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Guide to Evidence

Guide to Evidence Guide to Evidence Index

Adopted Date: 01/01/2018

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Table of Contents

A

ABUSE OF DISCRETION 

Appellate court’s review for 

  • § 102, Note. Purpose and Construction
  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Bowden evidence

  • § 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Character evidence 

  • § 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case 
  • § 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts 

Courtroom experiments and demonstrations

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Discharge of juror during trial 

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment 

Evidence of sexual behavior or sexual reputation 

Evidence of similar occurrences

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Exclusion as sanction 

Expert witness testimony 

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses 

First complaint doctrine 

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint 
  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis 

Opening statements 

Peremptory challenges

Scope of cross-examination

Sequestration of witnesses

Statistical summaries of compilations of raw data

ABUSE PREVENTION ACT PROCEEDINGS 

Generally

  • § 1106 Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings 

Abuse Defined

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

ACCUSED 

See DEFENDANT

ADJUDICATIVE FACTS 

  • § 201 Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts 

ADMISSIBILITY 

Additional reports of sexual assault 

  • § 413(b) Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis 

Authentication or identification as precedent of 

  • § 901  Authenticating or Identifying Evidence 

Blood alcohol/breathalyzer tests, refusal of 

Character evidence 

  • § 404 . Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts 
  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character 
  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness 
  • § 803(21). Reputation Concerning Character 

Character trait 

  • § 404 Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts 
  • § 405 Methods of Proving Character 

Collateral source payments

Compromise 

  • § 408 Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Computer simulations

Conduct, prior sexual 

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law) 

Conduct, specific instances 

Confessions

Copies 

  • § 1002 Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule) 
  • § 1003 Admissibility of Duplicate 
  • § 1004 Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content 
  • § 1005 Official Records 

Courtroom experiments and demonstrations

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons 

Crimes 

Curative

Depositions and affidavits

Determination of 

  • § 103 Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof
  • § 104 Preliminary Questions 
  • § 403 Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons 

Evidence not admissible against other parties or for other purposes

  • § 105 Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes

Evidence of insurance

Expert testimony 

  • § 702 Testimony by Expert Witnesses 
  • § 703 Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts 
  • § 704 Opinion on Ultimate Issue 
  • § 705 Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion 
  • § 706 Court-Appointed Experts 

Expressions of sympathy 

  • § 409 Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical and Similar Expenses 

Extrapolation evidence

Eyewitness identification

  • § 1112  Eyewitness Identification

First complaint 

  • § 413(a)  Admissibility of First Complaint 

Habit 

  • § 406 Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual 

Hearsay 

  • Article VIII, Intro Hearsay
  • § 801 Definitions 
  • § 802 The Rule Against Hearsay 
  • § 803 Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial 
  • § 804 Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable 
  • § 805 Hearsay Within Hearsay 
  • § 806 Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant 
  • § 807 Residual Exception
  • § 1101(c)(3), Note. Certain Other Proceedings
  • § 1103 Sexually Dangerous Person Proceedings

Irrelevant evidence 

  • § 402 General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence 

Limited admissibility 

  • § 105 Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes 

Medical and hospital bills 

  • § 411, Note. Insurance 
  • § 803(6)(C), Note. Medical and Hospital Services 
  • § 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills and Reports 

Medical and hospital records 

  • § 803(6)(A), Note Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
  • § 803(6)(B) Hospital Records 
  • § 902(k) Certified Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Treatment and Medical History 

Medical reports

Mortality tables 

  • § 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports 

Negotiations 

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Offers to compromise 

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Photographs of victim

  • § 403, Note Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Pleas 

  • § 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements 

Prior statements of witnesses

  • § 613 Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

Relevant evidence 

  • § 401 Test for Relevant Evidence 
  • § 402 General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence 
  • § 403 Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons 

Remedial measures 

  • § 407 Subsequent Remedial Measures 

Reports and records in child protective cases

  • § 1115 Evidentiary Issues in Care and Protection and Termination of Parental Rights Cases

Role of judge 

Similar occurrences, evidence of

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Statutes limiting 

  • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence 

Summaries 

Suppressed statements, for impeachment

  • § 511(d), Note. Use of Suppressed Statements

Test for 

Ultimate issue testimony 

  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue 

Writing or object used to refresh memory

ADMISSIONS 

Adoptive admission 

Binding 

By conduct 

By silence 

Defined, criminal case 

Evidentiary

Inconsistent statements by prosecutor 

Joint venture 

Judicial 

Made on face of settlement documents 

  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases 

Nonbinding 

Of liability 

  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases
  • § 409(a)  Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

Party-opponent 

To sufficient facts

Vicarious admissions 

ADVERSE INFERENCE 

Abuse prevention and harassment prevention proceedings 

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Claim of privilege

  • § 525  Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege

Consciousness of guilt or liability 

Failure to call witness 

Generally 

  • § 525. Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege 

Missing witness 

Parent claiming Fifth Amendment privilege child protective cases

Privilege against self-incrimination 

Psychotherapist-patient privilege 

ADVERSE PARTY 

Calling of parents by in child protective cases

Entitlement to writing used by witness to refresh memory 

  • § 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory 

Interrogation of 

  • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence 

Notice of intent to use treatise to impeach witness 

Permission to use another part of admitted statement or record 

  • § 106(a). Remainder of Writings or Recorded Statements 

ADVERSE WITNESS 

Impeachment of

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness 

Leading questions to examine

  • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence 

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

AFFIRMATION OR OATH 

  • § 603. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully 

ANCIENT DOCUMENTS 

APPELLATE REVIEW 

  • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

APPLICABILITY, EVIDENTIARY SECTIONS 

  • § 1101. Applicability of Evidentiary Sections 

ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE 

Adverse inference from, civil case 

Burden of proving

Corporations and shareholders 

Defined

  • § 502, Note. Attorney-Client Privilege

Definition of terms used regarding 

Derivative attorney-client privilege

Exceptions 

General rule 

§ 502(b). General Rule of Privilege 

Jointly represented clients

Law firms and clients 

Not self-executing

Waiver 

Who may claim 

Work-product doctrine

AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION 

Generally 

  • § 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence 

Attestation Requirement

Of ancient documents 

Of electronic or digital communication 

Of handwriting 

Of non-admitted evidence

  • §901, Note. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence

Of process or system 

Of public records or reports 

Of signature 

  • § 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony 

Of telephone conversation 

Of voice 

Self-authentication 

  • § 902 Evidence That Is Self-Authenticating

B

BAPTISMAL CERTIFICATES 

  • § 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates 

BATTERED WOMAN SYNDROME

BEHAVIOR, PAST 

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law) 

BENEVOLENT STATEMENTS 

  • § 409. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical and Similar Expenses 

BEST EVIDENCE RULE (REQUIREMENT OF ORIGINAL) 

Admissibility of other evidence of contents 

  • § 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content 

Admissions of parties 

  • § 1007. Testimony or Statement of Party to Prove Content 

Applicability of 

Duplicates 

  • § 1003. Admissibility of Duplicates 

Electronic records 

  • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule) 

Official records 

Originals, requirement of 

  • § 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule) 

Role of judge and fact finder 

  • § 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder 

Summaries 

Writings/records defined 

  • § 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article 

BIAS 

Cross-examination to show 

Extrinsic proof to show 

Of complainant 

Of expert witness 

Of judge in questioning witness 

Of juror 

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment 
  • § 1116(a) General Principles

Of spouse testifying against his or her spouse 

Of witness 

BLOOD ALCOHOL/BREATHALYZER TESTS 

Admission of 

Evidence regarding accuracy

Expert testimony 

Failure to take properly as evidence 

Reference to, in opening statement

Refusal as evidence

BOUNDARIES, REPUTATION CONCERNING 

  • § 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History 

BOWDEN DEFENSE 

  • § 702, Note Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 1105, Note Third-Party Culprit Evidence 
  • § 1107, Note Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence 

BUSINESS RECORDS 

C

CARE AND PROTECTION CASES

  • § 1115 Evidentiary Issues in Care and Protection and Termination of Parental Rights Cases

CERTIFICATES

Attested to by experts

Death certificate

From registry of motor vehicles

Of baptism

  • § 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

Of copy of official/public record

Of drug analysis

Of marriage

Of working firearm

Prima facie evidence

CHAIN OF CUSTODY

  • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

CHARACTER EVIDENCE

Admissibility of

  • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character
  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness
  • § 803(21). Reputation Concerning Character

Essential element

For truthfulness

Generally

Of defendant

  • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case, (A)
  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character
  • § 608(a), Note. Reputation Evidence

Of victim

  • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

Of witness

  • § 404(a)(3). Exceptions for a Witness
  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Other crimes, wrongs, or acts

Proof of character

  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

Reputation

  • § 405(a). By Reputation
  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

CHARACTER TRAIT

Admissibility

Defendant

Essential element

Proof

  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

Reputation as evidence of

CHILD ABUSE

Department of Children and Families (DCF) reports

Drug and alcohol treatment records

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

Religious privilege

Sexual abuse

  • § 503(d)(7). Child Abuse or Neglect
  • § 803(24). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Proceeding to Place Child in Foster Care
  • § 1115(d). Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

Spousal disqualification

Spousal privilege

CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE

Of authenticity or identity of an item

Of declarant’s guilt

Of declarant’s state of mind

Of identity of person

Of nature of a place or a thing

CIVIL CASES

Abuse of discretion

Claims of privilege

Closing argument

Compromise offers and negotiations

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Consciousness of liability

Disclosure of facts/data by expert witness

  • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Expert testimony, basis of

  • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Expert witnesses

  • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses
  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue
  • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion
  • § 706. Court-Appointed Experts

Expressions of sympathy

  • § 409(a) Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

Industry and safety standards

  • § 414 Industry and Safety Standards

Inferences

Judicial admissions

Judicial notice

  • § 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts
  • § 202. Judicial Notice of Law

