA (see DNA )

      Exclusion of (see EXCLUSION OF EVIDENCE)

      Expert (see EXPERT TESTIMONY; EXPERT WITNESSES; OPINIONS, EXPERT WITNESSES)

      Expressions of sympathy as

      • § 409. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical  and Similar Expenses

      Extrapolation

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Extrinsic

      • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness
      • § 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions
      • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

      Fingerprints

      Firearm/ballistics identification

      First complaint

      • § 413.  First Complaint of Sexual Assault

      Forced production of real or physical evidence

      Forensics (see FORENSIC EVIDENCE)

      Guidelines, scope of

      Inadequate police investigation

      • § 1107. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

      Industry and safety standards

      • § 414. Industry and Safety Standards

      Material

      Medical malpractice actions

      “Missing”

      Nonverbal conduct

      Offered for nonhearsay purpose

      Other crimes, wrongs, or acts

      Physical evidence, forced production of

      Prejudicial

      • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

      Presentation of

      • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

      Probative value

      • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

      Profile evidence

      Rebuttal (see REBUTTAL )

      Relevant

      • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof§ 104(b). Relevance That Depends on a Fact
      • § 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility
      • § 401. Test for Relevant Evidence
      • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence
      • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

      Retrograde extrapolation to estimate blood alcohol content

      • § 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Routine practice

      • § 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

      SAIN evidence/Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit

      • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
      • § 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

      Scope of

      Sexual behavior or reputation

      • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

      Similar occurrences

      • § 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Spoliation of

      • § 1102. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

      Suppression of (see SUPPRESSION )

      Third-party culprit

      Unnecessarily time consuming

      • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

      Weapons evidence

      • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Weight of (see WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE )

      EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES

      See CROSS-EXAMINATION ; DIRECT EXAMINATION

      EXCEPTIONS, HEARSAY RULE

      See HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS

      EXCITED UTTERANCE

      • § 803(2).  Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

      EXCLUSION OF EVIDENCE

      As sanction

      Breach of doctor-patient confidentiality

      Collateral attacks

      • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Confusing and misleading evidence

      • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Constitutional considerations

      • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Courtroom experiments and demonstrations

      • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Cumulative evidence

      • § 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Digital evidence

      Discretion of trial judge

      • § 102  Note. Purpose and Construction
      • § 103 Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof
      • § 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence
      • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
      • § 412(b)(3), Note. Exceptions
      • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
      • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
      • § 613(a)(4), Note. Collateral Matter
      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
      • § 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records
      • § 804(b)(3), Note Statement Against Interest

      Evidence of insurance

      Evidence of lawful conduct

      Expert testimony

      Exploitation of by counsel

      Expressions of opinion, evaluation, or judgment from official records

      • § 1115(b)(2)(B), Note. DCF Action Plans, Affidavits, Foster Care Review Reports, Case Review Reports, Family Assessments, Dictation Notes, and G.L. c. 119, § 51B, Investigation Reports

      General rule

      • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Medical records

      Nonverbal conduct

      Offered for impeachment

      Opinion on ultimate issue

      • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

      Personal information of witness

      • § 501, Note. Privileges Recognized Only as Provided

      Prior bad acts/convictions

      Private conversations with spouse

      Reasons for

      • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence
      • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

      Remoteness as ground for

      • § 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence

      Rulings on

      • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

      Sexually dangerous person proceedings

      Specific instances of complainant’s sexual conduct

      Statements against interest

      Statements made during plea negotiations

      • § 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

      Subsequent remedial measures

      Third-party culprit evidence

      • § 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

      Under first complaint doctrine

      • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

      Unfair prejudice

      • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Unnecessarily suggestive identifications

      Unnecessarily time-consuming evidence

      • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

      Voice identification

      EXCLUSION OF WITNESSES

      • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

      EXPERT TESTIMONY

      Ballistics identification

      Basis of

      Battered woman syndrome

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
      • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

      Behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

      • § 704 , Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

      Blood alcohol tests

      Blood sample-DNA match

      Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

      Certitude of

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Civil commitment hearings for alcohol and substance use disorders

      • § 1118(a). Civil Commitment Proceedings Pursuant to G. L. c. 123, § 35, for Individuals with Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders   
      • § 1118(b), Note. Hearsay in G. L. c. 123, § 35, Proceedings

      Civil commitment hearings for mental illness

      Confrontation of

      Development of adolescent brain

      • § 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Disclosure of facts, data

      Discretion of court

      • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Exclusion of, as sanction

      Extrapolation to determine weight of drugs

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Eyewitness identification

      Fingerprint identification

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Firearm/ballistics identification

      Five foundation requirements

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Forensics

      Gang affiliation

      Hearing

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Illustrations

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Inaccurate forensic analysis

      • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

      Lack of criminal responsibility/competency

      On memory

      On possibility

      Profile evidence

      Reliability of

      Retrograde extrapolation to estimate blood alcohol content

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Sexually dangerous person proceedings

      Substituted experts

      Termination of parental rights and care and protection cases

      Tests performed and data collected by others

      Ultimate issue

      • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

      EXPERT WITNESSES

      Certitude of opinion

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Competency

      • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Court-appointed

      Cross-examination of

      Duty to consult

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Exclusion of

      • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

      Failure to consult or present

      Failure to seek funds for

      Inaccurate forensic analysis by

      • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

      Limitation on cross-examination

      • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts   

      Medical malpractice actions

      Method used by

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Opinions (see OPINIONS, EXPERT WITNESSES )

      Opportunity to cross-examine

      • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

      Personal knowledge of

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
      • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
      • § 705 , Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion
      • § 1117(d). Basis for Expert Opinion

      Qualifications

      • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
      • § 1115(c)(3), Note. Court-Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Reports

      Reliability of testimony

      Role of

      Substituted experts

      Testimony of (see EXPERT TESTIMONY)

      EXPRESSIONS OF SYMPATHY

      • § 409. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical  and Similar Expenses

      EXTRANEOUS MATTER

      Doctrine of

      • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment    

      Introduced by juror

      • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment    

      Juror exposure to, prior to discharge

      • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment   

      Lawyer’s contact with juror regarding

      • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment    

      Procedure for determining whether jury influenced by

      • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

      EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION

      Admissibility of

      Common-law principles of fairness

      Composite drawings and sketches

      Expert testimony concerning

      Identification not resulting from police procedures

      Inanimate objects

      In-court identification

      Jury instruction

      Lineups

      Out-of-court identification

      • § 1112(b). Out-of-Court Identification, Including Showups and Photographic Arrays

      Photographic array

      Showup

      Single photograph identification

      Sources of law regarding

      Suppression of

      Testimony of third-party observer

      Unequivocal positive identification

      F

      FACTS

      Adjudicative

      • § 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

      Judicial notice of

      • § 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

      Preliminary finding of

      Underlying expert opinion

      • § 705 . Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion 

      FAMILY RECORDS

      FEDERAL RULES

      FINGERPRINT EVIDENCE

      Authentication of fingerprint card

      Fingerprint identification

      • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

      Forced production of 

        FIREARM, DEFENSE OF LICENSE

        FIREARM/BALLISTICS IDENTIFICATION

        FIRST AGGRESSOR (SELF-DEFENSE)

        • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case, (B)

        FIRST COMPLAINT OF SEXUAL ASSAULT

        Admissibility of

        Admissibility of additional reports

        • § 413(b) . Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

        Applicability of doctrine

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        Determining first complaint witness

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        Identifying

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        Impeachment of first complaint witness

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        Limiting jury instruction regarding

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        Live witness not required

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        Role of trial judge

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        SAIN evidence/Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit

        • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

        Scope of doctrine

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        Substitution of first complaint witness

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        FOREIGN OFFICIAL RECORDS, AUTHENTICATION

        FORENSIC EVIDENCE

        Availability of forensic and scientific testing of, to convicted

        • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

        Certitude of expert opinion regarding

        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

        Expert testimony

        Inaccurate analysis

        • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

        Methods for testing

        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

        Reliability of principle or method

        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
        • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

