Environmental Justice (EJ) is based on the principle that all people have a right to be protected from environmental pollution and to live in and enjoy a clean and healthful environment. EJ is the equal protection and meaningful involvement of all people with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies and the equitable distribution of environmental benefits.
Studies conducted throughout the U.S. have documented patterns of environmental injustice. These studies have determined that lower-income and minority communities suffer from a disproportionately high share of environmental burdens and at the same time lack environmental assets in their neighborhoods.
The Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) defines EJ populations as neighborhoods that meet one of more of the following criteria:
- Median annual household income is at or below 65% of the statewide median income
- 25% or more of the residents are a minority
- 25% or more of the residents are foreign born
- 25% or more of the residents are lacking English language proficiency
Environmental justice is not just a procedural problem, but also one of substantive social and economic inequalities. There are many obstacles that make it very difficult for EJ populations to participate in planning and development decisions in their communities. These residents are more likely to be unaware of environmental issues due to a myriad of social factors including language barriers and limited access to educational resources. In addition, EJ populations are often unable to participate in environmental decision-making processes because they often must work longer hours to compensate for lower hourly wages.
Environmental justice has been directly tied to activism focused on the rights and liberties of people of color and low income communities relative to the environment and the disproportionate burden of industrial pollution and lack of regulatory enforcement. Numerous federal and state bills have been introduced to address environmental injustices. States and municipalities have developed policies and programs to pro-actively address environmental concerns to ensure that minority and low-income communities are not disproportionately impacted by environmental hazards.
In Massachusetts, high minority communities (those where 15% or more of the population are people of color) face a cumulative exposure rate to environmentally hazardous sites and facilities that is more than 20 times greater than low minority communities. Low-income communities face a cumulative exposure rate to environmentally hazardous facilities and sites that is four times greater than more affluent communities. These high-minority/low-income communities in the Commonwealth have been identified by EEA as areas in need of environmental justice, particularly those in dense urban neighborhoods where past industrial development has caused pollution and environmental degradation, leaving a legacy of abandoned, contaminated sites, known as brownfields.
Through its programs and agencies, EEA conducts and facilitates planning in broad and inclusive ways, seeks to engage environmental justice populations in environmental decision-making, and targets resources to improve environmental quality in EJ communities.
Municipalities can play an important role in advancing environmental justice by employing similar strategies. For example, municipalities can utilize their land use planning efforts to encourage public participation and their regulatory powers to obtain development results that balance the benefits and burdens of growth.
Environmental justice populations reside in 137 of the Commonwealth's 351 municipalities.
Goals in regard to EJ populations include:
- minimizing pollution and health risks
- encouraging investment in economic growth
- brownfield cleanup and community greening including park development and urban forestry
- enhancing public participation and outreach.
Environmental Justice and Smart Growth / Smart Energy
Smart growth/smart energy seeks to:
- protect natural resources
- enhance quality of life
- offer housing and transportation choices
- improve municipal finances by taking into consideration location, design, and long-term costs when making development decisions.
As an environmentally and affordability-conscious approach to development, smart growth/smart energy encompasses strategies and concepts that have distinct opportunities for promoting environmental justice.
In order for smart growth/smart energy to advance environmental justice, it is essential that EJ populations be considered and included in the planning process. If not, there is a greater risk that new growth could inadvertently exacerbate environmental injustice by creating more pollution in EJ communities, or that the improving environmental conditions could cause gentrification and displacement of families. Meaningful involvement in environmental decision-making is central toward advancing environmental justice. Municipalities play a key role in ensuring fair and genuine outreach and public participation by local residents.
Public Participation in Environmental Justice Communities
Public participation is a primary component of land use planning and sustainable development. Engaging EJ populations in planning and development processes in their community creates unique challenges when conducting outreach. Some strategies supporting public participation in environmental justice communities include:
Outreach and public notification. Often enhanced outreach is required to engage EJ populations in environmental decision-making. Although traditional outreach and notification efforts (e.g., meeting notices in the local paper or internet-based notification) are important, many EJ constituencies may not have access to these resources due to language barriers, income level, or limited access to computers and other technology. Alternative media resources should be utilized when conducting outreach including foreign language newspapers, radio broadcasts, and community newsletters. The local public library and churches are also key places for project/meeting notification and outreach.
Identifying local leaders and gathering places. Many EJ neighborhoods may have local leaders already in place in the form of a civic or neighborhood association. In a less official capacity, practitioners may look to schools, community centers, churches, medical facilities or any other institutional facilities that serve the community on a regular basis. Local pastors or school teachers may have access to the neighborhood in a manner that is reliable and in an environment that has already created a foundation of trust. Holding or advertising meetings in local venues may also be an effective strategy for reaching a significant portion of the neighborhood population.
Holding public meetings that are sensitive to demanding work schedules. As many EJ communities may have residents working for hourly wages, odd hours or longer shifts, it may be necessary to schedule outreach events in a manner that provides multiple opportunities to discuss the same issues. It may be difficult to predict the optimal schedule within which to reach out to different EJ communities, so practitioners should be prepared to hold meetings during both day and evening hours, and on weekends to best engage a particular community. Practitioners should also get input from community members to determine meeting times that would most likely maximize attendance by local residents.
Providing support services during public meetings. In communities where residents may be working more than one job or where the incidence of single-parenting is higher than average, many residents may have basic personal responsibilities that make it difficult to attend public meetings. Where necessary, community outreach efforts should include basic support to help families handle issues of child care. Providing "play rooms" with volunteer monitors may make it easier for parents to attend meetings. Holding meetings as part of or directly after regularly scheduled events, such as school or church service may also make these outreach efforts more convenient to attend.
Ensuring effective communication across language barriers. One very basic outreach strategy that must be considered with many EJ communities is the use of translators where residents do not speak or understand English. In order for many EJ communities to effectively communicate their concerns about complex land use issues, it may be necessary to have translators on hand during private interviews and in public meetings. Additionally, written project materials and handouts should be translated into the foreign language(s) spoken and understood by local residents and distributed at meetings and hearings.