Jury exposure to extraneous material

  • § 606(b), Note During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Opening statement

Peremptory challenges of potential jurors

  • § 1116 Peremptory Challenges of Potential Jurors

Presumptions

Prima facie evidence

Privilege against self-incrimination

Scope of cross-examination

Sequestration of witnesses

  • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Spoliation or destruction of evidence

  • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Spousal disqualification

Statements of facts of general interest

Statutory hearsay exceptions

Ultimate issue

  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Views

CIVIL COMMITMENT HEARING

  • §1117. Civil Commitment Hearings for Mental Illness
  • §1118. Civil Commitment Hearings for Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders

CLOSING ARGUMENT

Asking jurors for justice for victim

Asking jurors to use common sense, apply common experience

Attacking credibility

Burden of proof

Collateral sources/outside source of compensation

Commenting on criminal defendant’s silence or testimony

Commenting on defendant’s courtroom appearance or conduct

Commenting that witness has no motive to lie

Critical stage of trial

Denigrating of constitutional rights

Improper argument

Improper vouching

Jurors

Measures to prevent improper argument

Missing witness, arguments concerning

Misstatements of law

Misstating evidence

Permissible argument

Prearrest silence, use of for impeachment purposes

Reading from or quoting transcript or stipulation

Reference to damages

Reference to evidence as uncontradicted or uncontested

Reference to facts not in evidence

Reference to plea agreement

Reference to view

Resort to stereotypes

Responses to improper argument

Retaliatory reply

Shifting the burden of proof

Statements concerning role of jury

Time allowed

Use of chalks

Use of evidence admitted for a limited purpose

Use of props

Use of rhetorical questions

COLLATERAL SOURCE RULE

COMMON INTEREST DOCTRINE

COMMUNICATIONS, PRIVILEGED

See PRIVILEGES AND DISQUALIFICATIONS

COMPETENCY OF WITNESS

Court, discretion of

Court personnel

  • § 605. Competency of Judge as Witness

Criminal defendant

Expert

  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue
  • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

General rule

Judge

  • § 605. Competency of Judge as Witness

Juror

  • § 606. Juror’s Competency as a Witness

Mental capacity

Minor

  • § 601 Competency
  • § 610, Note. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

COMPLETENESS, WRITTEN AND ORAL

COMPROMISE

Admissibility

  • § 408 Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Negotiations

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases
  • § 409(b). Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

Offers to

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases
  • § 409(b). Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

CONDUCT

Habit

  • § 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

Of defendant

Of trial

Of witness

  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Past behavior

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Personal knowledge of

  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

Routine practice as evidence of inadmissible conduct

  • § 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

Sexual, prior

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Specific instances

CONFESSIONS

Admissibility of

Allied mental health or human services professional privilege

  • § 508(d) Mental Health Counselor Exception, (2)

Of joint venturer

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

Religious privilege

Social worker–client privilege

Unrecorded

CONFRONTATION CLAUSE

Admission of party-opponent

Analysis

Applicability of

Availability of declarant

  • § 803, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial
  • § 804, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Certificates

Dying declarations

  • § 804(b)(2) , Note. Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

Excited utterances of declarant who is not a witness at trial

  • § 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Expert testimony

Forfeiture of, by wrongdoing 

  • § 804(b)(6) , Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

Massachusetts law versus Federal law

Out-of-court statements

  • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
  • § 804, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Prior recorded testimony

Privileged communications

Records and reports

Safety concerns of witness

  • § 501, Note. Privileges Recognized Only as Provided

Scope of cross-examination

Sequestration of defendant

  • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Sexual offender registry records

Spousal disqualification

Statements of nontestifying codefendant

State-of-mind evidence

  • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

Testimonial versus nontestimonial statements

Testimony from witness outside defendant’s presence

Waiver of right to confrontation

CONSCIOUSNESS OF GUILT

Arguing during closing argument

Conduct that may be offered as evidence

Conduct that may not be offered as evidence

Facts included in trial testimony but not in pretrial statement

False statements of defendant

Generally

Jury instruction

Rebuttal evidence

Testimonial nature of evidence

Use of defendant’s prearrest conduct or silence

CONSCIOUSNESS OF INNOCENCE

  • § 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements
  • § 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

CONSCIOUSNESS OF LIABILITY

Arguing during closing argument

Conduct that may be offered as evidence

Generally

Jury instruction

Rebuttal evidence

CONTENTS OF WRITINGS, PROOF

Best evidence rule

  • § 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

Copies

Other evidence

  • § 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content

Summaries

Testimony

  • § 1007. Testimony or Statement of Party to Prove Content

CONVICTION

As evidence of character

Definition of, for purpose of impeachment

  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Due process clause

Evidence of

  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Impeachment of witness by use of

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness
  • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Prior convictions of complainant

Prior convictions of defendant

  • § 103(f), Note. Motions in Limine
  • § 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case
  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
  • § 803(22). Judgment of a Previous Conviction

Proof of

  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Restitution after

Role of prosecutor in obtaining

Use of in sexually dangerous person proceedings

Wrongful convictions

COPIES, ADMISSIBILITY OF

  • § 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)
  • § 1003. Admissibility of Duplicate
  • § 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content
  • § 1005. Official Records

COURT

Appointment of experts

Calling of witnesses by

Closing arguments

Court-appointed experts

Directing an offer of proof be made

  • § 103(c). Court’s Statement About the Ruling; Directing an Offer of Proof

Discretion

Examining of witness by

Expert testimony, discretion as to

  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Function

  • § 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder

Opening statements

Reopening case, discretion to

Statement about evidence, objection, or ruling

  • § 103(c). Court’s Statement About the Ruling; Directing an Offer of Proof

COURTROOM EXPERIMENTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

CREDIBILITY OF WITNESS

Attacking credibility

Attorney commenting on, in closing argument

Collateral source payments and

Complainant/alleged victim

Cross-examination on

Defendant

Disputes as to

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Evidence relevant to

  • § 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

Experts

  • § 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Impeachment of

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness
  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness
  • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
  • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
  • § 801(d)(1)(A), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Improper vouching

No motive to lie

Offers to compromise and

  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

On preliminary question of fact

Opinion of other witness

Personal opinion of attorney about

Prior inconsistent statements and

Recent contrivance and

Rehabilitation of

Religious beliefs and

  • § 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

Trier of fact as judge of

Witness cooperation agreements and

  • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

CRIMES

Conviction of

  • § 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts
  • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Crime-fraud exception

Evidence of other

  • § 404(b). Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts
  • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Evidence third-party committed

  • § 1105 . Third-Party Culprit Evidence

Restitution

Violation of G. L. c. 209A order punishable as

  • § 1106, Note Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceeding

CRIMINAL CASES

Abuse of discretion

Access to third-party records

  • Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records  from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases
  • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Admissibility of records

  • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business
  • § 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports

Admission of party-opponent

Certificates

Character evidence of accused

  • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case, (A)

Confrontation clause (see CONFRONTATION CLAUSE)

Consciousness of guilt (see CONSCIOUSNESS OF GUILT)

Consciousness of innocence

  • § 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements
  • § 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Disclosure of facts, data by expert witness

  • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Excited utterance, confrontation of

  • § 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Exclusion of witnesses

  • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Expert testimony, basis of

  • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Expert witnesses

  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Identity of informer

Identity of protected witness

Inadequate police investigation

  • § 1107. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Inferences

Judicial notice of facts

  • § 201 . Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

Judicial notice of law

Missing witness

Out-of-court statements

Presumptions

Prima facie evidence

Rebuttal evidence

Reopening

Restitution

Scope of cross-examination

Sexual assault cases (see SEXUAL ASSAULT)

Spoliation or destruction of evidence

  • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Statements against interest

Stipulations

Substantial risk of a miscarriage of justice

  • § 103(e). Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice in Criminal Cases

Suppressed statement used to impeach

Suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

Third-party culprit

  • § 807 . Residual Exception
  • § 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence
  • § 1107 , Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Third-party records

  • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Ultimate issue opinion

  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Unavailable witness

Views

Work-product doctrine

CROSS-EXAMINATION

Abuse prevention and harassment prevention proceedings

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Bias

By court

Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

Character witness

Complainant in sexual assault case

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Confrontation clause (see CONFRONTATION CLAUSE)

Conviction of crime

  • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Defendant

Defendant’s character witness

  • § 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

Defendant’s right to in criminal cases

Exclusion of evidence

Expert witness

  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
  • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion
  • § 803(18)(B) , Note. Use in Cross-Examination of Experts

Eyewitness

Fairness to Commonwealth

For impeachment purposes

  • § 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case
  • § 405(a). By Reputation
  • § 511(d) . Use of Suppressed Statements
  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness
  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Leading questions

Limitation on, of experts

  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts
  • § 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Limits on length of

Meaningful opportunity for

  • § 703 , Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Mode and order of examining witnesses

  • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

Prior statements

  • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility
  • § 801(d)(1). A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement, (A)

Reasonable basis for

Recross-examination

Regarding facts or data underlying expert opinion

Regarding object or writing used to refresh memory

Restitution hearing

Scope of

Sexual assault counselor

Sexual behavior or sexual reputation

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

Unavailable declarant

CUMULATIVE EVIDENCE

  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

CURATIVE ADMISSIBILITY

CURATIVE INSTRUCTIONS

  • § 103(a), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error.§ 1113(c), Note. Objections
  • § 1113(c) . Objections

D

DAMAGES

Admissibility of collateral source payments in determining

Admissibility of evidence of damages sought

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Admissibility of medical report of deceased physician in determining

Admissibility of settlement with another defendant in determining

For breach of doctor-patient confidentiality

Mitigation of

  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Reference to damages during closing argument