        FORMER TESTIMONY, HEARSAY EXCEPTION

        FOUNDATION, INTRODUCTION OF EVIDENCE

        Authenticating or identifying evidence

        • § 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence

        Business record

        • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

        Declarations of decedent

        Evidence conditionally admitted

        Expert opinion testimony in mental health hearings

        Prearrest silence

        Prior bad act evidence

        Prior inconsistent statements

        Sexual abuse evidence

        • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

        Testimony by expert witnesses

        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

        G

        GUILTY PLEAS

        Of accomplice/joint venturer

        Withdrawn

        • § 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

        H

        HABIT, INADMISSIBLE AS EVIDENCE OF CONDUCT

        • § 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

        HARASSMENT OF WITNESS

        • § 611(a). Control by the Court
        • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

        HARASSMENT PREVENTION PROCEEDINGS

        Generally

        • § 1106, Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

        Harassment Defined

        • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

        HEARINGS

        Abuse prevention proceedings

        • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

        Amral hearings

        Applicability of evidentiary sections at

        • § 1101. Applicability of Evidentiary Sections

        Availability of declarant for

        • § 804. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

        Civil commitment hearings

        • § 1117. Civil Commitment Hearings for Mental Illness 
        • § 1118. Civil Commitment Hearings for Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders

        Civil motor vehicle infraction hearings

        Daubert-Lanigan hearings

        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
        • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

        Defendant’s right not to testify at

        Harassment prevention hearings

        • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

        Lampron hearings

        Martin hearings

        On admissibility of evidence of sexual behavior or reputation

        On closing courtroom to public

        On expert testimony

        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

        On reliability of the out-of-court statements

        On third-party culprit information

        Precomplaint hearings

        Preliminary

        Pretrial dangerousness hearing

        Pretrial probation revocation hearings

        Probable cause hearing

        Probation violation hearing

        • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
        • § 1101(c)(3) , Note. Certain Other Proceedings

        Restitution hearing

        Sex Offender Registry Board classification hearings

        Suppression hearings

        Unemployment hearing

        • § 526 Unemployment Hearing Privilege

        HEARSAY

        Admissibility

        Availability of declarant (see HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, AVAILABILITY  OF DECLARANT IMMATERIAL; HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS,  DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE)

        Confrontation clause

        Credibility of declarant, attacking or supporting

        • § 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

        Defined

        Exceptions

        • § 803. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial
        • § 804. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

        Hearsay within hearsay

        Rule

        Unavailability of declarant

        HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS

        Absence of public record

        Ancient documents

        Availability of declarant (see HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, AVAILABILITY  OF DECLARANT IMMATERIAL; HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS,  DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE)

        Business records

        • § 803(6)(A). Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

        Child statement out of court, civil proceeding

        • § 803(24). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Proceeding to Place Child in Foster Care
        • § 804(b)(9). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Civil Proceeding, Including Termination of Parental Rights
        • § 1115(d). Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

        Child statement out of court, criminal proceeding

        • § 804(b)(8). Admissibility in Criminal Proceedings of a Child’s  Out-of-Court Statement Describing Sexual Contact

        Declarant unavailable (see HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE)

        Digital evidence

        Dying declaration

        • § 804(b)(2). Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

        Excited utterance

        • § 803(2). Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

        Existing mental, emotional or physical condition

        • § 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

        Family records

        Forfeiture by wrongdoing

        • § 804(b)(6). Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused  the Declarant’s Unavailability

        Hospital records

        Identification

        Judgment of prior conviction

        Learned treatises

        Marriage and baptism records

        • § 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

        Medical/hospital services

        Official/public records

        Other judgments

        • § 803(23). Judgment as to Personal, Family, or General History,  or Boundaries

        Past recollection recorded

        Present sense impression

        Prior recorded testimony

        Records affecting interest in property

        • § 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

        Records of religious organization

        Reputation as to character

        Reputation concerning boundaries

        • § 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History

        Reputation concerning family history

        • § 803(19). Reputation Concerning Personal or Family History

        Spontaneous utterance

        • § 803(2). Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

        Statements against interest

        Statements for medical diagnosis or treatment

        • § 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment

        Statements of facts of general interest

        Statements of personal history

        Statutory exceptions for deceased persons

        Vital statistics

        HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, AVAILABILITY OF DECLARANT IMMATERIAL

        Ancient documents, statements in

        Baptismal, marriage, and other certificates

        • § 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

        Boundaries, reputation concerning

        • § 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History

        Business records

        Character, reputation concerning

        Documents or records affecting interest in property

        • § 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property
        • § 803(15). Statements in Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

        Excited utterance

        • § 803(2). Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

        Family records

        Medical treatment, statement for purposes of

        • § 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment

        Mental, emotional, or physical condition

        • § 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

        Personal, family, or general history, judgments as to

        • § 803(23). Judgment as to Personal, Family, or General History,  or Boundaries

        Present sense impression

        Public records and reports

        Recorded recollection

        Religious organization records

        Residual exception

        Vital statistics records

        HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE

        Applicability

        Prior recorded testimony

        Statement against interest

        Statement of party incapable of testifying

        • § 804(b)(6). Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused  the Declarant’s Unavailability

        Statement of personal history

        Statement under belief of impending death

        • § 804(b)(2). Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

        Statutory exceptions in civil cases

        HEARSAY RULE

        Applicability to child protective cases

        • § 1115(b)(2)(B), Note. DCF Action Plans, Affidavits, Foster Care Review Reports, Case Review Reports, Family Assessments, Dictation Notes, and G.L. c. 119, § 51B, Investigation Reports
        • § 1115(c)(4), Note. Court-Ordered Psychiatric, Psychological, and Court Clinic Evaluation Reports
        • § 1115(d)(1). Statements Not Related to Sexual Abuse

        Applicability to sexually dangerous person proceedings

        Computer-stored records

        Confrontation clause and

        Digital evidence

        Exceptions to

        • § 803. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial
        • § 804. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

        Expert testimony

        • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

        Explained

        First complaint doctrine

        • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

        Hearsay within hearsay

        • § 805, Note. Hearsay Within Hearsay

        Hospital records exception

        • § 413(b) , Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

        Residual exception

        • § 807, Note. Residual Exception

        Statutes and rules providing exceptions to

        • § 802, Note. The Rule Against Hearsay

        HEARSAY WITHIN HEARSAY

        HOSTILE WITNESS

        I

        IDENTIFICATION

        Admissibility of

        Composite drawings and sketches

        Double-blind procedure

        Expert testimony regarding

        Eyewitness

        Facts accompanying

        Identification not resulting from police procedures

        Inanimate objects

        In-court identification

        Jury instructions

        Lineups

        Of evidence (see AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION )

        Out-of-court identification

        • § 1112(b). Out-of-Court Identifications, Including Showups and Photographic Arrays

        Photographic array

        Showup

        Single photograph identification

        Sources of law regarding

        Suppression of

        Testimony of third-party observer

        Unnecessarily suggestive

        Voice identification

        IMPEACHMENT

        Adverse witness

        • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

        Bias

        Character for truthfulness

        • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

        Character witnesses

        Conviction of crime

        • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

        Credibility of plaintiff, using collateral source payments

        Credibility of witness, using offer to compromise

        • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

        Credibility of witness, using witness cooperation agreement

        • § 1104 Witness Cooperation Agreements

        Declarant

        • § 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

        Defendant, with prearrest/pretrial silence

        Defendant, with prior conviction

        • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

        Defendant, with statement suppressed because of Miranda violation

        Defendant, with testimony at suppression hearing

        • § 104(d), Note. Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

        Evidence of character

        Evidence of conduct

        First complaint witness

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        Generally

        • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

        Hearsay declarant

        • § 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

        Inconsistent statements

        Juvenile adjudications

        • § 609(a)(5). Juvenile Adjudications of Delinquency or Youthful Offender

        Omission in statement

        Other witness

        • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

        Party witness

        • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

        Police officer

        Prearrest silence

        Prior conviction

        • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

        Prior silence or inaction

        Prior statements

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
        • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility
        • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay

