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Postpartum Depression articles & literature

Fact sheets, reports, websites, and recommended readings

Fact sheets

Reports & newsletters

  • Center for Disease Control (CDC). Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and Postpartum Depression.  In: Department of Health and Human Services, Massachusetts Department of Public Health; 2004.
  • Gutzler, A. (2006). Perinatal depression focus group report, perinatal connections project. In: The Department of Public Health, Division of Perinatal, Early Childhood, and Special Needs.
  • Illinois Department of Human Services. Healthy Families Illinois -2004 Annual Report: Illinois Department of Human Services; 2004.
  • Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.  About Postpartum Depression. In; 2003.
  • Massachusetts MCH Needs Assessment (2010). Title V Block Grant.

Websites

  • Accort EE, Cheadle ACD, Svhetter CD. Prenatal depression and adverse birth outcomes. Matern Child health J. 2015. 19:1306-1337.
  • Anonymous. Strategies for effective management of depression in primary care. Based on a presentation by Michael S. Klinkman MD. Am J Man Care. 1999; 5 (13Suppl):S783-8; discussion S788-93.
  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Screening for depression during and after pregnancy: Committee Opinion No.453. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2010;115:394-395.
  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Screening for perinatal depression: Committee Opinion No.630. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2015;125:1268-71.
  • Apter G, Devouche E, & Gratier M. Perinatal mental health. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011;199:575-577.
  • Austin MP, Priest SR, Sullivan EA. Antenatal psychosocial assessment for reducing perinatal mental health morbidity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2008.) Issue 4. Art. No.: CD005124.
  • Austin MP, Tully L, Parker G. Examining the relationship between antenatal anxiety and postnatal depression. J Affect Disord. 2007 Aug;101(1-3):169-74. Epub 2006 Dec 29.
  • Ban L, Gibson JE, West J, Fiaschi L, Sokal R, Smeeth L, Doyle P, Hubbard R, Tata LJ. Maternal depression, antidepressant prescriptions, and congenital anomaly risk in offspring: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2014; DOI:10.1111/1471-0525.12682.
  • Beck CT, Gable RK. Comparative Analysis of the Performance of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale with Two Other Depression Instruments. Nursing Research. 2001;50(4):242-250.
  • Bell AF, Carter CS, Steer CD, Golding J, Davis JM, Steffen AD, Rubin LH, Lillard TS, Gregory SP, Harris JC and Connelly JJ (2015) Interaction between oxytocin receptor DNA methylation and genotype is associated with risk of postpartum depression in women without depression in pregnancy.  Front.Genet. 6:243. Doi: 10.3389/fgene.2015.00243.
  • Bennett HA, Einarson A, Taddio A, Koren G, Einarson TR. Prevalence of Depression During Pregnancy: Systematic Review. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:698-709.
  • Bennett IM, Coco A, Coyne JC, Mitchell AJ, Nicholson J, Johnson E, Horst M, Ratcliffe S. Efficiency of a Two-Item Pre-Screen to Reduce the Burden of Depression Screening in Pregnancy and Postpartum: An IMPLICIT Network Study. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008:21:317-325.
  • Bina R, Harrington D. Differential predictors of postpartum depression and anxiety: the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Hebrew version two factor structure construct validity. Matern Child Health J (2017) 21:2237-2244.
  • Borra C, Iacovou M, Sevilla A. New evidence of breastfeeding and postpartum depression: The importance of understanding women’s intentions. Matern Child Health J 2015; 19:897-907.
  • Boyd RC, Le HN, Somberg R. Review of screening instruments for postpartum depression. Arch Womens Ment Health 2005;8: 141-153.
  • Boyd RC, Mogul M, Newman D, & Coyne JC. Screening and referral for postpartum depression among low-income women: a qualitative perspective from community health workers. Depression Research & Treatment 2011.
  • Breese McCoy SJ. Postpartum Depression: An Essential Overview for the Practitioner. South Med J. 2011 Jan 4.
