Wellness: Risk Factors

Communities of color are more often marketing targets for unhealthy products. They are also less likely to receive advice and treatment for quitting tobacco.


Additional Information and Footnotes

Hispanic is used to reflect current data collection practices. We acknowledge this may not be the preferred term. Throughout this report, NH refers to Non-Hispanic. People of color refers to individuals identifying as Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, Hispanic, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Other. Unless otherwise noted, adults are ages 18+. Data are most recently available for the specified data source.

1 Harrison, K. (2006). Fast and Sweet: Nutritional Attributes of Television Food Advertisements with and without Black Characters. Howard Journal of Communications, 17(4), 16. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1449399/

2 Outley, C.W. & Taddese, A. (2006). A Content Analysis of Health and Physical Activity Messages Marketed to African American Children During After-School Television Programming. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160(4), 4. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journa...

3 Powell, L.M., Szczypka, G., & Chaloupka, F.J. (2007). Adolescent Exposure to Food Advertising on Television. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(4), S251-S256. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17884573

4 Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Tobacco Company Marketing to African Americans. Retrieved from https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0208.pdf

5 Grier, S.A. & Kumanyika S.K. (2008). The Context for Choice: Health Implications of Targeted Food and Beverage Marketing to African Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 98(9), 1616-1629. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2509618/

Park, E.R., Japuntich, S.J., Traeger, L., Cannon, S., & Pajolek, H. (2011). Disparities between blacks and whites in tobacco and lung cancer treatment. The Oncologist, 16(10):1428-34. DOI: 10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0114

7 Trinidad, D.R., Pérez-Stable, E.J., White, M.M., Emery, S.L., & Messer, K. (2011). A nationwide analysis of US racial/ethnic disparities in smoking behaviors, smoking cessation, and cessation-related factors. American Journal of Public Health, 101(4), 699-706. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2010.191668

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