RE14R07: Architecture

A Description of Architecture

1. Architecture: The science and art of structural design. The style which a building is designed and built.

2. Pattern Books: Builders Handbooks/Architectural Design Books

3. Nail Machines: 1850 machines were able to mass-produce nails for one eighth of what they had been in 1800.

4. Forms of Foundations:

a) Basements

b) Crawl spaces

c) Slab-on-ground

5. Framing: Wood frame construction (9 out of 10 homes)

a) Platform Frame

b) Balloon Frame

c) Plank and Beam Frame

6. Window Styles

a) Palladian

b) Gothic

c) Fan

d) Circle Head

e) Bay

f) Oriel

g) Double-hung

h) Casement

i) Sliding (traverse)

j) Awning

k) Center Pivot

l) Hopper

m) Jalousie

n) Triple-track

o) Skylights

7. Roof Styles

a) Flat

b) Shed

c) Gable

d) Saltbox

e) Gambrel

f) Hip

g) Mansard

h) Shed Dormer

i) Single Dormer

8. House Types

a) One Story

b) One and ½ Story

c) Two Story

d) Split Level

1) Side to Side

2) Back to Front

3) Front to Back

e) Split Entry

1) Raised Ranch

2) Bi-level

f) Manufactured

1) Mobile

2) Modular

3) Panelized

4) Pre-cut

9. Architectural Styles

a) Colonial American

1) Federal – multi- story, box shaped, flat roof

2) New England Farm House – box shaped, exterior siding, white clapboard, steep roof

3) Adams – multi-story, rectangular shaped, bay window, flat roof

4) Cape Cod – 1 ½ story, central entrance, steep gable roof with shingles

5) Cape Ann - 1 ½ story, central entrance, gambrel roof

6) Garrison Colonial – 2 ½ story, second story overhang in front

7) New England Colonial – 2 ½ story, square or rectangular boxlike house, side or rear wings

8) Dutch Colonial – moderate sized 2 story to 2 ½ story, central entrance, gambrel roof, dutch entrance door

9) Saltbox Colonial or Catslide (in South) – 2 story or 2 ½ story square of rectangular, steep gable roof

10) Pennsylvania Dutch Colonial or Pennsylvania German Farmhouse – massive 2 ½ story gray ledge stone house, steep gable roof

11) Classic Colonial – 2 story or 3 story with columnal exterior

12) Greek Revival – 2 or 3 story symmetrical house, copy of a Greek Temple

13) Southern Colonial – 2 or 3 story colonnade extending across front

14) Front Gable New England Colonial, Charleston Colonial, or English Colonial – 2 ½ story symmetrical square or rectangular boxlike house with a protruding front wing

15) Log Cabin – rectangular shape built of unfinished logs

b) 19th Century American

1) Early Gothic Revival – pointed arch churchlike appearance, asymmetrical, one color

2) Egyptian Revival – boxlike, Egyptian columns in front

3) Roman Tuscan Mode – boxlike, no yard area, flat roof

4) Octagonal House – octagon shape, flat roof

5) High Victorian Gothic – pointed arch, many colors

6) High Victorian Italianate – 3 different kinds of window arches (straight sided, flat-topped, and rectangular), hip roof

7) American Mansard or Second Empire Style – mansard roof, multiple dormers

8) Stick Style or Carpenter Gothic – high steep roofs, complex silhouettes, diagonal braces, gingerbread trim

9) Eastlake – rectangular shape, open front porch, ornamentation is 3 dimensional

10) Shingle Style – big, boxlike, roof shingles, gable roof

11) Romanesque – massive, stone with round semicircular arched openings, pyramidal roof

12) Queen Anne – multistory, irregular shape, bay windows, big chimneys

13) Brownstone, Brick Row House, or Eastern Town House – 4 or 5 stories, common walls, flat roof, stoop leading to first floor

14) Western Row House or Western Townhouse – 2 or 3 stories, common walls, bay windows, pitched roof

15) Monterey – 2 story, asymmetrical shape, balcony across front a 2nd floor level

16) Western Stick – large rectangular house, exposed structural framing, multistory

17) Mission – looks like old mission church, doors and windows are arch shaped

c) Early Twentieth Century American

1) Prairie House – long low roof line, continuous row of windows, unornamented exterior

2) Bungalow – small, 1 story, open or enclosed front porch

3) Pueblo or Adobe – real or simulated adobe brick, flat roof, massive

4) International – very simple, no ornamentation, flat roof

5) California Bungalow – small, 1 story, compact, usually wood

6) Shotgun – long, narrow, 1 story, gable roof, faces street, full front porch

7) Foursquare – multi-story, box shaped, hip roof, hipped dormer, 1 story front veranda

8) Art Deco or Art Modern – rectangular shaped, art deco or art modern ornamentation, metal window frames

d) Post World War II American

1) California Ranch – Ranch 1 story, ground hugging, low pitched roof

2) North Western or Puget Sound – low ranch-type house, overhangs at the eaves and gables, exterior walls often redwood

3) Functional Modern or Contemporary – modern building materials, extensive use of glass, lack of ornamentation

4) Solar House – large overhanging eaves, large glass windows and doors

5) ‘A’ Frame – frame is the shape of ‘A’, steep gable roof, large glass windows

6) Mobile Home – relocatable house, averages 12’ wide and 60’ long, siding and roof are often metal

7) Plastic House – exterior siding fiberglass or other plastic material, little or no ornamentation

8) Contemporary Rustic or California Contemporary – unpainted or stained diagonal siding, 2 or more shed roofs, nonrectangular window tops that follow the roof slope

9) Postmodern – large triangular or gable includes circular oculus window

e) English

1) Cotswald Cottage – ground hugging, asymmetrical, prominent brick or stone chimney

2) Tudor – multi-story fortress like, oriel windows, Tudor arches

3) Georgian – large formal 2 or 3 story rectangular house, brick, gable or hip roof

f) French

1) French Provincial – formal 1 ½ to 2 ½ story, high steep hip roof

2) Creole, Louisiana, or New Orleans – 2 or 3 stories, balcony with fancy iron work entire front at second story level

g) Swiss

1) Swiss Chalet – 1 ½ to 2 ½ story, gable roof, natural decorative woodwork or exterior, open porches at second story level

h) Latin

1) Spanish Villa – asymmetrical, 1 to 3 stories, painted stucco exterior walls, red tile roof

i) Oriental

1) Japanese – 1 story, exterior wall panels, tile, thatch or wood shingle roof

9. Architects

  • Robert Adams
  • Charles Bullfinch
  • Samuel McIntire
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Charles Lock Eastlake
  • Henry Hobson Richardson
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Ellsworth Storey


Houses by Henry S. Harrison, Your Home Inspection Guide by William L. Ventolo

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