  • Brooks JL, Beil H, Bebber LS. Maternal depressive symptoms and healthcare expenditures for publicly insured children with chronic health conditions.  Matern Child Health J 2015; 19:790-797.
  • Carpenter JK, Andrews LA, Witcraft SM, Powers MB, Smits JAJ, Hofmann SG. Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and related disorders: a metal-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Depress Anxiety. 2018: 1-13.
  • Carroll JC, Reid AJ, Biringer, A, Midmer D, Glazier RH, Wilson, L, Permaul JA, Pugh P, Chalmers B, Seddon F, Stewart DE. Effectiveness of the antenatal psychosocial health assessment (ALPHA) form in detecting psychosocial concerns: a randomized control trial. CMAJ.  2009;173(3):253-259.
  • Chaudron LH, Szilagyi PG, Campbell AT, Mounts KO, McInerny, TK. Legal and Ethical Considerations: Risks and Benefits of Postpartum Depression Screening at Well-Child Visits. Pediatrics. 2007;119:1; 123-128.
  • Chaudron LH, Szilagyi PG., Tang W, Anson E, Talbot NL, Wadkins HIM, Tu X, Wisner KL. Accuracy of depression screening tools for identifying postpartum depression among urban mothers. Pediatrics. 2010;125:3; 609-617.
  • Community Catalyst. Maternal depression: Implications for parents and children and opportunities for policy change. Community Catalyst Issue Brief. August 2015.
  • Cutler, CB, Legano LA, Dreyer BP, Fierman AH, Berkule SB, Lusskin, SI, Tomopoulos S, Roth, M, Mendelsohn AL. Screening for maternal depression in a low education population using a two item questionnaire. Archives of Women’s Mental Health. 2007;10:277-283.
  • Dearing E, Taylor BA, McCartney K. Implications of family income dynamics for women’s depressive symptoms during the first 3 years after childbirth.  Am J Pub Health. 2004;94:8, 1372-1377.
  • Delatte R., Cao H, Meltzer-Brody S, Menard MK. Universal screening for postpartum depression: an inquiry into provider attitudes and practices.  Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 May;200(5):e63-4. Epub 2009 Mar 14.
  • Dennis CL, Chung-Lee L. Postpartum depression help-seeking barriers and maternal treatment preferences: a qualitative systematic review. Birth. 2006;33(4):323-31.
  • Dennis CL, Hodnett E. Psychosocial and psychological interventions for treating postpartum depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD006116. Review.
  • Dietz P, Williams S, Callaghan W, Bachman D, Whitlock E, Hornbrook M. Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births.  Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164 (10), 1515 – 1520.
  • Earls MF & the Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. Clinical report incorporating recognition and management of perinatal and postpartum depression into pediatric practice. Pediatrics. 2010;126:5; 1032-1039.
  • Eke A, Saccone G, Berghella V. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG 2016;123:1900-1907.
  • Farr SL, Dietz PM, O’Hara MW, Burley K, Ko JY. (2013) Postpartum anxiety and comorbid depression in a population-based sample of women. Journal of Women’s Health, 23(2), 120-128.
  • Feinberg, E, Smith, MV, Morales, MJ, Claussen, AH, Smith, DC, Perou, R. Improving Women’s Health during Internatal Periods: Developing an Evidence-Based Approach to Addressing Maternal Depression in Pediatric Settings. J Women’s Health. 2006;15:6; 692-703.
  • Flynn HA, Henshaw E, O’Mahen H, Forman J. Patient perspectives on improving the depression referral processes in obstetrics setting: a qualitative study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010; 32(1):9-16.
  • Gaynes BN, Gavin N, Meltzer-Brody S, Lohr KN, Swinson T, Gartlehner G, Brody S, Miller WC. Perinatal depression: prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment. 2005;No. 119. AHRQ Publication No. 05-E006-1.  Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
  • Gibson J, McKenzie-McHarg K, Shakespeare J, Price J, Gray R. A systematic review of studies validating the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in antepartum and postpartum women. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2011;119:350-364.
