- Best Bet
- Massachusetts Laws
- Massachusetts Regulations
- Massachusetts Executive Orders
- City and Town Bylaws
- Federal Laws
- Selected Cases
- Web Sources
- Print Sources
Gender Identity Guidance , MCAD, Sept. 2016
Written to "provide clarity to businesses, employers and landlords, and educate the general public as to how the MCAD will interpret and enforce the anti-discrimination laws concerning transgender individuals."
MGL c.46 § 13(e)
Amending a Birth Certificate
A person who has completed medical intervention for the purpose of permanent sex reassignment may have their birth record amended. As of July 1, 2015, surgery is no longer a prerequisite to getting a new birth certificate.
MGL c.151B Discrimination
St.2011, c.199 An Act Relative to Gender Identity. Protections effective July, 2012.
An Act Relative to Transgender Anti-Discrimination. Fully effective October 1, 2016.
Gives transgender people the right to use restrooms or locker rooms consistent with their gender identities, and includes language to provide "legal action [against] any person whose assertion of a gender identity is for an improper purpose."
501 CMR 4 Hate Crimes
Executive Order 526
Extends the state's equal rights protections to gender identity and expression. The order covers state workers and employees of private companies that contract with the state.
Amherst, Human Rights Bylaw
"...no person, public or private, shall be denied any rights guaranteed pursuant to local, state, and/or federal law on the basis of race or color, gender, physical or mental ability, religion, socio-economic status, ethnic or national origin, affectional or sexual preference, gender identity or expression, genetic information, lifestyle, or age."
Boston, Human Rights, Chapter XII, s.12-9
'Includes in its protections, "Gender identity or expression shall mean and include a person's actual or perceived gender, as well as a person's gender identity, gender-related self-image, gender-related appearance, or gender-related expression whether or not that gender identity, gender-related self-image, gender-related appearance, or gender-related expression is different from that traditionally associated with a person's sex at birth."
Cambridge, Cambridge Gay Lesbian Bisexual and Transgender Commission, Title 2, c.2.125
Also, Human Rights, c.2.76 defines gender as, "the actual or perceived appearance, expression or identity of a person with respect to masculinity and femininity."
Northampton, Human Rights Commission, s.22-104
Focuses on discrimination " on the basis of race, color, religious creed, national origin, sex, gender identity or expression, sexual orientation, age, ancestry, or disability, marital status, veteran status, receipt of public or housing assistance, or because they have children."
Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), 42 USC 12211 (b)(1)
"Under this chapter, the term "disability" shall not include...(1) transvestism, transsexualism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments, or other sexual behavior disorders."
Doe v. Yunits et al, 15 Mass. Law Rptr. 278 (2002)
A student with gender identity disorder is not excluded from the definition of "qualified handicapped individual" under the Article CXIV of the Declaration of Rights of the Massachusetts Constitution. Further, requiring Doe to dress in boy's clothing may be considered "a constructive expulsion [if Doe] could not comply with these conditions without endangering her mental health."
Jette v. Honey Farms Mini Market , 23 MDLR 229 (2001)
"Discrimination against transsexuals because of their transsexuality is discrimination based on 'sex' within the meaning of M.G.L. c. 151B," and transsexuality is not "excluded from the definition of 'disability' as a matter of law."
Kosilek v. Spencer
, 740 F.3d 733 (2014).
8th Amendment prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment requires the Dept. of Correction to provide medically necessary sex reassignment surgery.
Lie v. Sky Publishing Corp. , 15 Mass. Law Rptr. 412 (2002)
Outlines the difference between transsexual, transgender and other terms. The plaintiff, a transgender female, established a prima facie case of sex discrimination under MGL c.151B, and discrimination on the basis of handicap.
Millet and MCAD v. Lutco, Inc. , 23 MDLR 231 (2001)
While ""transsexuality" is not a "sexual orientation" as that term is defined by M.G.L. c. 151B § 3(6), " "We instead hold that "sex" discrimination, as prohibited by chapter 151B, includes a prohibition against discrimination against transsexual individuals."
Rosa v. Park West Bank & Trust
, 214 F.3d 213 (2000)
In this First Circuit case, a man who was denied a loan application because he was dressed in women's clothing had established a prima facie case of sex discrimination under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act.
