View non-government pensions

See information on non-government pensions and how Massachusetts treats them for tax purposes.

401(a) profit sharing retirement savings plan

401(a) profit sharing plans are contributory plans in which how much is contributed to your account is based on a percentage of your employer's profits.

Included in your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

  • Distributions made to you from the 401(a) plan under the cash option or from the deferred payment option of the plan

Excluded from your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

  • Contributions an employer made on your behalf to a 401(a) profit sharing plan that includes cash or deferred payment option
  • Income you earned on the contributions while in the 401(a) plan account

401(k) qualified Cash or Deferred Arrangement (CODA) plan

A qualified cash or deferred arrangement (CODA), commonly referred to as a 401(k) plan, lets you choose between receiving cash or putting it in a qualified pension plan.

Included in your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

  • Contributions you made to a 401(k) plan
  • Elective contributions (deferrals) you made to a 401(k) plan or CODA.  When you make elective contributions instead of receiving cash, the contributions are considered as made on your behalf by your employer and not treated as employee contributions. Instead, they're given the same pre-tax benefit as that of an employer's contributions to a qualified plan. See the "Current year exclusion amounts" table below for elective deferrals, including "catch-up" contributions.
  • Distributions made to you from a 401(k) plan. These distributions happen when any of the following happens:
    • Separation from service
    • Death
    • Disability
    • Ending a plan without creating another plan
    • Reaching age 59 and a half
    • Your corporate employer gets rid of a substantial amount of its assets
    • Hardship

Excluded from your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

  • Contributions an employer made to a 401(k) plan
  • Elective contributions (deferrals) you made to a 401(k) plan or CODA
  • Income you earned on contributions while in a 401(a) plan account

    Special "catch-up" provision

    A limited "catch-up" provision allows those in their last 3 years before reaching normal retirement age to hold over larger amounts, as long as the full amount has not been used in previous years.

    Partnerships, S corporations, and sole proprietorships

    For federal income tax purposes:

    A partnership or sole proprietorship can maintain a 401(k) plan on behalf of its self-employed employees or owner-employees, and individual partners or owners can make cash or deferred elections.

    • Partnerships - A cash or deferred arrangement includes any arrangement that directly or indirectly allows partners to vary contributions made on their behalf. The partnership itself is treated as the employer of each partner who is an employee. Contributions on behalf of a partner include contributions made by the partnership and contributions made by the partner as an employee.
    • Sole proprietorships - The owner is treated as the employer. For a sole proprietorship, contributions on an owner's behalf include contributions the owner made as the deemed employer or deemed employee.

    An individual partner or owner of a sole proprietorship can make elective contributions to a 401(k) plan based on compensation for services they provide the partnership or sole proprietorship, and the partnership or sole proprietorship can match contributions to these elective contributions.

    The partnership or sole proprietorship can deduct these matching contributions as long as they're within annual limits:

    • Partnerships - The partner's share of the partnership's deduction flows to the partner. As a partner, report your distributive share of the deduction for your contributions on Schedule K-1 (Form 1065) - Partner's Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc., in the box for other deductions. Then, report it on your Form 1040 - U.S. Individual Income Tax Return (Line 28).
      • Defined contribution plan - The partner's distributive share of the deduction is that part of the deduction connected to contributions made on the partner's behalf.
      • Defined benefit plan - The partner's distributive share of the deduction is determined in the same way as their distributive share of income.

    For Massachusetts income tax purposes:

    For calculating adjusted gross income, Massachusetts allows deductions available under I.R.C. § 404. However, deductions for contributions on behalf of partners and owners of sole proprietorships are not allowed. Make sure your Massachusetts Schedule 3K-1 reflects the add back (adjustment to net income) of the disallowed deduction.

    The above applies to sole proprietors and partners, but not to shareholders of an S corporation. Shareholder-employees of an S corporation can deduct employer contributions made to a qualified retirement plan on their behalf for Massachusetts tax purposes.