  • Gjerdingen D, Crow S, McGovern P, Miner M, Center B. Postpartum Depression Screening at Well-Child Visits: Validity of a 2-Question Screen and the PHQ-9. Ann Fam Med. 2009; 7:63-70.
  • Gjerdingen DK, Yawn, BP. Postpartum depression screening: importance, methods, barriers, and recommendations for practice. J Am Board Fam Med. 2007; 20:3;280-288.
  • Goodman J. Women’s attitudes, preferences, and perceived barriers to treatment for prenatal depression. Birth. 2009; 36(1):60-9.
  • Grote NK, Bridge JA, Gavin AR, Melville JL, Iyengar S, Katon WJ. A Meta-analysis of Depression During Pregnancy and the Risk of Preterm Birth, Low Birth Weight, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(10):1012-1024.
  • Hartley CM, Barroso N, Rey Y, Pettit JW, Bagner DM. Factor structure and psychometric properties of English and Spanish versions of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale among Hispanic women in a primary care setting. Journal of Clinical Psychology 2014; DOI:10.1002/jclp.22101.
  • Heneghan AM, Morton S, DeLeone NL. Paediatricians’ attitudes about discussing maternal depression during a paediatric primary care visit. Child: care, health and development. 2006; 33(3):333-339.
  • Hensley L, Sulo S, Kozmic S, Parilla BV, Opioid addiction in pregnancy: Does depression negatively impact adherence with prenatal care? J Addict Med. 2017 Oct 24. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000364
  • Hewitt C, Gilbody S, Brealey S, Paulden M, Palmer S, Mann R, Green J, Morrell J, Barkham M, Light K, Richards D. Methods to identify postnatal depression in primary care: an integrated evidence synthesis and value of information analysis. Health Technol Assess. 2009 July; 13(36):1-145, 147-230.
  • Hewitt, C, Gilbody SM. Is it clinically and cost effective to screen for postnatal depression: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials and economic evidence. BJOG 2009; 116:1019-1027.
  • Huybrechts KF, Bateman BT, Palmsten K, Desai RJ, Patorno E, Gopalakrishnan C, Levin R, Mogun H, Hernandez-Diaz S. Antidepressant use late in pregnancy and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. JAMA. 2015;313(21):2142-2151.
  • Indiana Perinatal Network. Postpartum depression consensus statement: Executive Summary. October 2002.
  • Kabir K, Sheeder J, Kelly LS.  Identifying post partum depression: are 3 questions as good as 10? Pediatrics. 2008;122;696-702.
  • Katon WJ, Ludman EJ. Improving services for women with depression in primary care settings. Psychol Women Quarterly. 2003; 27:114-120.
  • Kiely M, Gantz M, El-Khorazaty M, El-Mohandes A. Sequential screening for psychosocial and behavioural risk during pregnancy in a population of urban African Americans. BJOG 2013; 120:1395-1402.
  • Kingsbury AM, Hayatbakhsh R, Mamum AM, Clavarino AM, Williams G, Najman JM. Trajectories and predictors of women’s depression following the birth of an infant to 21 years: A longitudinal study.  Matern Child Health J 2015; 19:877-888.
  • Kleiber BV, Dimidjian S. Postpartum depression among adolescent mothers: a comprehensive review of prevalence, course, correlates, consequences and interventions.  Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. (2014) 21(1):48-66.
  • Kozhimannil KB, Adams AS, Soumerai SB, Busch AB, Huskamp HA. New Jersey’s Efforts to Improve Postpartum Depression Care Did Not Change Treatment Patterns For Women On Medicaid. Health Affairs. 2011;30(2):293-301.
  • Kuehn BM. Report promotes depression screening for mothers during pediatric visits. JAMA. 2011 Jan 5;305(1):26-7.
  • Leigh, B, Milgrom J. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:24.
  • Levant B. N-3 (omega-3) Fatty acids in postpartum depression: implications for prevention and treatment. Depress Res Treat. 2011;2011:467349. Epub 2010 Oct 27.