DECLARANT

Availability

Care and protection case reports

Credibility, attacking or supporting

  • § 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Defined

Motive of

Multiple out-of-court declarants

  • § 805 , Note. Hearsay Within Hearsay

Statements to law enforcement agent

State of mind of

Third-party testimony of

DEFENDANT

Admissibility of postarrest, post-Miranda silence

Admission/adoption by silence

Blood alcohol tests and refusal of

Blood sample-DNA match

Burden of proof and

Challenges to the sufficiency of an affidavit

Character of

  • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character
  • § 608(a), Note. Reputation Evidence

Closing argument

Claim of privilege

Competency of

Consciousness of guilt

Consciousness of innocence

  • § 410 , Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements
  • § 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Courtroom appearance and conduct

Criminal responsibility examination

Cross-examination of

  • § 104(d). Cross-Examining a Defendant in a Criminal Case

Custodial interrogation

Denial of

Denigration of constitutional rights

Entrapment defense

Ethnic or racial bias against

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Eyewitness identification of

Failure to call witness

Impeachment of

Intent of

  • § 503(d)(3), Note. Patient Raises the Issue of Own Mental or Emotional  Condition as an Element of Claim or Defense

Lack of criminal responsibility

Lost or destroyed evidence and

  • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Martin hearing, presence at

Mental or emotional condition of

  • § 503(d)(3), Note. Patient Raises the Issue of Own Mental or Emotional  Condition as an Element of Claim or Defense

Opening statement of

Pleas

  • § 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

Prearrest silence

Presumption of sanity

Presumptions, generally

Privilege against self-incrimination

  • § 511. Privilege Against Self-Incrimination

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

  • § 503(d)(3), Note . Patient Raises the Issue of Own Mental or Emotional Condition as an Element of Claim or Defense

Refusal to take test or supply police with real or physical evidence

Restitution by

Right not to testify

Right to confront witnesses (see CONFRONTATION CLAUSE )

Right to fair trial

Right to offer evidence

  • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

Right to present complete defense

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 412(b)(3), Note . Exceptions

Right to trial by jury

Sequestration of

  • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Statements made at suppression hearings

Statements made during competency examination

Substantial risk of a miscarriage of justice and

  • § 103(e), Note. Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice  in Criminal Cases

Suppressed statements, use of

Testimony of

Third-party culprit evidence

  • § 807 Residual Exception
  • § 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence
  • § 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Unfair prejudice and

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

View, presence at

Voluntariness of statement

Waiver of right to confrontation

Witness cooperation agreements

  • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

DEFINITIONS

Declarant

Hearsay

Original/duplicate

  • § 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article

Records

  • § 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article

Relevant evidence

  • § 401. Test for Relevant Evidence

Statement

Victim, for purposes of rape-shield law

Writings

  • § 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article

DELIBERATIONS

Of judge

  • § 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege

Of jury

Of  legislator

Of medical peer review committee

  • § 513(b)(1). Proceedings, Reports, and Records of Medical Peer Review  Committee
  • § 513(d). Testimony Before Medical Peer Review Committee

DESTRUCTION OF EVIDENCE

As evidence of consciousness of guilt

As evidence of consciousness of liability

Exclusion of other evidence as sanction

Judge’s discretion to impose sanctions

  • § 1102. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

DETERMINATIONS

Admissibility

  • § 105. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties  or for Other Purposes
  • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

Preliminary

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

DIRECT EXAMINATION

Cross-examination not limited to scope of

Denial of

Leading questions

Limits on length of

Manner and order of

  • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

Of expert witnesses

On plea agreement

  • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

Prior consistent statements during

Redirect examination (see REDIRECT EXAMINATION )

Testimony about prior criminal conviction during

  • § 607, Note. Who May Impeach a Witness
  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Using treatise to bolster

DISCLOSURE OF FACTS, EXPERT WITNESS

  • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

DISCOVERY

Electronic

Inadvertent disclosure during

Of communications between allied mental health professional and client

Of communications between domestic violence counselor and victim

Of communications between psychotherapist and patient

Of communications between sexual assault counselor and victim

Of communications between social worker and client

Of documentation of basis of expert’s opinion

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Of identity and location of protected witness

Of investigatory information of law enforcement

  • § 515, Note. Investigatory Privilege

Of medical peer review committee proceedings, reports, and records

Of sealed criminal record

  • § 609 , Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Of tax returns

  • § 519. State and Federal Tax Returns

Of third-party records

  • § 1108, Note. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal  Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Of trade secrets

Pretrial discovery

  • § 1108, Note. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal  Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Reciprocal discovery process for criminal responsibility examinations

Rising cost of

Using cross-examination for

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Violation of a discovery rule

Work-product doctrine

DNA

Analysts

Collection of samples

Distinction between nonexclusion and inconclusive

  • § 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Expert testimony regarding

Inconclusive results

“Likelihood ratios”

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Match

Nuclear DNA analysis

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Profiles

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Substitute analyst

  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Testing process

  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

DOCUMENTS

Affecting interest in property, records of

  • § 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

Affecting interest in property, statements in

  • § 803(15). Statements in Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

Ancient

Attorney-client privilege

Confidentiality statutes regarding

Department of Children and Families documents

  • § 1115(b)(2)(B), Note. G. L. c. 119, § 51B, Investigation Reports
  • § 1115(b)(2)(C), Note. DCF Service Plans, Affidavits, Foster Care  Review Reports, Case Review Reports, and Family Assessments

Discovery 

Foreign public

Held by State agency

Impounding versus sealing

In sexually dangerous person proceedings

Of medical peer review committee

  • § 513 . Medical Peer Review Privilege

Of third-party

  • § 1108, Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal  Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)
  • § 1108(a). Filing and Service of the Motion
  • § 1108(b),   The Lampron Hearing and Findings (1)
  • § 1108(b), Note. The Lampron Hearing and Findings

Public records

Requirement of original (best evidence rule)

  • § 1002 . Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

Settlement documents

  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Summaries of

  • § 1006, Note. Summaries to Prove Content

Tax returns

  • § 519 State and Federal Tax Returns

Work-product doctrine

Writings and records

E

ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION

  • § 901(b)(11). Electronic or Digital Communication
  • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

ENTRAPMENT DEFENSE

E-MAIL

  • § 901(b)(11), Note. Electronic or Digital Communication
  • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

EVIDENCE

Abuse

  • § 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Admissibility (see ADMISSIBILITY )

Ballistics identification

Battered woman syndrome

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Best evidence rule (see BEST EVIDENCE RULE )

Blood alcohol tests and refusal of

Character

  • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

Character trait

  • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

Circumstantial (see CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE )

Competent

  • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

Computer simulations

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Concealment of evidence

Consciousness of guilt

Consciousness of innocence

  • § 410 , Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements
  • § 1110(a), Note. Criminal Cases

Consciousness of liability

Constitutional considerations

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

Courtroom experiments and demonstrations

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Credibility of

Criminal profile evidence versus character evidence

Cumulative

  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Destruction of

Discovery (see DISCOVERY )

DNA (see DNA )

Exclusion of (see EXCLUSION OF EVIDENCE)

Expert (see EXPERT TESTIMONY; EXPERT WITNESSES)

Expressions of sympathy as

  • § 409. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical  and Similar Expenses

Extrapolation to determine weight of drugs

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Extrinsic

  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness
  • § 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions
  • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

Fingerprint identification

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Firearm/ballistics identification

First complaint

  • § 413.  First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Forensics

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Guidelines, scope of

Inadequate police investigation

  • § 1107. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Industry and safety standards

  • § 414. Industry and Safety Standards

Material

Medical malpractice actions

“Missing”

Nonverbal conduct

Offered for nonhearsay purpose

Other crimes, wrongs, or acts

Prejudicial

  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Presentation of

  • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

Probative value

  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Rebuttal (see REBUTTAL )

Relevant

  • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof§ 104(b). Relevance That Depends on a Fact
  • § 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility
  • § 401. Test for Relevant Evidence
  • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence
  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Retrograde extrapolation to estimate blood alcohol content

  • § 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Routine practice

  • § 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

SAIN evidence/Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit

  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
  • § 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

Scope of

Sexual behavior or reputation

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Similar occurrences

  • § 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Spoliation of

  • § 1102. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Suppression of (see SUPPRESSION )

Third-party culprit

  • § 807 . Residual Exception
  • § 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence
  • § 1107 , Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Unnecessarily time consuming

  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Weight of (see WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE )

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES

See CROSS-EXAMINATION ; DIRECT EXAMINATION

EXCEPTIONS, HEARSAY RULE

See HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS

EXCITED UTTERANCE

  • § 803(2).  Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

EXCLUSION OF EVIDENCE

As sanction

  • § 103(g) . Exclusion as Sanction Discretion of trial judge
  • § 102,  Note. Purpose and Construction§ 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
  • § 702,  Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Cumulative evidence

  • § 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Discretion of trial judge

  • § 102 , Note. Purpose and Construction
  • § 103 . Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof
  • § 401 , Note. Test for Relevant Evidence
  • § 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 412(b)(3) , Note. Exceptions
  • § 413(a) , Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
  • § 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Evidence of insurance

Expert testimony

Exploitation of by counsel

Expressions of opinion, evaluation, or judgment from official records

  • § 1115(b)(2)(B), Note. Department of Children and Families (DCF)  Records and Report

General rule

  • § 403 , Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Nonverbal conduct

Offered for impeachment

Prior bad acts/convictions

  • § 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts
  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Reasons for

  • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence
  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Rulings on

  • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

Specific instances of complainant’s sexual conduct

Statements made during plea negotiations

  • § 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

Subsequent remedial measures

Testimony regarding behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

  • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Third-party culprit evidence

  • § 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

Under first complaint doctrine

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Unnecessarily suggestive identifications

  • § 1112(a), Note. Eyewitness Identification Generally

Voice identification

EXCLUSION OF WITNESSES

  • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

EXPERT TESTIMONY

Ballistics identification

Basis of

Battered woman syndrome

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

  • § 704 , Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Blood alcohol tests