    Additional Resources for 401(k) qualified Cash or Deferred Arrangement (CODA) plan

    Savings Banks Employee's Retirement Association (SBERA)

    The Savings Banks Employee's Retirement Association (SBERA) provides pensions for eligible employees of participating banks who retire due to age or disability.

    Included in your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

    • Distributions you received from a bank plan. These are also subject to Massachusetts withholding taxes during the taxable year they're paid or made available to employees through retirement or disability.

    Excluded from your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

    • Contributions you and your employer made while participating in a bank plan. These are not subject to Massachusetts withholding and not included on the Form W-2 as wages or other compensation until the year the funds are available to employees.
    • Income you earned on the contributions while in the bank plan

    Coverdell Education Savings Account (CESA)

    Coverdell Education Savings Accounts (CESA), previously called Education IRA, help low and middle income taxpayers save for education. Earnings grow tax-free on CESA contributions, and income distributions are tax-free to the extent that they pay for qualified higher education expenses during the year they're distributed.

    The maximum yearly nondeductible contribution you can make to an education savings account depends on your modified federal adjusted gross income (AGI). Individuals or married filing joint taxpayers may contribute up to $2,000 annually per beneficiary. You may contribute to both a CESA set up for your children and your own individual retirement account (Roth/traditional IRA) as long as you meet the federal AGI thresholds.

    Contributions individual or married filing joint taxpayers make to a CESA are limited and not deductible for Massachusetts. Married filing separate taxpayers may not set up CESAs. 

    Excluded from your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

    • Income earned on the contributions while in the CESA
    • Distributions the CESA made to you, to the extent they are excluded from federal gross income. In general, federal rules determine that distributions are tax free to the extent that they are used to pay the beneficiaries' qualified higher education expenses during the year in which the distribution is made.

    Keogh plans (HR-10 plans)

    Keogh plans (also called HR-10 plans) are retirement plans that can only be set up by sole proprietors or partnerships, but not partners. These plans are for self-employed people who earn income from personal services and have net earnings.

    If you have a net loss from self-employment, you can't make a contribution for the year. Net earnings must be from your personal services, not from investments. Contributions to Keogh plans, similar to IRAs, are made with after-tax dollars. The distributions are taxable only after previously taxed contributions have been recovered.

    Limited partners in a partnership can't set up a Keogh plan unless they receive guaranteed payments for services that are treated as earnings from self-employment. An individual partner can't set up a Keogh either. The partnership must do it.

    Pre-1975 contributions were deductible under Massachusetts law and therefore have not been taxed.

    Included in your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

    • Contributions you made to a Keogh or HR-10 plan (if you're self-employed). For federal purposes, you can claim either all or part of the contribution as a deduction on U.S. Form 1040 if certain criteria are met. However, Massachusetts does not allow a deduction for these contributions.
    • Distributions a Keogh or HR-10 plan made to you. However, for Massachusetts purposes, these distributions are excluded from gross income if distributions represent Massachusetts previously taxed contributions.

    Excluded from your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

    • Income you earned on the contributions while in the Keogh or HR-10 plan

    If you have a Keogh or HR-10 plan, keep a record of all contributions you made that you included in Massachusetts gross income. Records include:

    • Statements from banks or other financial institutions verifying contributions and distributions to date, including any rollover sources
    • Copies of U.S. Form 1099-R - Distributions from Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts

    To see if you're taxed for your Keogh distributions:

    • Residents - Complete the Schedule X, Line 2 worksheet - Taxable IRA/Keogh Plan and Roth IRA Distributions.
    • Part-year residents taxed on IRA distributions they received as a Massachusetts resident - Complete Schedule X, Line 2 worksheet - Taxable IRA/Keogh Plan and Roth IRA Distributions.
    • Nonresidents - You are not taxed on Keogh distributions.

    See an example of the Traditional IRA, Keogh Plan, Qualified Charitable IRA and Roth IRA Conversion Distributions worksheet here.