  • Lundy B, Field T, Cuadra A. Mothers with depressive symptoms touching newborns. Early Development and Parenting. 1996;5, 124 – 130.
  • MacArthur C, Winter HR, Bick DE, Lilford RJ, Lancashire RJ, Knowles H, Braunholtz DA, Henderson C, Belfield C, Gee H. Redesigning postnatal care: a randomized controlled trial of protocol-based midwifery-led care focused on individual women's physical and psychological health needs. Health Technol Assess. 2003;7(37):1-98. Review.
  • McLearn KT, Minkovitz CS, Strobino, DM, Marks E, Hou, W. Maternal depressive symptoms at 2 to 4 months post partum and early parenting practices.  Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2006;160:3, 279-284.
  • Meltzer-Brody S, Stuebe A, Dole N, Savitz D, Rubinow D, Thorp J. Elevated Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) during Pregnancy and Risk of Postpartum Depression (PPD). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):E40-7. Epub 2010 Oct 13.
  • Melville JL, Reed SD, Russo J, Croicu CA, Ludman E, LaRocco-Cockburn A, Katon W. Improving care for depression in obstetrics and gynecology: a randomized controlled trial.  Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2014. 123(6):1237-1246.
  • Mishina H, Takayama J. Screening for maternal depression in primary care pediatrics. Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 2009:;21:789-793.
  • Miller L, Shade M, Vasireddy V. Beyond screening: assessment of perinatal depression in a perinatal care setting. Archives of Women’s Mental Health. 2008;12:329-334.
  • Miller LJ, Gupta R, Scremin AM. The evidence for perinatal depression screening and treatment.  In Handler A, Kennelly J, Peacock N, eds: Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Reproductive and Perinatal Outcomes: The Evidence from Population-Based Interventions.  Springer: New York, 2011, pp. 301-327.
  • Mitra M, Iezzoni LI, Zhang J, Long-Bellil LM, Smeltzer SC, Barton BA. Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression symptoms among women with disabilities. Matern Child Health J. 2015;19:362-372.
  • Miranda J, Chung JY, Green BL, Krupnick J, Siddique J, Revicki DA, et al. Treating depression in predominantly low-income young minority women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290(1):57-65
  • Mohammad KI, Gamble J, Creedy DK. Prevalence and factors associated with the development of antenatal and postnatal depression among Jordanian women. Midwifery. 2010 Dec 2. Epub.
  • Morrell CJ, Slade P, Warner R, Paley G, Dixon S, Walters SJ, Brugha T, Barkham M, Parry GJ, Nicholl J. Clinical effectiveness of health visitor training in psychologically informed approaches for depression in postnatal women: pragmatic cluster randomised trial in primary care. BMJ. 2009 Jan 15.
  • Morrell CJ, Warner R, Slade P, Dixon S, Walters S, Paley G, Brugha T. Psychological interventions for postnatal depression: cluster randomised trial and economic evaluation. The PoNDER trial. Health Technol Assess. 2009 Jun;13(30):iii-iv, xi-xiii, 1-153.
  • Myers ER, Aubuchon-Endsley N, Bastian LA, Gierisch JM, Kemper AR, Swamy GK, Wald MF, McBroom AJ, Lallinger KR, Gray RN, Green C, Sanders GD.  Efficacy and Safety of Screening for Postpartum Depression. Comparative Effectiveness Review 106.  (prepared by the Duke Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10066-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 13-EHC064-EF.  Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2013. 
  • National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation. Identifying and treating maternal depression: strategies and considerations for health plans. NHICM Issue Brief, June 2010.
  • Netsi E, Pearson R, Murray L, Cooper P, Craske M, Stein A.  Association of persistent and severe postnatal depression with child outcomes. JAMA Psych 2018: doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.4363
  • Noonan K, Carroll A, Reichman NE, Corman H. Mental Illness as a Risk Factor for Uninsurance Among Mothers of Infants. Matern Child Health J. 2010;14:36-46.