Blood sample-DNA match

Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

Certitude of

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Confrontation of

Development of adolescent brain

  • § 702 , Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Disclosure of facts, data

Discretion of court

  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Exclusion of, as sanction

Extrapolation to determine weight of drugs

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Eyewitness identification

Fingerprint identification

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Firearm/ballistics identification

Five foundation requirements

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Forensics

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Illustrations

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Inaccurate forensic analysis

  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

On lack of criminal responsibility/competency

On possibility

On tests performed and data collected by others

Reliability of

Retrograde extrapolation to estimate blood alcohol content

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

Substituted experts

Termination of parental rights and care and protection cases

Ultimate issue

  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

EXPERT WITNESSES

Certitude of opinion

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Competency

  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Court-appointed

Cross-examination of

Exclusion of

  • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Failure to consult or present

Failure to seek funds for

Inaccurate forensic analysis by

  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

In medical malpractice actions

Method used by

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Opinions (see OPINIONS, EXPERT WITNESSES )

Personal knowledge of

Qualifications

  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Role of

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Reliability of testimony

Substituted experts

Testimony of (see EXPERT TESTIMONY)

EXPRESSIONS OF SYMPATHY

  • § 409. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases; Offers to Pay Medical  and Similar Expenses

EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION

Expert testimony concerning

Generally

In-court identification

Jury instruction

Lineups

Out-of-court identification

Photographic array

Showup

Testimony of third-party observer

F

FACTS

Adjudicative

  • § 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

Judicial notice of

  • § 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

Preliminary finding of

Underlying expert opinion

  • § 705 . Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion 

FAMILY RECORDS

FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

FIREARM/BALLISTICS IDENTIFICATION

FIREARM, DEFENSE OF LICENSE

FIRST AGGRESSOR (SELF-DEFENSE)

  • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case, (B)

FIRST COMPLAINT OF SEXUAL ASSAULT

Admissibility of

Admissibility of additional reports

  • § 413(b) . Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Applicability of doctrine

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Determining first complaint witness

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Identifying

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Impeachment of first complaint witness

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Limiting jury instruction regarding

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Live witnesses

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Role of trial judge

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

SAIN evidence/Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit

  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
  • § 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

Scope of doctrine

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Substitution of first complaint witness

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

FOREIGN OFFICIAL RECORDS, AUTHENTICATION

FORENSIC EVIDENCE

Inaccurate analysis

  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Methods for testing

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

FORMER TESTIMONY, HEARSAY EXCEPTION

FOUNDATION, INTRODUCTION OF EVIDENCE

Authenticating or identifying evidence

  • § 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence

Declarations of decedent

Evidence conditionally admitted

Prior bad act evidence

Prior inconsistent statements

Sexual abuse evidence

  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Testimony by expert witnesses

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

G

GUILTY PLEAS

Of accomplice

  • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

Withdrawn

  • § 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

H

HABIT, INADMISSIBLE AS EVIDENCE OF CONDUCT

  • § 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

HARASSMENT OF WITNESS

  • § 611(a). Control by the Court
  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

HARASSMENT PREVENTION PROCEEDINGS

Generally

  • § 1106, Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Harassment Defined

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

HEARINGS

Abuse prevention and harassment prevention proceedings

  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Amral hearings

Applicability of evidentiary sections at

  • § 1101. Applicability of Evidentiary Sections

Availability of declarant for

  • § 804. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Civil motor vehicle infraction hearings

Commitment hearings pursuant to G. L. c. 123, §§ 7, 8 and 35

Daubert-Lanigan hearings

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Defendant’s right not to testify at

Lampron hearings

Martin hearings

On admissibility of evidence of sexual behavior or reputation

On closing courtroom to public

On expert testimony

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

On reliability of the out-of-court statements

On third-party culprit information

Precomplaint hearings

Preliminary

Pretrial dangerousness hearing

Probable cause hearing

Probation violation hearing

  • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
  • § 1101(c)(3) , Note. Certain Other Proceedings

Restitution hearing

Suppression hearings

Unemployment hearing

  • § 526 Unemployment Hearing Privilege

HEARSAY

Admissibility

Availability of declarant (see HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, AVAILABILITY  OF DECLARANT IMMATERIAL; HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS,  DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE)

Confrontation clause

Credibility of declarant, attacking or supporting

  • § 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Defined

Exceptions

  • § 803. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial
  • § 804. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Hearsay within hearsay

Rule

Unavailability of declarant

HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS

Absence of public record

Ancient documents

Availability of declarant (see HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, AVAILABILITY  OF DECLARANT IMMATERIAL; HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS,  DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE)

Business records

  • § 803(6)(A). Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Child statement out of court, civil proceeding

  • § 803(24). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Proceeding to Place Child in Foster Care
  • § 804(b)(9). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Civil Proceeding, Including Termination of Parental Rights
  • § 1115(d). Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

Child statement out of court, criminal proceeding

  • § 804(b)(8). Admissibility in Criminal Proceedings of a Child’s  Out-of-Court Statement Describing Sexual Contact

Declarant unavailable (see HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE)

Dying declaration

  • § 804(b)(2). Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

Establishing foundation for business records

  • §803(6)(a), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

Excited utterance

  • § 803(2). Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Existing mental, emotional or physical condition

  • § 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

Family records

Forfeiture by wrongdoing

  • § 804(b)(6). Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused  the Declarant’s Unavailability

Hospital records

Identification

Judgment of prior conviction

Learned treatises

Marriage and baptism records

  • § 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

Medical/hospital services

Official/public records

Other judgments

  • § 803(23). Judgment as to Personal, Family, or General History,  or Boundaries

Past recollection recorded

Present sense impression

Prior recorded testimony

Records affecting interest in property

  • § 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

Records of religious organization

Reputation as to character

Reputation concerning boundaries

  • § 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History

Reputation concerning family history

  • § 803(19). Reputation Concerning Personal or Family History

Spontaneous utterance

  • § 803(2). Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Statements against interest

Statements for medical diagnosis or treatment

  • § 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment

Statements of facts of general interest

Statements of personal history

Statutory exceptions for deceased persons

Vital statistics

HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, AVAILABILITY OF DECLARANT IMMATERIAL

Ancient documents, statements in

Baptismal, marriage, and other certificates

  • § 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

Boundaries, reputation concerning

  • § 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History

Business records

Character, reputation concerning

Documents or records affecting interest in property

  • § 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property
  • § 803(15). Statements in Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

Excited utterance

  • § 803(2). Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Family records

Medical treatment, statement for purposes of

  • § 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment

Mental, emotional, or physical condition

  • § 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

Personal, family, or general history, judgments as to

  • § 803(23). Judgment as to Personal, Family, or General History,  or Boundaries

Present sense impression

Public records and reports

Recorded recollection

Religious organization records

Residual exception

Vital statistics records

HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS, DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE

Applicability

Prior recorded testimony

Statement against interest

Statement of party incapable of testifying

  • § 804(b)(6). Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused  the Declarant’s Unavailability

Statement of personal history

Statement under belief of impending death

  • § 804(b)(2). Statement Made Under the Belief of Imminent Death

Statutory exceptions in civil cases

HEARSAY RULE

Applicability to sexually dangerous person proceedings

Confrontation clause and

Exceptions to

  • § 803. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial
  • § 804. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

Explained

Hearsay within hearsay

  • § 805, Note. Hearsay Within Hearsay

Hospital records exception

  • § 413(b) , Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Residual exception

  • § 807 , Note. Residual Exception

Statutes and rules providing exceptions to

  • § 802, Note. The Rule Against Hearsay

HEARSAY WITHIN HEARSAY

HOSTILE WITNESS

I

IDENTIFICATION

Double-blind procedure

Expert testimony regarding

Eyewitness

Facts accompanying

In-court identification

Jury instructions

Lineups

Of evidence (see AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION )

Out-of-court identification

Photographic array

Showup

Suppression of

Testimony of third-party observer

Unnecessarily suggestive

IMPEACHMENT

Adverse witness

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Bias

Character for truthfulness

  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Character witnesses

Conviction of crime

  • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Credibility of plaintiff, using collateral source payments

Credibility of witness, using offer to compromise

  • § 408, Note Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Credibility of witness, using witness cooperation agreement

  • § 1104 Witness Cooperation Agreements

Declarant

  • § 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Defendant, with his or her prearrest/pretrial silence

Defendant, with statement suppressed because of Miranda violation

Defendant, with testimony at suppression hearing

Evidence of character

Evidence of conduct

First complaint witness

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Generally

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Hearsay declarant

  • § 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Inconsistent statements

Juvenile adjudications

  • § 609(a)(5). Juvenile Adjudications of Delinquency or Youthful Offender

Other witness

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Party witness

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Prior conviction

  • § 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Prior statements

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
  • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility
  • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay

Prior writings

  • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

Redaction

  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Religious beliefs

  • § 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

Specific instances of misconduct

Suppressed statements, use of

Verdict

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Who may impeach a witness

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Witness cooperation agreements

  • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

IMPROPER VOUCHING

INADEQUATE POLICE INVESTIGATION

Generally

  • § 1107. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Bowden defense

INCONSISTENT STATEMENTS

Admissibility

As evidence of consciousness of liability

Impeachment by/credibility of witness

Medical malpractice actions

Prior statements that qualify as inconsistent

Statements of criminal defendant

Statements of hearsay declarant

  • § 806 . Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Statements of prosecutor

INDUSTRY AND SAFETY STANDARDS

  • § 414. Industry and Safety Standards

INFERENCES

Adverse inference (see ADVERSE INFERENCE )

Arguing relevant inferences from evidence in closing argument

Civil cases, generally

Commonwealth's burden

Criminal cases, generally

Defined

From claim of privilege

  • § 525. Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege

From evidence of consciousness of guilt or liability

  • § 1110. Consciousness of Guilt or Liability

From inadequate police investigation

  • § 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

From party not calling witness

From spoliation

  • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Of expert witness

  • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Of juror’s racial or ethnic bias