        Prior writings

        • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

        Religious beliefs

        • § 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

        Specific instances of misconduct

        Suppressed statements, use of

        Verdict

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

        Who may impeach witness

        • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

        Witness cooperation agreements

        • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

        IMPROPER VOUCHING

        INADEQUATE POLICE INVESTIGATION

        Admissibility of evidence

        Bowden defense

        Jury instruction

        INCONSISTENT STATEMENTS

        Admissibility

        As evidence of consciousness of liability

        Evidentiary admissions

        Impeachment by/credibility of witness

        Medical malpractice actions

        Prior statements that qualify as inconsistent

        Statements of criminal defendant

        Statements of hearsay declarant

        • § 806 . Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

        Statements of prosecutor

        INDUSTRY AND SAFETY STANDARDS

        • § 414. Industry and Safety Standards

        INFERENCES

        Adverse inference (see ADVERSE INFERENCE )

        Arguing relevant inferences from evidence in closing argument

        Based on another inference

        Civil cases, generally

        Commonwealth's burden and

        Criminal cases, generally

        Defined

        From claim of privilege

        • § 525. Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege
        • § 1115(e)(3), Note. Parents Called by Adverse Party

        From evidence of consciousness of guilt or liability

        • § 1110. Consciousness of Guilt or Liability

        From inadequate police investigation

        From party not calling witness

        From spoliation

        • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

        Judge’s instructions to jury regarding

        Of expert witness

        • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

        Of juror’s racial or ethnic bias

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

        INFORMANTS, DISCLOSURE OF IDENTITY AND LOCATION OF

        • § 509 . Identity of Informer, Surveillance Location, and Protected Witness Privileges

        INSTRUCTIONS, JURY

        Business records

        • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

        Cautionary instructions

        Consciousness of guilt

        Consciousness of liability

        Curative instructions, regarding openings and closings

        Examination of witnesses by jurors

        Eyewitness identification

        First complaint

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        Inadequate police investigation

        Limiting instructions (see LIMITING INSTRUCTIONS)

        “Missing evidence”

        • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

        Missing witness

        Objections to

        Preference for recording certain custodial interrogations

        Refusal Evidence

        Required instruction after discharge of deliberating juror

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        State-of-mind evidence

        • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

        Third-party culprit evidence

        • § 1105 , Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

        INSURANCE

        INTERPRETERS

        Appointment of sign language interpreter

        Attorney-client privilege

        Custodial statements

        Generally

        Interpreter-client privilege

        • § 522. Interpreter-Client Privilege

        Procedural issues

        Qualified sign language interpreter defined

        Right to assistance of

        Sign language interpreter–client privilege

        • § 521. Sign Language Interpreter–Client Privilege

        IRRELEVANT EVIDENCE, ADMISSIBILITY OF

        • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

        J

        JUDICIAL DELIBERATIONS

        • § 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege

        JUDICIAL NOTICE

        Of adjudicative facts, generally 

        • § 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

        Of adjudicative facts in criminal cases

        Of court’s records in related action

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed 

        Of demographic data

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

        Of evidence/information gained from active participation in related case

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed 

        Of law

        Of personal observations of judge or juror

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed 

        Opportunity for parties to be heard regarding

        Timing of

        Versus official notice

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

        JURORS

        Attentiveness

        • § 606(b). Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Bribing of

        Challenge to juror’s looks or gestures

        Common sense; common experience

        Competence of as witnesses

        Contacting of posttrial, by attorneys

        • § 606(b), Note . During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Discharge of during deliberations

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Discharge of during empanelment

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Discharge of during trial

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Discrimination against

        Emotions, sympathy of

        Ethnic or racial bias or prejudice of

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Extraneous matter introduced by

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Extraneous matter, exposure to prior to discharge

        • § 606(b). Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Improper appeals to

        Lack of genuineness of peremptory challenge

        Misconduct of

        • § 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Peremptory challenges of

        • § 1116 Peremptory Challenges of Potential Jurors

        Prima facie showing of discrimination

        • §1116(b)(1). Note. Stage One: Prima Facie Case of Unlawful Discrimination

        Sleeping jurors

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Sophistication of

        JURY

        Attentiveness

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Common sense; common experience

        Credibility of

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Deadlocked

        • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

        Deliberations

        • § 511(a)(2), Note. Refusal Evidence
        • § 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment
        • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)
        • § 1113(d), Note. Duty of the Court

        Extraneous matter (see EXTRANEOUS MATTER)

        Inadmissible evidence and

        • § 103(d). Preventing the Jury or Witnesses from Hearing Inadmissible Evidence

        Instructions (see INSTRUCTIONS, JURY )

        Jury nullification

        Misleading

        • § 102, Note. Purpose and Construction
        • § 403 Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
        • § 803(5)(B), Note. Past Recollection Recorded
        • § 1113(d), Note. Duty of the Court

        Preliminary questions and

        • § 104(c). Conducting a Hearing So That the Jury Cannot Hear It

        Reduction of verdict

        JUVENILE ADJUDICATIONS, USE OF IN IMPEACHMENT

        • § 609(a)(5). Juvenile Adjudications of Delinquency or Youthful Offender

        L

        LACK OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY

        LAMPRON-DWYER PROTOCOL

        • Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases
        • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

        LAY WITNESS, OPINION TESTIMONY

        Generally

        • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        Identifying person in photograph or videotape

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        Illustrations

        • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        Lay opinion and expert opinion, same witness

        • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        Lay opinion versus expert opinion, admissibility of

        • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        On alcohol

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        On cellular phone positioning

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        On intent

        • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        On Internet searches

        • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        On marijuana

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses 

        On mental capacity

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        On operating under the influence

        On signs of struggle

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        On sounds

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        On ultimate issue

        • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

        On value of his or her own services

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        On value of real or personal property

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        LEADING QUESTIONS

        LIABILITY

        Admissibility of records and reports as evidence of

        Admissions of

        • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

        Consciousness of

        Expressions of sympathy and

        • § 409(a). Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

        Fair report privilege as protection from

        Immunity from

        Insurance

        Offers to compromise and

        • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

        Offers to pay medical expenses and

        • § 409(b). Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

        Statements against interest and

        Statements of counsel regarding

        LIMITING INSTRUCTIONS

        Comment made on claim of privilege

        Evidence of compromise or offer to compromise

        • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

        Evidence of insurance

        First complaint evidence

        • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

        Generally

        • § 105. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes

        Out-of-court statement offered for nonhearsay purpose

        Prior bad act evidence

        Statement of nontestifying codefendant

        Timing of

        • § 105, Note. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes

        Weapons evidence

        • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons 

        When required

        • § 105, Note. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes

        LINEUPS

        M

        MARRIAGE CERTIFICATES

        • § 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

        MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL BILLS

        Admissibility of

        • § 411, Note. Insurance
        • § 803(6)(C). Note. Medical and Hospital Services
        • § 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills and Reports
        • § 1117(g). Medical Bills, Records, and Reports

        Authentication of

        • § 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills and Reports
        • § 902(m). Copies of Bills for Genetic Marker Tests and for Prenatal and Postnatal Care

        Payment of

        MEDICAL MALPRACTICE ACTIONS

        Evidence of medical bills covered by insurance

        Expert testimony

        Expressions of sympathy in

        Psychotherapist-patient privilege

        Use of learned treatises, published scientific opinion in

        MEDICAL RECORDS AND REPORTS

        Admissibility of

        • § 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment
        • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
        • § 803(6)(B). Hospital Records
        • § 803(6)(C), Medical and Hospital Services
        • § 902(k). Certified Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Treatment and Medical History

        As basis of opinion testimony by experts

        • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
        • § 1117(d), Note. Basis for Expert Opinion 