  • Nylen K, Moran T, Franklin C, O’Hara M. Maternal depression: A review of relevant treatment approaches for mothers and infants.  Infant Mental Health J. 2006;27 (4), 327 – 343.
  • O’Hara MW, McCabe JE, Postpartum depression: current status and future directions.  Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 9(1): 379-407.
  • Olson AL, Dietrich AJ, Prazar G, Hurley J. Brief maternal depression screening at well-child visits. Pediatrics. 2006;118;207-216.
  • Olson AL, Kemper KJ, Kelleher KJ, Hammond CS, Zuckerman BS, Dietrich AJ. Primary care pediatricians’ roles and perceived responsibilities in the identification and management of maternal depression. Pediatrics. 2002;110:1169-76.
  • Paulden M., Palmer S, Hewitt C, Gilbody S. Screening for postnatal depression in primary care: cost effectiveness analysis. BMJ. 2009;2210;340:b5203.
  • Pires R, Araujo-Pedrosa A. Examining the links between perceived impact of pregnancy, depressive symptoms and quality of life during adolescent pregnancy: the buffering role of social support.  Matern Child Health J (2014) 18:789-800.
  • Price SK, Masho SW. What does it mean when we screen? A closer examination of perinatal depression and psychosocial risk screening within one MCH home visiting program.  Matern Child Health J (2014) 18:765-771.
  • Pyne JM, Rost KM, Farahati F, Tripathi SP, Smith J, Williams DW, Fortney J, Coyne JC. One size fits some: the impact of patient treatment attitudes on the cost-effectiveness of a depression primary-care intervention. Psychol Med. 2005;35(6):839-854.
  • Reuland DS, Cherrington A, Watkins GS, Bradford DW, Blanco RA, Gaynes BN. Diagnostic Accuracy of Spanish Language Depression-Screening Instruments. Ann Fam Med. 2009;7:455-462.
  • Rowan C, Bick D, Bastos MH. Postnatal debriefing interventions to prevent maternal mental health problems after birth: exploring the gap between the evidence and UK policy and practice. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2007;4(2):97-105.
  • Sheeder J., Kabir K. & Stafford B. Screening for Postpartum Depression at Well-Child Visits: Is Once Enough During the First 6 Months of Life? Pediatrics. 2009; 123:6; e982-e988.
  • Sichel D, Driscoll JW. Women’s Moods: What every woman must know about hormones, the brain, and emotional health.  Quill: New York. 2000.
  • Sit, Dorothy et al. An Emerging Best Practice Model for Perinatal Depression Care. Best Practices. Psychiatric Services. 2009 November;60:11. 
  • Stone SL, Diop, H, Declercq E, Cabral HJ, Fox MP, Wise LA. Stressful events during pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms. J Women’s Health. 2015;00:0. Original article.
  • Surkan PJ, Gottlieb BR, McCormick MC, Hunt A, Peterson KE. Impact of a Health Promotion Intervention on Maternal Depressive Symptoms at 15 months Postpartum. Matern Child Health J. Epub 2010 Dec 14.
  • Vigod SN, L Villegas, C-L Dennis, Le Ross.  Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression among women with preterm and low birth weight infants: a systematic review.  BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. (2010) 117(5): 540-50.
  • Woolhouse H, Gartland D, Mensah F, Brown SJ. Maternal depression for early pregnancy to 4 years postpartum in a prospective pregnancy cohort study: implications for primary health care. BJOG 2014; DOI: 1111/1471-0528.12837.
  • Yawn BP. Pace W, Wollan PC, Bertram S, Kurland M, Graham D, Dietrich A. Concordance of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to Assess Increased Risk of Depression among Postpartum Women. J AM Board Fam Med. 2009;22:483-491.
  • Yelland J, Sutherland G, Brown SJ. Postpartum anxiety, depression and social health: findings from a population-based survey of Australian women. BMC Public Health. 2010 Dec 20;10(1):771.

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