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

INFORMANTS, DISCLOSURE OF IDENTITY AND LOCATION OF

  • § 509 . Identity of Informer, Surveillance Location, and Protected Witness Privileges

INSTRUCTIONS, JURY

Cautionary instructions

Consciousness of guilt

Consciousness of liability

Curative instructions

Examination of witnesses by jurors

Eyewitness identification

First complaint

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Limiting instructions

  • § 105. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties  or for Other Purposes
  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts
  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases
  • § 411, Note. Insurance
  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
  • § 525(a), Note. Civil Case
  • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
  • § 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement

“Missing evidence”

  • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Missing witness

Objections to

Preference for recording certain custodial interrogations

Refusal Evidence

State-of-mind evidence

  • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

Third-party culprit evidence

  • § 1105 , Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence

INSURANCE

INTERPRETERS

Appointment of sign language interpreter

Generally

Interpreter-client privilege

  • § 522. Interpreter-Client Privilege

Procedural issues

Qualified sign language interpreter defined

Right to assistance of

Sign language interpreter–client privilege

  • § 521. Sign Language Interpreter–Client Privilege

IRRELEVANT EVIDENCE, ADMISSIBILITY OF

Generally

  • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

Illustration of rule barring irrelevant evidence

  • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

J

JUDICIAL DELIBERATIONS

  • § 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege

JUDICIAL NOTICE

Of adjudicative facts

  • § 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

Of law

Of information gained from active participation in related case

  • §201(b)(2). Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

Timing of

Versus official notice

  • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

JURORS

Attentiveness

  • § 606(b). Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Bribing of

Common sense; common experience

Competence of as witnesses

Contacting of, by attorneys

  • § 606(b), Note . During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Discharge of during deliberations

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Discharge of during empanelment

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Discharge of during trial

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Emotions, sympathy of

Ethnic or racial bias or prejudice of

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment
  • § 1113(d), Note. Duty of the Court

Extraneous matter introduced by

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Extraneous matter prior to discharge

  • § 606(b). Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Improper appeals to

Lack of genuineness

  • §1116(b)(3). Note. Stage Three: Evaluation of Group Neutral Explanation

Misconduct of

  • § 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Peremptory challenges of

  • § 1116 . Peremptory Challenges of Potential Jurors

Prima facie showing of discrimination

  • §1116(b)(1). Note. Stage One: Prima Facie Case of Unlawful Discrimination

Sleeping jurors

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Sophistication of

JURY

Common sense; common experience

Credibility of

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Deadlocked

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Extraneous matter, exposure to/influenced by

  • § 606(b) , Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Inadmissible evidence and

  • § 103(d). Preventing the Jury or Witnesses from Hearing Inadmissible  Evidence

Instructions (see INSTRUCTIONS, JURY )

Jury nullification

Misleading

  • § 102, Note. Purpose and Construction
  • § 403 . Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 803(5)(B) , Past Recollection Recorded

Preliminary questions and

  • § 104(c). Conducting a Hearing So That the Jury Cannot Hear It

Reduction of verdict

  • § 103(e) , Note. Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice in Criminal Cases
  • § 411, Note . Insurance

JUVENILE ADJUDICATIONS, USE OF IN IMPEACHMENT

  • § 609(a)(5). Juvenile Adjudications of Delinquency or Youthful Offender

L

LACK OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY

LAMPRON-DWYER PROTOCOL

  • Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records  from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases
  • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

LAY WITNESS, OPINION TESTIMONY

Generally

  • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

Illustrations

  • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

Opinion on ultimate issue

  • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

LEADING QUESTIONS

LIABILITY

Admissibility of records and reports as evidence of

Admissions of

  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Consciousness of

Expressions of sympathy and

  • § 409(a). Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

Fair report privilege as protection from

Immunity from

Insurance

Offers to compromise and

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Offers to pay medical expenses and

  • § 409(b). Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

Statements against interest and

Statements of counsel regarding

LIMITING INSTRUCTION

See INSTRUCTIONS, JURY

LINEUPS

M

MARRIAGE CERTIFICATES

  • § 803(12). Marriage, Baptismal, and Similar Certificates

MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL BILLS

Admissibility of

  • § 411, Note. Insurance
  • § 803(6)(C), Note. Medical and Hospital Services
  • § 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills  and Reports

Authentication of

  • § 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills  and Reports
  • § 902(m). Copies of Bills for Genetic Marker Tests and for Prenatal  and Postnatal Care

Payment of

MEDICAL MALPRACTICE ACTIONS

Evidence of medical bills covered by insurance

Expert testimony

Expressions of sympathy in

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

Use of learned treatises, published scientific opinion in

MEDICAL RECORDS AND REPORTS

Admissibility of

  • § 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment
  • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business
  • § 803(6)(B). Hospital Records
  • § 803(6)(C), Medical and Hospital Services
  • § 902(k) . Certified Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Treatment and Medical History

As basis of opinion testimony by experts

  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Production of

  • § 1108(c), Note. Summons and Notice to Record Holder

Reciprocal discovery process for criminal responsibility examinations

Self-authenticating

  • § 902(k). Certified Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Treatment  and Medical History
  • § 902(l). Copies of Hospital and Other Records of Itemized Bills  and Reports
  • § 902(n). Results of Genetic Marker Tests

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

Statements contained in

  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
  • Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1)(C). Whether the Statements Were Made  to Non–Law Enforcement Personnel
  • § 803(4). Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment
  • § 803(6)(A), Note . Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business
  • § 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

Tort actions

Workers’ compensation proceedings

  • § 804(b)(5)(E). Medical Reports of Disabled or Deceased Physicians  as Evidence in Workers’ Compensation Proceedings

MEDICAL TREATMENT, STATEMENTS FOR PURPOSES OF

MEMORY

Feigning lack of

Refreshment of

MENTAL CAPACITY, COMPETENCY

MENTAL, EMOTIONAL, OR PHYSICAL CONDITION

  • § 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

MINORS

Competency of

Development of adolescent brain

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Juvenile adjudications, impeachment by

  • § 609(a)(5). Juvenile Adjudications of Delinquency or Youthful Offender

Parent-child disqualification

Privilege of

MIRANDA/VOLUNTARINESS

Admission by silence and

Commenting on omissions in defendant’s statement to police following warnings

Custodial interrogation and

Preliminary questions involving

Use of statements suppressed due to violation of

MISSING WITNESS

Argument by counsel

Availability of witness

Criminal cases

Distinction between insufficient evidence and missing witness arguments

Explanation for failure to call

Foundation for instruction on

Friendliness, hostility of witness

Judicial approval for argument

Jury instruction

Noncumulative testimony

MOTIONS

For access to third-party records

  • § 1108 . Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

For disclosure of identity of informant

For required finding of not guilty

For view

In limine

  • § 103(b). Preliminary Evidentiary Motions: Effect on Appellate Rights
  • § 103(d), Note. Preventing the Jury or Witnesses from Hearing Inadmissible Evidence
  • § 103(f). Motions in Limine
  • § 404(a)(2)(A), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case
  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
  • § 801(d)(1)(C), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement
  • § 1108(g). Use of Presumptively Privileged Records at Trial
  • § 1113(a)(1), Note. Purpose

To reduce verdict

  • § 103(e), Note. Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice in Criminal Cases

To strike

To suppress

N

NEGLIGENCE

Industry and safety standards, violation of admissible to prove

  • § 414, Note. Industry and Safety Standards

Liability insurance, lack of not admissible to prove

Medical negligence cases

Remedial measures, not admissible to prove

  • § 407. Subsequent Remedial Measures

NOTICE, JUDICIAL

Court records

  • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

Criminal cases

Of adjudicative facts

  • § 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

Of law

Timing of

Versus official notice

  • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

O

OATH OR AFFIRMATION

Child witnesses

  • § 603. Note. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully
  • § 610, Note. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

Foster/preadoptive parents at care and protection trials

Interpreters

Witnesses, generally

  • § 603. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully

OBJECTIONS

Calling or questioning of witnesses by court

Doctrine of completeness

  • § 106(a), Note. Remainder of Writings or Recorded Statements

Evidence of private conversations between spouses

Expert testimony

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Extrapolation evidence to determine weight of drugs

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Forfeiture of right to

  • § 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully  Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

Generally

  • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

Grounds for, motion in limine stage

  • § 103(b), Note. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

Hearsay

  • § 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement
  • § 802, Note. The Rule Against Hearsay
  • § 804(b)(5)(E), Note. Medical Reports of Disabled or Deceased Physicians as Evidence in Workers’ Compensation Proceedings

Preserving a claim of error in joint trial

  • § 103(a)(1), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error
  • § 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

Peremptory challenges

Prior convictions

  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Prior inconsistent statement

Privilege against self-incrimination

Qualifications of CASA to render an expert opinion

  • § 1115(c)(3), Note. Court-Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Reports

Question by jurors

Records admitted without live testimony

Statement in an opening or closing

Voluntariness of a defendant’s statement

OFFERS OF PROOF

OFFERS TO COMPROMISE

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

OFFICIAL NOTICE OF FACTS

  • § 201(b)(2), Note. Kinds of Facts That May Be Judicially Noticed

OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

OPENING STATEMENT

Burden of proof

  • § 1113(a)(2). Directed Verdict, Finding of Not Guilty, or Mistrial

Cause of action

Curative instructions

Directed verdict

Duty of court

Evidence promised in, curative instruction

Mistrial

Objections

Purpose

Reopening

Responses to improper argument

OPINIONS, EXPERT WITNESSES

About law

  • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Admissibility of

  • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Based on evidence collected or created by absent expert

Basis of

  • § 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Care and protection cases

Certitude of

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Duty to consult with expert

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Expert opinion versus lay opinion, admissibility of

  • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

Eyewitness identification

Firearm/ballistics identification

Foundation requirements for

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Generally

  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

In medical malpractice actions

Limitation of, on cross-examination

  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

On alcohol

  • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

On battered women's syndrome

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

On fingerprint evidence

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

On gang membership

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

On marijuana

  • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

On possibility

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

On sexually dangerous persons

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

On ultimate issue

  • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Opportunity to cross examine

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Risk of inaccurate forensic analysis

  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

Termination of parental rights cases

Testimony (see EXPERT TESTIMONY)

To establish composition of a drug

Underlying facts and data

  • § 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

ORIGINALS

P

PARENTAL RIGHTS CASES

Admissibility of evidence, general rule

Adoption plans

Adverse inferences from party's failure to appear

  • § 1115(g), Note. Adverse Inference from a Party's Failure to Appear

Bonding and attachment studies

Children’s out-of-court statements

Judicial findings from prior proceedings

  • § 1115(f)(3). Judicial Findings from Prior Proceedings Regarding  the Same Party or Parties

Official/public records and reports

Testimony

Written court reports

PARTY WITNESS, IMPEACHMENT OF

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

PAST RECOLLECTION RECORDED

PENAL INTEREST, STATEMENTS AGAINST

PEREMPTORY CHALLENGES

PERSONAL, FAMILY, OR GENERAL HISTORY, JUDGMENTS AS TO

  • § 803(23). Judgment as to Personal, Family, or General History,  or Boundaries

PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE

Attorney

Conduct

  • § 405. Methods of Proving Character

Excited utterance

  • § 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Expert witness

Facts in sexually dangerous person proceedings

Facts stated in business records

  • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular  Course of Business

Facts stated in hospital records

Hearsay declarants

Lack of

  • § 602. Need for Personal Knowledge

Statements of deceased

PHOTOGRAPHIC ARRAYS

PHOTOGRAPHS

Admissibility of

Authentication of

Of crime scene

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Of defendant/suspect

Of victim/autopsy photographs

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

PLAIN ERROR

  • § 103(e). Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice in Criminal Cases

PLEAS, OFFERS OF PLEAS, AND RELATED STATEMENTS

Admissibility of guilty plea

Plea agreements

“Plea negotiations” versus “plea discussions”

  • § 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

Prohibited uses

State versus Federal rule regarding use of

  • § 410, Note. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

Use of guilty plea for impeachment

  • § 609(a)(2). Felony Conviction Not Resulting in Committed State Prison  Sentence
  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Use of in criminal proceeding for perjury

POLICE REPORTS

Admissibility as business records

  • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Admissibility at probation revocation hearings

  • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Admissibility in child protective cases

Admissibility in sexually dangerous person proceedings

Consideration of hearsay contained in, at pretrial dangerousness hearings

Judicial notice of contents on appeal

POLITICAL VOTER DISQUALIFICATION

  • § 516. Political Voter Disqualification

PREJUDICE

Caused by allowing Commonwealth to reopen

Caused by assertion of privilege against self-incrimination in civil case

Caused by court changing earlier ruling

  • § 103(a), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error

Caused by juror’s ethnic or racial bias

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Caused by juror’s question

Caused by jury’s exposure to extraneous matter

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Caused by jury’s misuse of out-of-court statement

Caused by statements made in opening statements

Caused by too narrow/broad cross-examination

Curative admissibility and

DNA analysis and

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Exclusion of evidence

  • § 103(a)(2), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error
  • § 103(g). Exclusion as Sanction
  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

“Inherent prejudice” associated with evidence of other bad acts

  • § 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

Probative value of evidence versus

  • § 102, Note. Purpose and Construction
  • § 105, Note. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other  Parties or for Other Purposes
  • § 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence
  • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence
  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts
  • § 407(b), Note. Exceptions
  • § 411, Note. Insurance
  • § 412(c)(2). Hearing
  • § 413(b). Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
  • § 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion
  • § 801(d)(2)(D), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement
  • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition
  • § 803(5)(B), Note. Past Recollection Recorded
  • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)
  • § 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence
  • § 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Spoliation and

  • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Third-party culprit evidence/information

  • § 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence
  • § 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Unfair prejudice

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Weapons evidence

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION, ADMISSIBILITY

PRELIMINARY HEARINGS

PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE

  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

PRESENT SENSE IMPRESSION

PRESERVATION OF APPELLATE RIGHTS

  • § 103(b) . Preliminary Evidentiary Motions: Effect on Appellate Rights

“PRESUMPTION OF SANITY”

PRESUMPTIONS

Civil cases

Criminal cases

PRIMA FACIE EVIDENCE

Civil cases

Criminal cases

PRIOR BAD ACTS

Admissibility

Entrapment defense

Judicial inquiry/discretion regarding

  • § 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Permitted/prohibited uses

Unfair prejudice

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Use of, for purpose other than for which admitted

PRIOR CONSISTENT STATEMENTS

Generally

Made before motive to fabricate

PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENTS

Admissibility

Introduction of

Nonbinding admissions

Prior statements that qualify as inconsistent

Statements of criminal defendant

Substantive use of

Used to attack/support credibility of hearsay declarant

  • § 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Hearsay Declarant

Used to impeach credibility of witness

Used to impeach first complaint witness

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Used to impeach one’s own witness

  • § 607, Note. Who May Impeach a Witness

PRIOR RECORDED TESTIMONY

PRIOR SEXUAL CONDUCT

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

PRIVILEGES AND DISQUALIFICATIONS

Allied mental health or human services professional privilege

  • § 508. Allied Mental Health or Human Services Professional Privilege

Applicability of Federal law

Attorney-client privilege (see ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE )

Board of Bar Overseers and bar counsel

Business interest privilege

Challenging evidence of defendant's cooperation

Comment on or inference from claim of privilege

  • § 525. Comment upon or Inference from Claim of Privilege

Confidentiality statutes

Confidentiality versus privilege

  • Article V, Intro. (d). Confidentiality Versus Privilege
  • Article V, Intro. (f). Examples of Relationships in Which There May Be  a Duty to Treat Information as Confidential Even Though There Is  No Testimonial Privilege

Deliberative process privilege

  • § 518. Executive or Governmental Privilege

Disclosure of privileged matter

  • § 524. Privileged Matter Disclosed Erroneously or Without Opportunity  to Claim Privilege

Disclosure to third party

Doctor-patient privilege

Domestic violence victims’ counselor privilege

  • § 505. Domestic Violence Victims’ Counselor Privilege

Establishing existence of privilege

Executing/exercising

Executive privilege (governmental)

  • § 518. Executive or Governmental Privilege

Fair report privilege

Human services professional privilege

  • § 508. Allied Mental Health or Human Services Professional Privilege

Impounding versus sealing privileged material

Ineffective assistance of counsel claim

Informant privilege

  • § 509.   Identity of Informer, Surveillance Location, and Protected Witness Privileges

Interpretation of privileges

Interpreter-client privilege

  • § 522. Interpreter-Client Privilege

Investigatory privilege

Judicial deliberation privilege

  • § 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege

Legislative deliberation privilege

Litigation privilege

Mediation privilege

Medical peer review privilege

  • § 513. Medical Peer Review Privilege

Mental health professional privilege

  • § 508. Allied Mental Health or Human Services Professional Privilege

News sources and nonpublished information

Nonevidentiary privileges

Not self-executing, generally

Parent-child disqualification

Preference for recording certain custodial interrogations

Privilege against self-incrimination

  • § 511. Privilege Against Self-Incrimination
  • § 804, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable
  • § 1106, Note. Abuse Prevention and Harassment Prevention Proceedings

Production of presumptively privileged records

  • Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records  from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases

Protected witness privilege

Psychotherapist-patient privilege

Religious privilege

Sexual assault counselor–victim privilege

Sign language interpreter–client privilege

  • § 521. Sign Language Interpreter–Client Privilege

Social worker–client privilege

Statements made during competency examination

Spousal disqualification

Spousal privilege

  • § 504(a). Spousal Privilege
  • § 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully  Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability

Student records

Surveillance location privilege

Tax return preparer privilege

Tax return privilege

  • § 519. State and Federal Tax Returns

Third-party records

  • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Trade secrets privilege

Unemployment hearing privilege

  • § 526. Unemployment Hearing Privilege

Union member–union privilege

  • § 528. Union Member–Union Privilege

Validity of claim of privilege

Waiver of privilege

PROBATIVE VALUE OF EVIDENCE

Conversations between spouses

Evidence in sexually dangerous person proceedings

Evidence of consciousness of guilt

Evidence of victim’s state of mind

  • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

Expert opinion as to a possibility

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Expressions of sympathy

  • § 409(a), Note. Expressions of Sympathy in Civil Cases

Offers to pay medical bills

  • § 409(b), Note. Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

Prior consistent statements

Prior inconsistent statements

Propensity evidence

  • § 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

Test for relevant evidence

  • § 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence

Third-party culprit evidence

Versus prejudicial effect (see under PREJUDICE)

PROCESS OR SYSTEM, AUTHENTICATION

PRODUCTION OF ORIGINAL

  • § 1002. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

PROFFER

  • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

PROOF, OFFER OF

  • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

PROPERTY

  • § 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property
  • § 803(15). Statements in Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

PROSECUTOR, SPECIAL ROLE OF

PROTECTED GROUPS

PSYCHIATRIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS AND RECORDS

Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

  • § 1115(c)(4). Court-Ordered Psychiatric, Psychological, and Court Clinic Evaluation Reports

Compelled examination

Competency examination

Criminal responsibility examination

Examination by mental health counselor

  • § 508(d). Mental Health Counselor Exception, (2)

Examination by social worker

Impounding versus sealing records

Privilege

  • § 503. Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

PUBLIC RECORDS AND REPORTS

Admissibility of

Authentication of

Copies of

Investigatory materials

  • § 515, Note. Investigatory Privilege

Massachusetts public records statute

Proof of specific types of

Trade secrets

Q

QUALIFICATIONS, EXPERT WITNESSES

  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 1115(c)(3), Note. Court-Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Reports