        Civil commitment hearings for mental illness

        Production of

        • § 1108(c), Note. Summons and Notice to Record Holder

        Reciprocal discovery process for criminal responsibility examinations

        Self-authenticating

        • § 902(k). Certified Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Treatment and Medical History
        • § 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills and Reports
        • § 902(n). Results of Genetic Marker Tests

        Sexually dangerous person proceedings

        Statements contained in

        • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
        • Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1). Testimonial Versus Nontestimonial; the Primary Purpose Test
        • § 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment
        • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
        • § 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

        Tort actions

        Workers’ compensation proceedings

        • § 804(b)(5)(E). Medical Reports of Disabled or Deceased Physicians as Evidence in Workers’ Compensation Proceedings

        MEDICAL TREATMENT, STATEMENTS FOR PURPOSES OF

        MEMORY

        Expert testimony regarding

        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

        Feigning lack of

        Lack or lapse of     

        Refreshment of

        MENTAL, EMOTIONAL, OR PHYSICAL CONDITION

        • § 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

        MENTAL CAPACITY, COMPETENCY

        Competency examinations

        Criminal responsibility examinations

        Lay opinion as to, when attesting witness to will

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses 

        Of children, to testify in care and protection and TPR proceedings

        Of witnesses

        MINORS

        Development of adolescent brain

        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

        Juvenile adjudications, impeachment by

        • § 609(a)(5). Juvenile Adjudications of Delinquency or Youthful Offender

        Juvenile adjudications in sexually dangerous person proceedings

        Juvenile’s failure to appear, harassment prevention proceedings

        • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

        Parent-child disqualification

        Privilege of

        Reasonable force in disciplining

        Restitution in delinquency case

        Testifying against parent

        MIRANDA/VOLUNTARINESS

        Admission by silence and

        Commenting on omissions in defendant’s statement to police after warnings

        Custodial interrogation and

        Preliminary questions involving

        Use of statements suppressed due to violation of

        MISSING WITNESS

        Argument by counsel

        Availability of witness

        Criminal cases

        Distinction between insufficient evidence and missing witness arguments

        Explanation for failure to call

        Foundation for instruction on

        Friendliness, hostility of witness

        Judicial approval for argument

        Jury instruction

        Noncumulative testimony

        MOTIONS

        For access to third-party records

        • § 1108 . Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

        For disclosure of identity of informant

        For required finding of not guilty

        For view

        In limine

        To permit additional evidence

        To reduce verdict

        To strike

        To suppress

        N

        NEGLIGENCE

        Industry and safety standards, violation of admissible to prove

        • § 414, Note. Industry and Safety Standards

        Liability insurance, lack of not admissible to prove

        Medical negligence cases

        Remedial measures, not admissible to prove

        • § 407. Subsequent Remedial Measures

        NOTICE, JUDICIAL

        Of adjudicative facts, generally

        • § 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

        Of adjudicative facts in criminal cases

        Of court’s records in related action

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed 

        Of demographic data

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

        Of evidence/information gained from active participation in related case

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

        Of law

        Of personal observations of judge or juror

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

        Timing of

        Versus official notice

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

        O

        OATH OR AFFIRMATION

        Child witnesses

        • § 603. Note. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully
        • § 610, Note. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

        Foreign oaths

        Foster/preadoptive parents at care and protection trials

        Interpreters

        Witnesses, generally

        • § 603. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully

        OBJECTIONS

        Calling or questioning of witnesses by court

        Deposition testimony

        Doctrine of completeness

        • § 106(a), Note. Remainder of Writings or Recorded Statements

        Evidence bearing directly on probable cause

        Evidence of private conversations between spouses

        Extrapolation evidence to determine weight of drugs

        Forfeiture of right to

        • § 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

        Generally

        • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

        Grounds for, motion in limine stage

        • § 103(b), Note. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

        Hearsay

        • § 801, Note. Definitions
        • § 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement
        • § 802, Note. The Rule Against Hearsay
        • § 804(b)(5)(E), Note. Medical Reports of Disabled or Deceased Physicians as Evidence in Workers’ Compensation Proceedings
        • § 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

        Jury instruction regarding refusal to take a breathalyzer

        Peremptory challenges

        Preserving claim of error in joint trial

        Prior bad acts

        Prior convictions

        • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

        Prior inconsistent statement

        Privilege against self-incrimination

        Qualifications of CASA to render an expert opinion

        • § 1115(c)(3), Note. Court-Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Reports

        Question by jurors

        Records admitted without live testimony

        Statement in an opening or closing

        Voluntariness of a defendant’s statement

        OFFERS OF PROOF

        OFFERS TO COMPROMISE

        • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

        OFFICIAL NOTICE OF FACTS

        • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

        OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

        OPENING STATEMENT

        Burden of proof

        • § 1113(a)(2). Directed Verdict, Finding of Not Guilty, or Mistrial

        Cause of action

        Claim of recent contrivance

        Curative instructions

        Directed verdict

        Duty of court

        Evidence promised in, curative instruction

        Mistrial

        Objections

        Purpose

        Reopening

        Responses to improper argument

        OPINIONS, EXPERT WITNESSES

        About law

        • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

        Admissibility of

        • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

        Based on evidence collected or created by absent expert

        Basis of

        • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

        Care and protection cases

        Certitude of

        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

        Challenging

        • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

        Civil commitment hearings for mental illness

        Expert opinion versus lay opinion, admissibility of

        • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

        Foundation requirements for

        • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

        Generally

        • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

          Limitation of

          • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

          Medical malpractice actions

          On battered woman syndrome

          • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses     
          • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts   

          On credibility of another witness

          • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

          On drug weight

          On eyewitness identification

          On fingerprint evidence

          • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses     

          On firearm/ballistics identification

          On possibility

          • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

          On sexually assault evidence

          • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

          On ultimate issue

          • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

          On valuation of business interest

          • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

          On valuation of real estate

          • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

          Risk of inaccurate forensic analysis

          • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

          Sexually dangerous person proceedings

          Termination of parental rights cases

          Testimony (see EXPERT TESTIMONY)

          Underlying facts and data

          • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

          ORIGINALS

          P

          PARENTAL RIGHTS CASES

          Admissibility of evidence, general rule

          Adoption plans

          Adverse inferences from party's failure to appear

          • § 1115(g), Note. Adverse Inference from a Party's Failure to Appear

          Bonding and attachment studies

          Children’s out-of-court statements

          Judicial findings from prior proceedings

          Official/public records and reports

          Testimony

          Written court reports

          PARTY WITNESS, IMPEACHMENT OF

          • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

          PAST RECOLLECTION RECORDED

          PENAL INTEREST, STATEMENTS AGAINST

          PEREMPTORY CHALLENGES

          Allowing

          Denying

          Evaluating discriminatory purpose

          Evaluation of explanation for challenge

          General principles

          Group-neutral explanation for challenge

          Objecting to challenge

          Prima facie case of unlawful discrimination

          • § 1116(b)(1). Stage One: Prima Facie Case of Unlawful Discrimination

          Protected groups

          Rebutting presumption of propriety of challenge

          • § 1116(b)(1), Note. Stage One: Prima Facie Case of Unlawful Discrimination 

          Timing of objections

          • § 1116(b), Note. Objecting to a Peremptory Challenge

          PERSONAL, FAMILY, OR GENERAL HISTORY, JUDGMENTS AS TO

          • § 803(23). Judgment as to Personal, Family, or General History, or Boundaries

          PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE

          Attorney

          Conduct

          • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

          Excited utterance

          • § 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

          Expert witness

          • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
          • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
          • § 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion
          • § 1117(d). Basis for Expert Opinion 

          Facts in civil commitment for mental illness proceedings

          Facts in sexually dangerous person proceedings

          Facts stated in business records

          • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
          • § 902(i), Note. Commercial Paper and Related Documents

