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Classification of Natural Communities

The classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts provides a basis for discussing and conserving the diversity of our types of natural communities and the species they support.


This classification divides natural community types into three major sections:

  • Terrestrial
  • Palustrine
  • Estuarine

Along with the Introduction and Appendices, including References and lists of community types, a .pdf is available for each community type.

The Preferred citation for the 2016 revision of the Classification of Natural Communities of Massachusetts is:

Swain, P.C. 2016. Classification of the Natural Communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA.


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