R

RAPE-SHIELD LAW

  • § 103(f), Note. Motions in Limine
  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)
  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

REBUTTAL

Absence of complaint as

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Absence of dangerous condition as

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Curative admissibility doctrine

Introduction of

Of allegation of dangerous condition

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Of character evidence

Of child’s out-of-court statements to court-appointed investigators

Of claim of impossibility

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Of claim of recent contrivance or bias

Of consciousness of guilt or liability evidence

Of contention of undue delay

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Of deceased physician’s report

Of defendant’s allegation of fabrication

  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

Of defendant’s claims regarding police

Of false testimony

  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Of hearsay within hearsay

  • § 805, Note. Hearsay Within Hearsay

Of implication witness’s testimony was false

  • § 611(e), Note. Scope of Subsequent Examination

Of presumption peremptory challenge is lawful

Of presumptions, generally

Of prima facie evidence

Of reputation evidence

Of written court reports in child protective cases

On issue of defendant's mental impairment

RECORDED RECOLLECTION

RECORDS

Admitted without live testimony

Business

Court

Domestic official

  • § 902(b). Domestic Official Records Not Under Seal

Electronic

  • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

Family

Foreign official

Impounding versus sealing

Inspection of

Judicial

Medical and hospital records (see MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL BILLS ;  MEDICAL RECORDS AND REPORTS )

Medical peer review committee records

  • § 513(b)(1). Proceedings, Reports, and Records of Medical Peer Review  Committee

Presumptively privileged records

  • Article V, Intro. (g). Production of Presumptively Privileged Records  from Nonparties Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases
  • § 1108(c). Summons and Notice to Record Holder, (2)
  • § 1108(d)(2). Presumptively Privileged Records
  • § 1108(f). Disclosure of Presumptively Privileged Records
  • § 1108(g). Use of Presumptively Privileged Records at Trial

Psychiatric and psychological records

Public records or reports

Records affecting interest in property

  • § 803(14). Records or Documents Affecting an Interest in Property

Records defined

Records in termination of parental rights and care and protection cases

Records of vital statistics

Religious organization records

Sexual offender registry records

Third-party records

  • § 1108. Access to Third-Party Records Prior to Trial in Criminal Cases  (Lampron-Dwyer Protocol)

Work-product doctrine

REDACTION

Of amounts paid by health insurers

Of defendant’s affidavit in support of disclosure of informant’s identity

Of Department of Children and Families (DCF) records and reports

  • § 1115(b)(2)(C), Note. DCF Service Plans, Affidavits, Foster Care Review  Reports, Case Review Reports, and Family Assessments
  • § 1115(b)(2)(D), Note. DCF Social Worker Investigation Reports

Of documents in sexually dangerous person proceedings

Of hospital records for references to assault and statements of self-diagnosis

Of means and manner of death in death certificate

  • § 803(8), Note. Official/Public Records and Reports

Of medical records for information not germane to treatment

Of nature of prior offense

  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Of police reports

  • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Of presumptively privileged records

  • § 1108(f). Disclosure of Presumptively Privileged Records, (2)
  • § 1108(g). Use of Presumptively Privileged Records at Trial, (3)

Of witness cooperation agreements

  • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

To protect personal privacy

  • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

REDIRECT EXAMINATION

Of expert witnesses

Regarding matters raised during cross-examination

  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Regarding witness cooperation agreements

  • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

Regarding witness’s fear in testifying

Scope of

REFRESHMENT OF MEMORY

Generally

  • § 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory

Of defendant, with suppressed statements

  • § 511(d), Note. Use of Suppressed Statements

Of witness, with earlier statement

Past recollection recorded exception versus doctrine of refreshing memory

Use of leading questions

RELEVANT EVIDENCE

Admissibility

  • § 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

Defined

  • § 401. Test for Relevant Evidence

Evidence relevant to weight and credibility of other evidence

  • § 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

Exclusion of

  • § 103(a), Note. Preserving a Claim of Error
  • § 403. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste  of Time, or Other Reasons

Test for

  • § 401. Test for Relevant Evidence

RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION RECORDS

REMEDIAL MEASURES

Prohibited uses of evidence of subsequent measures

When evidence may be admitted

REOPENING CASE

REPUTATION

Boundaries

  • § 803(20). Reputation Concerning Boundaries or General History

Character

  • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
  • § 405(a). By Reputation
  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)
  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Character trait

Complaining witness

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Defendant

Family history

  • § 803(19). Reputation Concerning Personal or Family History

Sexual reputation

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Victim

  • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case

RESTITUTION

Generally

Evidentiary rules at restitution hearing

ROUTINE PRACTICE

  • § 406. Routine Practice of a Business; Habit of an Individual

RULINGS

Competency of witnesses

Generally

  • § 103. Rulings on Evidence, Objections, and Offers of Proof

Preliminary

Qualifications of expert witnesses

  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

Sexually dangerous person proceedings

Timing of requests for

  • § 105, Note. Limiting Evidence That Is Not Admissible Against Other Parties or for Other Purposes

S

SCOPE

See individual topics

SELF-AUTHENTICATION

  • § 902. Evidence That Is Self-Authenticating

SELF-DEFENSE

Burden of production of defendant

Character of victim

  • § 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case
  • § 404(a)(2)(C), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

Flight not inconsistent with

Identity of first aggressor

  • § 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case

State of mind of defendants

  • § 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Cas

State of mind of victim

  • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition

SEQUESTRATION OF WITNESSES

  • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

SETTLEMENTS

Compromises and offers to compromise

  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Evidence of settlement with another defendant

SEXUAL ASSAULT

First complaint (see FIRST COMPLAINT OF SEXUAL ASSAULT )

Impeaching complaining witness with prior conduct

  • § 608(b), Note. Specific Instances of Conduct
  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Opinion of expert on whether sexual assault has occurred

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Prosecutor’s closing argument regarding child victim

Psychological and counseling records of alleged victim

Rape-shield law

  • § 103(f), Note. Motions in Limine
  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)
  • § 609, Note. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

Reputation of complaining witness

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Right to confrontation with child victim

SAIN evidence/Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit

  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
  • § 803(6)(B), Note. Hospital Records

Sexual assault counselor-victim privilege

Statement of victim to sexual assault nurse examiner

  • § 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OR REPUTATION

SEXUALLY DANGEROUS PERSON PROCEEDING

Admissible hearsay

Excluded hearsay

Hearsay expressly made admissible by statute

Hearsay that may be admissible

In general

Miscellaneous evidentiary rulings

Statutory procedures

Testimony of qualified examiner/expert testimony

SEXUAL OFFENDER REGISTRY

Hearings

Records

SHOWUPS

SIMILAR OCCURRENCES, EVIDENCE OF

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

SOCIAL-NETWORKING WEB SITE

SPOLIATION OR DESTRUCTION OF EVIDENCE

As evidence of consciousness of guilt

As evidence of consciousness of liability

Exclusion of other evidence as sanction

Judge’s discretion to impose sanctions

  • § 1102. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

Missing evidence in possession of another party

  • § 1102, Note. Spoliation or Destruction of Evidence

STATEMENTS

By juror

  • § 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Defined

Doctrine of completeness

Expressions of sympathy

False

For purpose of medical treatment

Hearsay (see HEARSAY )

In care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

  • § 1115. Evidentiary Issues in Care and Protection and Termination  of Parental Rights Cases

Inconsistent statements by prosecutor at successive trials

Indicating consciousness of guilt

In sexually dangerous person proceedings

Made during competency examinations

Made during criminal responsibility examination

Made in compromise negotiations

  • § 408. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Of defendant

Of identification

Of joint venturer

Of opposing party

Of third party

Of victim

Out-of-court statements

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 608(a), Note. Reputation Evidence
  • Article VIII, Intro. (a). Confrontation Clause and Hearsay in Criminal  Cases
  • Article VIII, Intro. (a)(1)(C). Whether the Statements Were Made to Non–Law Enforcement Personnel
  • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
  • § 801(d)(2), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement
  • § 801(d)(2)(A), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement
  • § 801(d)(2)(D), Note. An Opposing Party’s Statement
  • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition
  • § 803(24). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Proceeding to Place Child in Foster Care
  • § 804, Note. Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable
  • § 804(b)(3), Note. Statement Against Interest
  • § 804(b)(6), Note. Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully  Caused the Declarant’s Unavailability
  • § 804(b)(8). Admissibility in Criminal Proceedings of a Child’s  Out-of-Court Statement Describing Sexual Contact
  • § 804(b)(9). Out-of-Court Statement of Child Describing Sexual Contact  in Civil Proceeding, Including Termination of Parental Rights
  • § 807. Residual Exception
  • § 1101(d). Motions to Suppress
  • § 1103(b), Note. Proceedings
  • § 1112(d), Note. Testimony of Third-Party Observer
  • § 1115(d). Children’s Out-of-Court Statements

Prior (see PRIOR CONSISTENT STATEMENTS; PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENTS)

Regarding pleas

  • § 410. Pleas, Offers of Pleas, and Related Statements

Regarding state of mind

Suppressed statement used for impeachment

Suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

Testimonial versus nontestimonial

Unrecorded

Voluntariness of

STATE OF MIND

Of child, in child custody cases

Of declarant, circumstantial evidence of

Of defendant

  • § 404(a)(2)(B), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case
  • § 404(a)(2)(C), Note. Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal  Case
  • § 404(b), Note. Crimes, Wrongs, or Other Acts

Of employer, in employment discrimination case

  • § 408, Note. Compromise Offers and Negotiations in Civil Cases

Of testator

  • § 803(3). Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition, (B)(iii)

Of victim

  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
  • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
  • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

Of witness

State-of-mind exception

  • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition
  • § 803(3)(B)(ii), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