          Facts stated in hospital records

          Facts stated in police reports

          • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

          Hearsay declarants

          Lack of

          • § 602. Need for Personal Knowledge

          Statements in civil commitment proceedings for individuals with alcohol and substance use disorders

          • § 1118(b) Hearsay in G. L. c. 123, § 35, Proceedings

          Statements of deceased

          Witnesses, generally

          • § 602. Need for Personal Knowledge

          PHOTOGRAPHIC ARRAYS

          PHOTOGRAPHS

          Admissibility of

          As digital evidence

          Authentication of

          Of crime scene

          • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

          Of damage, used to determine restitution

          Of defendant/suspect

          Of victim/autopsy photographs

          • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
          • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
          • § 801(d)(1)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

          Time, date, and location information for digital photographs

          PLEAS, OFFERS OF PLEAS, AND RELATED STATEMENTS

          Admissibility of guilty plea

          Plea agreements

          “Plea negotiations” versus “plea discussions”

          • § 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

          Prohibited uses

          State versus Federal rule regarding use of

          • § 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

          Use of, in criminal proceeding for perjury

          Use of guilty plea for impeachment

          • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
          • § 609(a)(2). Felony Conviction Not Resulting in Committed State Prison Sentence

          Use of in criminal proceeding for perjury

          POLICE REPORTS

          Admissibility as business records

          • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

          Admissibility at pretrial dangerousness hearings

          Admissibility at probation revocation hearings

          • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

          Admissibility in child protective cases

          Admissibility in sexually dangerous person proceedings

          Consideration of hearsay contained in, at pretrial dangerousness hearings

          Judicial notice of contents on appeal

          POLITICAL VOTER DISQUALIFICATION

          • § 516. Political Voter Disqualification

          PREJUDICE

          Caused by admission of photographs, tape recordings, etc.

          • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

          Caused by allowing Commonwealth to reopen

          Caused by asking defendant to comment on truthfulness of witness

          Caused by assertion of privilege against self-incrimination in civil case

          Caused by closing court for rape-shield hearing

          • § 412(c), Note. Procedure to Determine Admissibility

          Caused by court changing earlier ruling

          • § 103(a), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error

          Caused by juror’s ethnic or racial bias

          • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

          Caused by juror’s question

          Caused by jury’s exposure to extraneous matter

          • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

          Caused by jury’s misuse of out-of-court statement

            Caused by statement of nontestifying codefendant

            Caused by statements made in closing arguments

            Caused by statements made in opening statements

            Curative admissibility and

            DNA analysis and

            • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

            Exclusion of evidence

            • § 103(a)(2), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error
            • § 103(g). Exclusion as Sanction
            • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
            • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

            First complaint doctrine

            • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

            Foreclosing inquiry into subject that could show

            “Inherent prejudice” associated with evidence of other bad acts

            Profile evidence

            • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

            Probative value of evidence versus

            • § 102, Note. Purpose and Construction
            • § 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence
            • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence
            • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons
            • § 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case
            • § 404(b)(2), Note. Permitted Uses
            • § 407(b), Note. Exceptions
            • § 411, Note. Insurance
            • § 412(c)(2). Hearing
            • § 413(b). Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
            • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
            • § 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion
            • § 801(d)(2)(D), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement
            • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition
            • § 803(5)(B), Note. Past Recollection Recorded
            • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)
            • § 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence
            • § 1107(a), Admissibility 

            Spoliation and

            • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

            State-of mind evidence

            • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

            Summaries of evidence

            • § 1006, Note. Summaries to Prove Content

            Third-party culprit evidence/information

            Unfair prejudice

            • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

            Weapons evidence

            • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

            PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION, ADMISSIBILITY

            PRELIMINARY HEARINGS

            PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE

            • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons
            • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

            PRESENT SENSE IMPRESSION

            PRESERVATION OF APPELLATE RIGHTS

            • § 103(b) . Preliminary Evidentiary Motions: Effect on Appellate Rights

            PRESUMPTION OF SANITY

            PRESUMPTIONS

            Civil cases

            Criminal cases

            PRIMA FACIE EVIDENCE

            Civil cases

            Criminal cases

            PRIOR BAD ACTS

            Admissibility

            • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
            • § 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

            Entrapment defense

            Evidence of lawful conduct excluded as

            Judicial inquiry/discretion regarding

            • § 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

            Motion in limine

            Objections to

            Permitted/prohibited uses

            Unfair prejudice

            • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

            Use of, for purpose other than for which admitted

            PRIOR CONSISTENT STATEMENTS

            Admissible to rebut claim of recent contrivance

            Generally inadmissible

            Made before motive to fabricate

            Made when motive to fabricate no longer exists

            PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENTS

            Admissibility

            Introduction of

            Nonbinding admissions

            Omission from earlier statement

            Prior statements that qualify as inconsistent

            Statements made by criminal defendant

            Statements made in other proceedings

            Substantive use of

            Used to attack/support credibility of hearsay declarant

            • § 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

            Used to impeach credibility of witness

            Used to impeach first complaint witness

            • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

            Used to impeach one’s own witness

            • § 607, Note. Who May Impeach a Witness
            • § 613(a)(2),(3), Note. Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence

            PRIOR RECORDED TESTIMONY

            PRIOR SEXUAL CONDUCT

            • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

            PRIVILEGES AND DISQUALIFICATIONS

            Allied mental health or human services professional privilege

            • § 508. Allied Mental Health or Human Services Professional Privilege

            Applicability of Federal law

            Attorney-client privilege (see ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE )

            Board of Bar Overseers and bar counsel

            Business interest privilege

            Comment on or inference from claim of privilege

            • § 525. Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege

            Confidentiality statutes

            Confidentiality versus privilege

            Deliberative process privilege

            • § 518. Executive or Governmental Privilege

            Disclosure of privileged matter

            • § 524. Privileged Matter Disclosed Erroneously or Without Opportunity to Claim Privilege

            Disclosure to third party

            Doctor-patient privilege

            Domestic violence victims’ counselor privilege

            • § 505. Domestic Violence Victims’ Counselor Privilege
            • § 1108(b), Note. The Lampron Hearing and Findings

            Establishing existence of privilege

            Executing/exercising

            Executive privilege (governmental)

            • § 518. Executive or Governmental Privilege

            Fair report privilege

            Human services professional privilege

            • § 508. Allied Mental Health or Human Services Professional Privilege

            Immunity from liability

            Impounding versus sealing privileged material

            Informant privilege

            • § 509.   Identity of Informer, Surveillance Location, and Protected Witness Privileges

            Interpretation of privileges

            Interpreter-client privilege

            • § 522. Interpreter-Client Privilege

            Investigatory privilege

            Judicial deliberation privilege

            • § 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege

            Legislative deliberation privilege

            Litigation privilege

            Mediation privilege

            Medical peer review privilege

            • § 513. Medical Peer Review Privilege

            Mental health professional privilege

            • § 508. Allied Mental Health or Human Services Professional Privilege

            News sources and nonpublished information

            Nonevidentiary privileges

            Not self-executing, generally

            Parent-child disqualification

            Privilege against self-incrimination

            Production of presumptively privileged records

            • Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases

            Protected witness privilege

            Psychotherapist-patient privilege (see PSYCHOTHERAPIST-PATIENT PRIVILEGE)

            Religious privilege

            Sexual assault counselor–victim privilege

            Sign language interpreter–client privilege

            • § 521. Sign Language Interpreter–Client Privilege

            Social worker–client privilege

            Spousal disqualification

            Spousal privilege

            • § 504(a). Spousal Privilege
            • § 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

