The Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) today announced the second human case of West Nile virus (WNV) in the state this year. The patient is a resident of Hampden County in his 60s who was confirmed with WNV by testing completed today by the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory. The patient was hospitalized during his illness but has since been released.\n\n\u201cWe are fortunate this year to have had relatively few people seriously ill from West Nile virus despite the fact that the virus in mosquitoes is widespread throughout Massachusetts,\u201d said DPH Deputy State Epidemiologist Dr. Catherine Brown. \u201cHowever, the risk of infection will continue until we have a hard freeze. That means it continues to be important to take steps to avoid mosquito bites, including using repellents and clothing to reduce exposed skin, dumping standing water, and moving indoors when you notice mosquitoes biting you.\u201d\n\nThe first human case of WNV, a resident of Bristol County in his 50s, was confirmed on Sept. 8.\n\nIn 2016 there were 16 human cases of WNV infection identified in Massachusetts. WNV is usually transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. While WNV can infect people of all ages, people over the age of 50 are at higher risk for severe disease. Most people infected with WNV will have no symptoms. When present, WNV\u00a0symptoms\u00a0tend to include fever and flu-like illness. In rare cases, more severe illness can occur.\n\nPeople have an important role to play in protecting themselves and their loved ones from illnesses caused by mosquitoes.\n\nAvoid Mosquito Bites\n\nApply Insect Repellent when Outdoors.\u00a0Use a repellent with DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide), permethrin, picaridin (KBR 3023), oil of lemon eucalyptus [p-methane 3, 8-diol (PMD)] or IR3535 according to the instructions on the product label. DEET products should not be used on infants under two months of age and should be used in concentrations of 30% or less on older children. Oil of lemon eucalyptus should not be used on children under three years of age.\n\nBe Aware of Peak Mosquito Hours.\u00a0The hours from dusk to dawn are peak biting times for many mosquitoes. Consider rescheduling outdoor activities that occur during evening or early morning.\n\nClothing Can Help Reduce Mosquito Bites.\u00a0Wearing long-sleeves, long pants and socks when outdoors will help keep mosquitoes away from your skin.\n\nMosquito-Proof Your Home\n\nDrain Standing Water.\u00a0Mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water. Limit the number of places around your home for mosquitoes to breed by either draining or discarding items that hold water. Check rain gutters and drains. Empty any unused flowerpots and wading pools, and change the water in birdbaths frequently.\n\nInstall or Repair Screens.\u00a0Keep mosquitoes outside by having tightly-fitting screens on all of your windows and doors.\n\nProtect Your Animals\n\nWater troughs and buckets provide excellent mosquito breeding habitats and should be flushed out at least once a week during the summer months to reduce mosquitoes near paddock areas. Horse, llama and alpaca owners should keep animals in indoor stalls at night to reduce their risk of exposure to mosquitoes. Owners should also speak with their veterinarian about mosquito repellents approved for use in animals and vaccinations to prevent WNV and EEE. If an animal is suspected of having WNV or EEE, owners are required to report to DAR, Division of Animal Health by calling 617-626-1795 and to the Department of Public Health (DPH) by calling 617-983-6800.\n\nMore information, including all WNV and EEE positive results, can be found on the Arbovirus Surveillance Information web page at\u00a0www.mass.gov/dph/mosquito\u00a0or by calling the DPH Epidemiology Program at 617-983-6800.