STATUTORY PRESUMPTIONS

STIPULATIONS

SUBSCRIBING WITNESS

  • § 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

SUMMARIES

SUPPRESSION

Applicability of evidentiary sections at hearings

Hearings

Motions to suppress

Of defendant’s statement

Of false statement

Of identification

Statements made at suppression hearings

Suppressed statement used for impeachment

Suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

T

TERMINATION OF PARENTAL RIGHTS (TPR) PROCEEDINGS

See PARENTAL RIGHTS CASES

TESTIMONY

Before Board of Bar Overseers

Before medical peer review committee

  • § 513(d). Testimony Before Medical Peer Review Committee

Care and protection cases

Expert (see EXPERT TESTIMONY ; EXPERT WITNESSES )

False

Missing witness, expected testimony of

Noncumulative

Of defendant

Of first complaint witness

  • § 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Of juror

  • § 606. Juror’s Competency as a Witness

Of lay witness

  • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses
  • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Of police

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
  • § 611(f), Note. Reopening
  • § 701, Note. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses
  • § 704, Note. Opinion on Ultimate Issue
  • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
  • § 801(d)(1)(C), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement
  • § 901(a), Note. In General
  • § 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Of subscribing witness

  • § 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

Of third-party observer

Of victim, at pretrial dangerousness hearing

Of victim, regarding first complaint of sexual assault

Of witness, from outside defendant’s presence

On behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

On first to use deadly force

On person’s reputation

On prior criminal conviction

On ultimate issue

  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Opinion

  • § 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses
  • § 702. Testimony by Expert Witnesses
  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

Preliminary matters

Prior recorded testimony

Records admitted without

Suborning witness to provide false testimony

Suppressed statement used to refresh memory for

Termination of parental rights (TPR) cases

To prove contents of electronic record

  • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

To prove contents of written statement

  • § 1007. Testimony or Statement of Party to Prove Content

Waiver of privilege against self-incrimination by

THIRD-PARTY CULPRIT

  • § 807. Residual Exception
  • § 1105. Third-Party Culprit Evidence
  • § 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

TRANSLATORS AND TRANSLATIONS

Admission of translation

Defendant’s custodial statements

Derivative attorney-client privilege

Interpreters

Qualified sign language interpreters

U

ULTIMATE ISSUE, ADMISSIBILITY OF OPINION TESTIMONY

  • § 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue

V

VERDICT

Commenting on or discussing consequences of

Contacting jurors after

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Directed verdict, after opening statement

Duty of jury to return guilty verdict of highest crime proved

Evidence of consciousness of guilt as basis for

Inquiry into validity of

  • § 606(b). During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Jury nullification

Reduction of

  • § 103(e), Note. Substantial Risk of a Miscarriage of Justice in Criminal  Cases

Reduction of damages after

References to verdicts in other civil cases

Suggesting that jurors may need to explain verdict

VICTIM

Appealing to jury for justice for

Character of

  • § 404(a)(2). Exceptions for a Defendant or Victim in a Criminal Case  Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
  • § 405(c). By Violent Character of the Victim

Child victim, right to confrontation with

Credibility of

Definition of, for purposes of rape-shield law

Dying declarations of

Evidence defendant victim of battered woman syndrome

Evidence to contradict impeachment of

  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis

First complaint of sexual assault

  • § 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Juror bias due to race or ethnicity of

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict or Indictment

Past behavior of

  • § 404. Character Evidence; Crimes or Other Acts
  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Photographs of

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion,  Waste of Time, or Other Reasons
  • § 703, Note. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

Privileges

  • § 505. Domestic Violence Victims’ Counselor Privilege
  • § 506. Sexual Assault Counselor–Victim Privilege
  • § 524. Privileged Matter Disclosed Erroneously or Without Opportunity  to Claim Privilege

Psychological and counseling records of alleged sexual assault victim

Records of

References to, in closing argument

Restitution

Sexual reputation or behavior of

  • § 412. Sexual Behavior or Sexual Reputation (Rape-Shield Law)

Spontaneous utterance by

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Statements of (see STATEMENTS )

State of mind of

  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
  • § 801(c) , Note. Hearsay
  • § 803(3)(B), Note. Then-Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical  Condition

Testimony of, at pretrial dangerousness hearing

Testimony of, regarding first complaint of sexual assault

Testimony regarding behavioral characteristics of sexual abuse victims

  • § 704, Opinion on Ultimate Issue

VIEWS

Availability of

Chief purpose of

Conduct during

Payment of cost of

References to, in closing argument

Unauthorized views of sites by jurors

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Use of observations made during

VITAL RECORDS, CERTIFIED COPIES

VITAL STATISTICS RECORDS

VOIR DIRE

Of child in proceeding to place child in foster care

Of expert witness

  • § 705, Note. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

Of jurors

  • § 606(b), Note. During an Inquiry into the Validity of a Verdict  or Indictment

Of witness

Regarding defendant’s failure to appear at trial

Regarding excited utterance

  • § 803(2), Note. Excited Utterance (Spontaneous Utterance)

Regarding feigning lack of memory

Regarding spousal privilege

Regarding suppressed statement used to refresh witness’s memory

Regarding third-party culprit evidence

  • § 1105, Note. Third-Party Culprit Evidence
  • § 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Regarding witness’s intent to assert a privilege

Regarding witness’s mental competency

Waiver of privilege against self-incrimination during

VOUCHING

W

WEB SITE

WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE

Answers to questions by jurors

Bowden evidence

  • § 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

Business records

  • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Care and protection and termination of parental rights cases

  • § 1115(c). Written Court Reports
  • § 1115(f)(3), Note. Judicial Findings from Prior Proceedings Regarding  the Same Party or Parties

Defects in chain of custody and

  • § 402, Note. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence

Electronic communications and e-mail

Evidence of consciousness of liability

Expert testimony

  • § 702, Note. Testimony by Expert Witnesses

First complaint testimony

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint

Inflammatory material, risk of unfair prejudice from

  • § 403, Note. Excluding Relevant Evidence for Prejudice, Confusion, Waste of Time, or Other Reasons

Introduction of evidence relevant to

  • § 104(e). Evidence Relevant to Weight and Credibility

Jury’s role

  • § 401, Note. Test for Relevant Evidence
  • § 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder
  • § 1110(b), Note. Civil Cases

Past sexual conduct and reputation

Photographs and digital images

  • § 1002, Note. Requirement of Original (Best Evidence Rule)

Police reports

  • § 803(6)(A), Note. Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course  of Business

Reports in official publications, trade journals, or newspapers

  • § 803(17), Note. Statements of Facts of General Interest

Secondary evidence of contents of writing or record

  • § 1008. Functions of Judge and Fact Finder

Third-party culprit evidence

  • § 1107, Note. Inadequate Police Investigation Evidence

WITNESS

Adverse witness

  • § 607. Who May Impeach a Witness

Attacking credibility

Availability of 

Bias, impeachment for

  • § 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions

Calling by court

  • § 614. Calling and Examination of Witnesses by Court or Jurors

Character of

  • § 608. A Witness’s Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness

Child protective cases

Child witness

Competency

Cooperation agreements

  • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

Court personnel, competency as

  • § 605. Competency of Judge as Witness

Credibility (see CREDIBILITY OF WITNESS )

Cross-examination of

  • § 104. Preliminary Questions
  • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

Direct examination of

  • § 611. Mode and Order of Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

Examination by court

  • § 614. Calling and Examination of Witnesses by Court or Jurors

Examination by jurors

Exclusion of

  • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Expert witness (see EXPERT TESTIMONY ; EXPERT WITNESSES)

Eyewitness

  • § 1112. Eyewitness Identification

Failure to call

Fear of testifying, questions concerning

First complaint witness

  • § 413. First Complaint of Sexual Assault

Harassment

Hostile witness

Immunity

Impeachment of (see IMPEACHMENT )

Improper vouching

Incompetency, finding of

Intimidation

Judge as

  • § 527. Judicial Deliberation Privilege
  • § 605. Competency of Judge as Witness

Juror as

  • § 606. Juror’s Competency as a Witness

Lack of personal knowledge of

  • § 602. Need for Personal Knowledge

Lay witness

Memory, feigning lack of

Memory, lack of

Memory, refreshment of

Missing witness (see MISSING WITNESS )

Motive to lie/lack of motive to lie, commenting on

Oath

  • § 603. Oath or Affirmation to Testify Truthfully

Plea agreements with

Preventing from hearing inadmissible evidence

  • § 103(d). Preventing the Jury or Witnesses from Hearing Inadmissible Evidence

Prior statements of

  • § 413(a), Note. Admissibility of First Complaint
  • § 607, Note. Who May Impeach a Witness
  • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility
  • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
  • § 801(d)(1). A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Privilege

Production or procurement of

Protected witness

Qualification

Recollection of, refreshed

  • § 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory

References to, in closing argument

Rehabilitation of

  • § 413(b), Note. Admissibility of Additional Reports of a Sexual Assault  Under an Alternative Evidentiary Basis
  • § 801(c), Note. Hearsay
  • § 801(d)(1)(B), Note. A Declarant-Witness’s Prior Statement

Sequestration of

  • § 615. Sequestration of Witnesses

Suborning of, to provide false testimony

Subscribing

  • § 903. Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

Witness cooperation agreements

  • § 1104. Witness Cooperation Agreements

WORK-PRODUCT DOCTRINE

Burden of proof

Explanation and intention of

Scope of, in public records context

Waiver

Writing or object used to refresh witness’s memory

WRITINGS

Ancient

Contents of (see CONTENTS OF WRITINGS, PROOF)

Defined

  • § 1001. Definitions That Apply to This Article

Disputed

  • § 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence

Doctrine of completeness

Made in regular course of business

  • § 803(6)(A). Entry, Writing, or Record Made in Regular Course of Business

Used to impeach

  • § 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses, Limited Admissibility

Used to refresh memory

  • § 612. Writing or Object Used to Refresh Memory

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