            Student records

            Surveillance location privilege

            Tax return preparer privilege

            Tax return privilege

            • § 519. State and Federal Tax Returns

            Third-party records

            • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

            Trade secrets privilege

            Unemployment hearing privilege

            • § 526. Unemployment Hearing Privilege

            Union member–union privilege

            • § 528. Union Member–Union Privilege

            Validity of claim of privilege

            Waiver of privilege

            PROBATIVE VALUE OF EVIDENCE

            Circumstantial evidence of nature of place or thing

            Conversations between spouses

            Evidence in sexually dangerous person proceedings

            Evidence of collateral source payments

            Evidence of consciousness of guilt

            Evidence of declarant’s intent to enter into joint venture

            Evidence of employer’s state of mind, in employment discrimination case

            • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

            Evidence of first aggressor

            • § 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

            Evidence of insurance policy

            Evidence of remedial measures

            Evidence of victim’s state of mind

            • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

            Expert opinion as to a possibility

            • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

            Expressions of sympathy

            • § 409(a), Note. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases
            • § 409(b), Note. Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

            Offers to pay medical bills

            • § 409(b), Note. Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

              Police officer’s observations regarding OUI of marijuana

              • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

              Prior consistent statements

              Prior inconsistent statements

              Propensity evidence

              Test for relevant evidence

              • § 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence

              Third-party culprit evidence

              Versus prejudicial effect (see under PREJUDICE)

              PROCESS OR SYSTEM, AUTHENTICATION

              PRODUCTION OF ORIGINAL

              • § 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

              PROFFER

              • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

              PROFILE EVIDENCE

              Criminal profile evidence versus character evidence

              Expert testimony

              PROOF, OFFER OF

              • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

              PROPERTY

              • § 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property
              • § 803(15). Statements in Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

              PROSECUTOR, SPECIAL ROLE OF

              PROTECTED GROUPS

              PSYCHIATRIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS AND RECORDS

              Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

              • § 1115(c)(4). Court-Ordered Psychiatric, Psychological, and Court Clinic Evaluation Reports

              Civil commitment hearings for mental illness

              • § 1117. Civil Commitment Hearings For Mental Illness

              Compelled examination

              Competency examinations

              Criminal responsibility examination

              Examination by mental health counselor

              • § 508(d). Mental Health Counselor Exception, (2)

              Examination by social worker

              Impounding versus sealing records

              Psychotherapist-patient privilege (see PSYCHOTHERAPIST-PATIENT PRIVILEGE)

              Sexually dangerous person proceedings

              Statements made during competency examination

              PSYCHOTHERAPIST-PATIENT PRIVILEGE

              Child custody and child protective cases

              Civil commitment hearings for mental illness

              Definitions

              Effect of exercise of privilege

              • § 503(c). Effect of Exercise of Privilege 

              Exceptions

              Not self-executing 

              Presence of third party

              Scope of the privilege

              Statement of privilege

              Statements made during competency examinations

              Waiver

              PUBLIC RECORDS AND REPORTS

              Admissibility of

              Authentication of

              Child custody and child protective cases

              Copies of

              Documents from public officer or agency recording deliberative process

              • § 518, Note. Executive or Governmental Privilege

              Evidence about

              Investigatory materials

              • § 515, Note. Investigatory Privilege

              Massachusetts public records statute

              Mortality tables

              • § 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports

              Proof of specific types of

              School records

              Scope of work-product doctrine in public records context

              Trade secrets and

              Q

              QUALIFICATIONS, EXPERT WITNESSES

              • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
              • § 1115(c)(3), Note. Court-Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Reports

              R

              RAPE-SHIELD LAW

              Definition of victim

              Evidence prohibited

              Exceptions to admissibility in criminal cases

              Motion in limine to obtaining ruling on applicability

              Procedure to determine admissibility of evidence

              • § 412(c). Procedure to Determine Admissibility 

              Use of prior convictions of sexual offenses of complaining witness

              • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

              REBUTTAL

              Absence of complaint as

              • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

              Absence of dangerous condition as

              • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

              Curative admissibility doctrine

              Introduction of

              Of character evidence

              Of child’s out-of-court statements to court-appointed investigators

              Of claim of impossibility

              • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

              Of claim of recent contrivance or bias

              Of consciousness of guilt or liability evidence

              Of contention of undue delay

              • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

              Of deceased physician’s report

              Of defendant’s allegation of fabrication

              • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

              Of defendant’s claims regarding police impropriety

              Of defendant’s mental health evidence

              Of false testimony

              • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

              Of hearsay within hearsay

              • § 805, Note. Hearsay Within Hearsay

              Of implication witness’s testimony was false

              • § 611(e), Note. Scope of Subsequent Examination

              Of presumption peremptory challenge is lawful

              Of presumptions, generally

              Of prima facie evidence

              Of reputation evidence

              Of written court reports in child protective cases

              Summary of evidence used to rebut defendant’s defense

              • § 1006, Note. Summaries to Prove Content

              RECORDED RECOLLECTION

              RECORDS

              Admitted without live testimony

              Business (see BUSINESS RECORDS)

              Computer

              Court

              Domestic official

              • § 902(b). Domestic Official Records Not Under Seal

              Electronic

              • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

              Family

              Foreign official

              Impounding versus sealing

              Inspection of

              Judicial

              Medical and hospital records (see MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL BILLS; MEDICAL RECORDS AND REPORTS )

              Medical peer review committee records

              • § 513(b)(1). Proceedings, Reports, and Records of Medical Peer Review  Committee

              Presumptively privileged records

              • Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records  from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases
              • § 1108(c). Summons and Notice to Record Holder, (2)
              • § 1108(d)(2). Presumptively Privileged Records
              • § 1108(f). Disclosure of Presumptively Privileged Records
              • § 1108(g). Use of Presumptively Privileged Records at Trial

              Psychiatric and psychological records

              Public records and reports (see PUBLIC RECORDS AND REPORTS)

              Records affecting interest in property

              • § 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

              Records defined

              Records in termination of parental rights and care and protection cases

              Records of vital statistics

              Religious organization records

              Sexual offender registry records

              Third-party records

              • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

              Work-product doctrine

              REDACTION

              Of amounts paid by health insurers

              Of defendant’s affidavit in support of disclosure of informant’s identity

              Of documents in sexually dangerous person proceedings

              Of hospital records 

              Of means and manner of death in death certificate

              • § 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports

              Of medical records for information not germane to treatment

              Of nature of defendant's prior offense

              • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

              Of police reports

              • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

              Of presumptively privileged records

              • § 1108(f). Disclosure of Presumptively Privileged Records, (2)
              • § 1108(g). Use of Presumptively Privileged Records at Trial, (3)

              Of witness cooperation agreements

              • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

              To protect personal privacy

              • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

              REDIRECT EXAMINATION

              Of expert witnesses

              Regarding witness cooperation agreements

              • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

              Regarding witness’s conviction raised during cross-examination

              • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

              Regarding witness’s fear in testifying

              Scope of

              REFRESHMENT OF MEMORY

              Generally

              • § 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory

              Of defendant, with suppressed statements

              • § 511(d), Note. Use of Suppressed Statements

              Of witness, with earlier statement

              Past recollection recorded exception versus doctrine of refreshing memory

              Use of leading questions on direct examination 

              RELEVANT EVIDENCE

              Admissibility

              • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

              Defined

              • § 401. Test for Relevant Evidence

              Evidence relevant to weight and credibility of other evidence

              • § 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

              Exclusion of

              • § 103(a), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error
              • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

              Test for

              • § 401. Test for Relevant Evidence

              RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION RECORDS

              REMEDIAL MEASURES

              Prohibited uses of evidence of subsequent measures

              When evidence may be admitted

              REOPENING CASE

              REPUTATION

              Boundaries

              • § 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History

              Character

              • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
              • § 405(a). By Reputation
              • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)
              • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