- Amendments to Birth Certificates following Completion of Medical Intervention for the purpose of Permanent Sex Reassignment, Executive Office of Health and Human Services, 2015.
Explains the steps required to amend your birth certificate, with links to the required forms
- Division of Insurance Bulletin 2014-03: Guidance Regarding Prohibited Discrimination on the Basis of Gender Identity or Gender Dysphoria Including Medically Necessary Transgender Surgery and Related Health Care Services , June 20, 2014
- Fact Sheet: Amendment of a Birth Certificate Following Completion of Sex Reassignment [M.G.L. c. 46, §13(e)] , Vital Records
Summary of the process of amending a birth certificate.
- Massachusetts Birth Certificate Toolkit
, GLAD, 2015.
Step by Step Directions for Changing Gender and Name on a Massachusetts Birth Certificate
- Mass. to Cover Range of Transgender Medical Care
, Boston Globe, June 20, 2014
New policies will expand insurance coverage for transgender medical care in Massachusetts.
- Massachusetts Transgender Political Coalition
This group is "dedicated to ending discrimination on the basis of gender identity and gender expression. Their website includes transgender publications and information and forms to change your Massachusetts Driver's License/State ID Card, Social Security Card, Passport or Birth Certificate. They also have Free Legal Clinics for transgender issues.
- Nondescrimination on the Basis of Gender Identity: Guidelines for Massachusetts Public Schools , Mass. Dept. of Education. "This guidance is intended to help school and district administrators take steps to create a culture in which transgender and gender nonconforming students feel safe, supported, and fully included, and to meet each school's obligation to provide equal educational opportunities for all students, in compliance with G.L. c. 76, §5 and the state regulations."
- A Prescription for Gender: How Medical Professionals Can Help Secure Equality for Transgender People
, by Jennifer L. Levi, Western New England College School of Law, 2003
"Part I reviews cases involving discrimination against transgender people in employment, credit, public accommodations, and housing. Part II addresses the state of family law as it has been applied to transgender people. Part III concludes by suggesting ways medical professionals can play an instrumental role in achieving favorable outcomes for transgender litigants, particularly in the area of family law."
- Recent Cases Offer Employment Discrimination Protection to Transgender People
, by Christina Bolmarcich (May, 2009)
Outlines laws in various jurisdictions. The "protections once offered based on strict notions of biological gender are being replaced by protections offered regardless of gender but solely based on discriminatory acts against individuals in the workplace."
- Transgender Rights
The site lists a dozen publications on transgender issues, including Legal Q&A for Kids of Trans Parents and Transgender Students' Use of Bathrooms and Locker Rooms .
- Transgender Legal Issues: New England
, GLAD, June, 2014
This 50+ page document covers obtaining protection under existing laws, changing documents and more.
- Transsexual Surgery
, US Dept. of Health and Human Services Appeals Board, Decision 2576, May 30, 2014
Medicare may no longer exclude sex-reassignment surgery from coverage.
- "Documenting Gender," by Dean Spade. 59 Hasting L.J.
Outlines policies "that govern the recognition of a change in a person's gender by a state or federal administrative agency." Also available online to law library cardholders through Hein Online.
- Gay, Lesbian and Transgender Clients: A Lawyers Guide , by Joan M. Burda, American Bar Association, 2008.
- Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Family Law , West, 2010.
- "The (Mis)Categorization of Sex in Anglo-American Cases of Transsexual Marriage," by John Parsi. 108 Mich. L. Rev.
The "lack of national uniformity [in changing birth certificates] makes post-operative transsexuals' recognition of their acquired sex complicated at best and impossible at worst." Also available online to law library cardholders through Hein Online.
- "Sexual and Gender Variation in American Public Law: From Malignant to Benign to Productive, " by William N. Eskridge, Jr. 57 UCLA L. Rev.
Also available online to law library cardholders through Hein Online.
- Transgender Family Law: A Guide to Effective Advocacy , Author-House, 2012.
- Transgender Persons and the Law , ABA, 2015.
- Transgender Persons and the Law , MCLE, 2015.
Last update: September 8, 2016