              Character trait

              Complaining witness

              • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

              Defendant

              Family history

              • § 803(19). Reputation Concerning Personal or Family History

              Sexual reputation

              • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

              Victim

              • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

              RESTITUTION

              Evidentiary rules at hearing

              Judicial determination of award

              Nature and extent of remedy

              No right to trial by jury in connection with

              Procedural requirements

              Refund of

              Restitution to third party

              ROUTINE PRACTICE

              • § 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

              RULINGS

              Competency of witnesses

              Court’s determination regarding laws

              Generally

              • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

              Judge’s determination regarding peremptory challenge

              Preliminary

              Qualifications of expert witnesses

              • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

              Sexually dangerous person proceedings

              Timing of requests for

              • § 105, Note. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes

              Waiver of privilege or protection

              S

              SCOPE

              See individual topics

              SELF-AUTHENTICATION

              • § 902. Evidence That Is Self-Authenticating

              SELF-DEFENSE

              Burden of production of defendant

              Character of victim

              • § 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

              Flight not inconsistent with

              Identity of first aggressor

              • § 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

              State of mind of defendant

              • § 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case
              • § 404(a)(2)(C), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

              State of mind of victim

              • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

              SEQUESTRATION OF WITNESSES

              • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

              SETTLEMENTS

              Compromises and offers to compromise

              • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

              Evidence of settlement with another defendant

              SEXUAL ASSAULT

              Expert testimony on evidence of assault

              • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

              First complaint (see FIRST COMPLAINT OF SEXUAL ASSAULT )

              Impeaching complaining witness with prior conduct

              • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

              Opinion of expert on whether sexual assault has occurred

              • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

              Prosecutor’s closing argument regarding child victim

              Psychological and counseling records of alleged victim

              Rape-shield law (see RAPE-SHIELD LAW)

              Reputation of complaining witness

              • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

              Right to confrontation with child victim

              SAIN evidence/Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit

              • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
              • § 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

              Sexual assault counselor-victim privilege

              Sexual orientation of victim

              Statement of victim to sexual assault nurse examiner

              • § 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

              SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OR REPUTATION

              SEXUALLY DANGEROUS PERSON PROCEEDING

              Admissible hearsay

              Excluded hearsay

              Expert testimony

              Generally

              Hearsay expressly made admissible by statute

              Hearsay that may be admissible

              Live-witness testimony

              Police reports relating to prior sexual offenses

              • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

              Risk assessment tool results

              • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

              Standard of review

              • § 1103, Note. Sexually Dangerous Person Proceedings

              Statutory procedures

              Substantial risk of miscarriage of justice

              • § 103(e). Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice

              Testimony of qualified examiner/expert testimony

              SEXUAL OFFENDER REGISTRY

              Hearings

              Records

              SHOWUPS

              SIMILAR OCCURRENCES, EVIDENCE OF

              • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

              SOCIAL-NETWORKING WEB SITE

              SPOLIATION OR DESTRUCTION OF EVIDENCE

              As evidence of consciousness of guilt

              As evidence of consciousness of liability

              Burden of proof

              • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

              Exclusion of other evidence as sanction

              Judge’s discretion to impose sanctions

              • § 1102. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

              Missing evidence in possession of another party

              • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

              No tort cause of action for

              • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

              Remedial action in criminal cases

              • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

              STATEMENTS

              Against interest

              By juror

              • § 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

              Child’s out-of-court statement describing sexual contact

              • § 803(24). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact in Proceeding to Place Child in Foster Care
              • § 804(b)(8). Admissibility in Criminal Proceedings of a Child’s Out-of-Court Statement Describing Sexual Contact
              • § 804(b)(9). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact in Civil Proceeding, Including Termination of Parental Rights
              • § 1115(d)(2). Statements Related to Sexual Abuse

              Contained in computer records

              Defined

              Doctrine of completeness

              Dying declarations

              • § 804(b)(2). Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

              Expressions of sympathy

              False

              For purpose of medical treatment

              Hearsay (see HEARSAY )

              In care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

              • § 1115. Evidentiary Issues in Care and Protection, Child Custody, and Termination of Parental Rights Cases

              Inconsistent statements by prosecutor at successive trials

              Indicating consciousness of guilt

              In sexually dangerous person proceedings

              Made during competency examinations

              Made during criminal responsibility examination

              Made during suppression hearings

              • § 104(d), Note. Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case   
              • § 511(d). Note. Use of Suppressed Statements   

              Made in compromise negotiations

              • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

              Of defendant

              Of identification

              Of joint venturer

              Of nontestifying codefendant

              Of opposing party

              Of personal history

              Of police officer

              Of third party

              Of victim

              Out-of-court statements

              • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
              • § 608(a), Note. Reputation Evidence
              • § 613(a)(2), (3), Note. Examining Other Witness/Disclosure of Extrinsic Evidence
              • Article VIII, Intro. (a). Confrontation Clause and Hearsay in Criminal  Cases
              • Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1)(C). Whether the Statements Were Made to Non–Law Enforcement Personnel
              • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
              • § 801(d)(2), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement
              • § 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement
              • § 801(d)(2)(D), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement
              • § 803, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial
              • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition
              • § 803(24). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Proceeding to Place Child in Foster Care
              • § 804, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable
              • § 804(b)(3), Note. Statement Against Interest
              • § 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully  Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability
              • § 804(b)(8). Admissibility in Criminal Proceedings of a Child’s  Out-of-Court Statement Describing Sexual Contact
              • § 804(b)(9). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Civil Proceeding, Including Termination of Parental Rights
              • § 807. Residual Exception
              • § 1101(d). Motions to Suppress
              • § 1103(b), Note. Proceedings
              • § 1115(d). Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

              Prior (see PRIOR CONSISTENT STATEMENTS; PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENTS)

              Regarding pleas

              • § 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

              Regarding state of mind

              Suppressed statement used for impeachment

              Suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

              Testimonial versus nontestimonial

              Unrecorded

              Vicarious admission

              Voluntariness of

              STATE OF MIND

              Of child, in child custody cases

              Of declarant, circumstantial evidence of

              Of defendant

              Of employer, in employment discrimination case

              • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

              Of testator

              • § 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition, (B)(iii)

              Of victim

              • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
              • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
              • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

              Of witness

              State-of-mind exception

              • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition
              • § 803(3)(B)(ii), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

              STATUTORY PRESUMPTIONS

              STIPULATIONS

              SUBSCRIBING WITNESS

              • § 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

              SUMMARIES

              SUPPRESSION

              Applicability of evidentiary sections at hearings

              Hearings

              Motions to suppress

              Of defendant’s statement

              Of false statement

              Of identification

              Statements made at suppression hearings

              • § 104(d), Note. Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case
              • § 511(d), Note. Use of Suppressed Statements

              Suppressed statement used for impeachment

              Suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

              T

              TERMINATION OF PARENTAL RIGHTS (TPR) PROCEEDINGS

              See PARENTAL RIGHTS CASES

              TESTIMONY

              Against parent

              Against spouse

              Before Board of Bar Overseers

              Before medical peer review committee

              • § 513(d). Testimony Before Medical Peer Review Committee

              Care and protection cases

              Expert (see EXPERT TESTIMONY)

              False

              Missing witness, expected testimony of

              Noncumulative

              Of child witnesses

              Of defendant

              Of first complaint witness

              • § 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

              Of grand jury witness

              Of juror

              • § 606. Juror’s Competency as a Witness

              Of lay witness (see LAY WITNESS, OPINION TESTIMONY)

              Of police

              Of subscribing witness

              • § 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

              Of third-party observer

              Of victim, at pretrial dangerousness hearing

              Of victim, regarding first complaint of sexual assault

              Of witness, from outside defendant’s presence

              On authenticity of digital evidence

              On behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

              • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

              On first to use deadly force

              On person’s reputation

              On prior criminal conviction

              On ultimate issue

              • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

              Opinion

              • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses
              • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
              • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

              Preliminary matters

              Prior recorded testimony

              Records admitted without

              Suborning witness to provide false testimony

              Suppressed statement used to refresh memory for

              Termination of parental rights (TPR) cases

              To prove contents of electronic record

              • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

              To prove contents of written statement

              • § 1007. Testimony or Statement of Party to Prove Content

              Waiver of privilege against self-incrimination by

              THIRD-PARTY CULPRIT

              Bowden defense

              Constitutional considerations

              • § 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence     

              Evidence

              • § 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence     

              Federal residual exception and

              TRANSLATORS AND TRANSLATIONS

              Admission of translation

              Defendant’s custodial statements

              Derivative attorney-client privilege

              Interpreters

              Qualified sign language interpreters

              U

              ULTIMATE ISSUE, ADMISSIBILITY OF OPINION TESTIMONY

              Generally

              • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

              Improper vouching

              Operating under the influence cases

              • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

              Opinions about law versus facts

              • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

              Testimony of experts on ultimate issue

              UNPRESERVED ERROR

              • § 103(e). Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice

              V

              VERDICT

              Commenting on or discussing consequences of

              Contacting jurors after

              • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

              Directed verdict, after opening statement

              Duty of jury to return guilty verdict of highest crime proved

              Evidence of consciousness of guilt as basis for

              Impartiality of, after juror exposure to potentially prejudicial material

              • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

              Impeachment of

              • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

              Inquiry into validity of

              • § 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

              Jury nullification

              Reduction of

              • § 103(e), Note. Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice
              • § 411, Note. Insurance

              Reduction of damages after

              References to verdicts in other civil cases

              Suggesting that jurors may need to explain verdict

              VICTIM

              Appealing to jury for justice for

              Character of

              • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
              • § 405(c). By Violent Character of the Victim

              Child victim, right to confrontation with

              Credibility of

              Definition of, for purposes of rape-shield law

              Dying declarations of

              Evidence defendant is victim of battered woman syndrome

              Evidence to contradict impeachment of

              • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

              First complaint of sexual assault

              • § 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

              Juror bias due to race or ethnicity of

              • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

              Past behavior of

              • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
              • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

              Photographs of

              • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
              • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
              • § 801(d)(1)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

              Privileges

              • § 505. Domestic Violence Victims’ Counselor Privilege
              • § 506. Sexual Assault Counselor–Victim Privilege
              • § 524. Privileged Matter Disclosed Erroneously or Without Opportunity  to Claim Privilege

              Psychological and counseling records of alleged sexual assault victim

              Records of

              References to, in closing argument

              Restitution

              Sexual orientation

              Sexual reputation or behavior of

              • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

              Spontaneous utterance by

              • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

              Statements of (see STATEMENTS )

              State of mind

              • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
              • § 801(c) , Note. Hearsay
              • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

              Testimony of, at pretrial dangerousness hearing

              Testimony of, regarding first complaint of sexual assault

              Testimony regarding behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

              • § 704, Opinion on Ultimate Issue

              VIEWS

              Availability of

              Chief purpose of

              Conduct during

              Defendant’s presence and conduct

              Motions for

              Payment of cost of

              References to, in closing argument

              Unauthorized views of sites by jurors

              • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

              Use of observations made during

              VITAL RECORDS, CERTIFIED COPIES

              VITAL STATISTICS RECORDS

              VOIR DIRE

              Of child in proceeding to place child in foster care

              Of expert witness

              • § 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion
              • § 1117(d), Note. Basis for Expert Opinion

              Of jurors

              • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment
              • § 1116(b)(2), Note. Stage Two: Burden Shifts to Party Exercising Challenge

              Of witness

              Regarding defendant’s failure to appear at trial

              Regarding excited utterance

              • § 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

              Regarding feigning lack of memory

              Regarding spousal privilege

              Regarding suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

              Regarding third-party culprit evidence

              Regarding witness’s intent to assert a privilege

              Regarding witness’s mental competency

              Waiver of privilege against self-incrimination during

              VOUCHING

              Closing argument

              Expert witness testimony

              Testimony on direct examination

              • § 607, Note. Who May Impeach a Witness

              Witness testifying pursuant to plea agreement

              W

              WEAPONS EVIDENCE

              • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

              WEB SITE

              WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE

              Answers to questions by jurors

              Bowden evidence

              Business records

              • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

              Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

              Defects in chain of custody and

              • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

              Electronic communications and e-mail

              Evidence of bias or motive to lie

              Evidence of consciousness of guilt

              Evidence of consciousness of liability

              Evidence relevant to weight and credibility of other evidence

              • § 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

              Expert testimony

              • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

              First complaint testimony

              • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

              Identification evidence

              Inflammatory material, risk of unfair prejudice from

              • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

              Introduction of evidence relevant to

              • § 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

              Jury’s role

              • § 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence
              • § 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder
              • § 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

              Past sexual conduct and reputation of complainant 

              Photographs and digital images

              • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

              Police reports

              • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

              Reports in official publications, trade journals, or newspapers

              • § 803(17), Note. Statements of Facts of General Interest

              Secondary evidence of contents of writing or record

              • § 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder

              Suppression hearings

              Third-party culprit evidence

              WITNESS

              Adverse witness

              • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

              Attacking credibility

              Availability of 

              Bias, impeachment for

              • § 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

              Calling by court

              • § 614. Calling and Examination of Witnesses by Court or Jurors

              Character of

              • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

              Child protective cases

              Child witness

              Civil commitment hearings for alcohol and substance use disorders

              • § 1118(a). Civil Commitment Proceedings Pursuant to G. L. c. 123, § 35, for Individuals with Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders   

              Civil commitment hearings for mental illness

              • § 1117(c). Expert Opinion Testimony
              • § 1117(e). Psychotherapist-Patient and Social Worker–Client Privileges

              Competency

              Cooperation agreements

              • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

              Court personnel, competency as

              • § 605. Competency of Judge as Witness

              Credibility (see CREDIBILITY OF WITNESS )

              Cross-examination of

              • § 104. Preliminary Questions
              • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

              Direct examination of

              • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

              Examination by court

              • § 614. Calling and Examination of Witnesses by Court or Jurors

              Examination by jurors

              Exclusion of

              • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

              Expert witness (see EXPERT TESTIMONY; EXPERT WITNESSES)

              Eyewitness

              • § 1112. Eyewitness Identification

              Failure to call

              Fear of testifying, questions concerning

              First complaint witness

              • § 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

              Grand jury witness

              Harassment

              Hostile witness

              Immunity

              Impeachment of (see IMPEACHMENT )

              Improper vouching

              Incompetency, finding of

              Intimidation

              Judge as

              • § 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege
              • § 605. Competency of Judge as Witness

              Juror as

              • § 606. Juror’s Competency as a Witness

              Lack of personal knowledge of

              • § 602. Need for Personal Knowledge

              Lay witness (see LAY WITNESS, OPINION TESTIMONY)

              Memory, feigning lack of

              Memory, lapse or lack of

              Memory, refreshment of

              Missing witness (see MISSING WITNESS )

              Motive to lie/lack of motive to lie, commenting on

              Oath

              • § 603. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully

              Plea agreements with

              Police officer, impeachment of

              Preventing from hearing inadmissible evidence

              • § 103(d). Preventing the Jury or Witnesses from Hearing Inadmissible Evidence

              Prior statements of

              • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
              • § 607, Note. Who May Impeach a Witness
              • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility
              • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
              • § 801(d)(1). A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

              Privilege

              Production or procurement of

              Protected witness

              Qualification

              Recollection of, refreshed

              • § 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory

              References to, in closing argument

              Rehabilitation of

              • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
              • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
              • § 801(d)(1)(B), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

              Sequestration of

              • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

              State of mind

              Suborning of, to provide false testimony

              Subscribing

              • § 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

              Witness cooperation agreements

              • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

              WORK-PRODUCT DOCTRINE

              Burden of proof

              Explanation and intention of

              Relation to attorney-client privilege

              Scope of, in public records context

              Waiver

              Writing or object used to refresh witness’s memory

              WRITINGS

              Ancient

              Contents of (see CONTENTS OF WRITINGS, PROOF)

              Defined

              • § 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article

              Disputed

              • § 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence

              Doctrine of completeness

              Made in regular course of business

              • § 803(6)(A). Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

              Used to impeach

              • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

              Used to refresh memory

              • § 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory

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