    Additional Resources for Keogh plans (HR-10 plans)

    Roth Individual Retirement Account (IRA)

    Roth IRAs are nondeductible contributory IRAs that let income grow tax-free and allows tax-free income distributions if certain conditions are met. You can contribute a maximum annual amount to these. Each joint filer may contribute up to the maximum allowable amount as long as they meet the federal AGI thresholds.

    Contributing to a Roth IRA is limited and not deductible for Massachusetts. The maximum yearly nondeductible amount you can contribute to a Roth IRA depends on your modified federal adjusted gross income (AGI). You can contribute the smaller of:

    • $5,500 annually (not counting rollover contributions), or
    • Your taxable compensation for the year

    Also, if you're at least 50 years old by the end of the tax year, you can make "catch-up" contributions. The maximum catch-up contribution to an IRA is $1,000.

    You can set up and contribute to Roth IRAs if:

    1. You (or, if filing joint, your spouse) received taxable compensation during the year, and
    2. You are not age 70 and a half by the end of the year

    Excluded from your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

    • Income you earned on the contributions while in the Roth IRA account
    • Distributions the Roth IRA account made to you, if they are excluded from federal gross income. A distribution is excludable if the IRA is held for 5 years and it meets 1 of the following conditions: If a distribution is made before the 5-year holding period expires, or doesn't meet 1 of the 4 above conditions, the distribution is not excluded from Massachusetts gross income. Any earnings on the contributions are included in federal and Massachusetts gross income instead.
      • You were at least 59 and a half years old when it was distributed
      • You are disabled
      • The distribution is made to a beneficiary or your estate on or after your date of death
      • The distribution is paying for a qualified first time homebuyer expense (up to $10,000)
    • Distributions from traditional and Roth IRAs to qualified charities. This applies to:
      • Distributions made on behalf of taxpayers at least 70 and a half on the distribution date in 2014
      • Distributions made up to $100,000 per year

      To see if you're taxed on your Roth IRA distributions:

      • Residents - Complete the Schedule X, Line 2 Worksheet - Taxable IRA/Keogh Plan and Roth IRA Distributions.
      • Part-year residents taxed on IRA distributions they received as a Massachusetts resident - Complete Schedule X, Line 2 Worksheet - Taxable IRA/Keogh Plan and Roth IRA Distributions.
      • Nonresidents - You're not taxed on IRA distributions.

      To prevent double taxation, Massachusetts allows a tax deduction for IRA distributions up to the total amount of already-taxed contributions.

      See an example of the Traditional IRA, Keogh Plan, Qualified Charitable IRA and Roth IRA Conversion Distributions worksheet here.

      Traditional Individual Retirement Account (IRA)

      Traditional Individual Retirement Accounts (IRA) are retirement plans you can contribute a maximum annual amount to. For joint filers, each may contribute up to the maximum allowed amount. Earnings accumulate tax-free on IRA contributions but income distributions may be taxable.

      For nonresidents moving into Massachusetts, your previously taxed contributions are not taxed by Massachusetts.

      Contributing to a traditional IRA is limited and not deductible for Massachusetts. The maximum yearly nondeductible amount you can contribute to a traditional IRA depends on your modified federal adjusted gross income (AGI). You can contribute the smaller of:

      • $5,500 annually (not counting rollover contributions), or
      • Your taxable compensation for the year

      Also, if you're at least 50 years old by the end of the tax year, you can make "catch-up" contributions. The maximum catch-up contribution to an IRA is $1,000.

      You can set up and contribute to traditional IRAs if:

      1. You (if filing joint, and your spouse) received taxable compensation during the year, and
      2. You are not age 70 and a half by the end of the year.

      Included in your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

      • Contributions you made to a traditional IRA plan. For federal purposes, you can claim either all or part of the contribution as a deduction on U.S. Form 1040 if certain criteria are met. However, Massachusetts does not allow a deduction for these contributions.
      • Distributions the IRA account made to you. For Massachusetts purposes however, distributions made are excluded from gross income if these distributions equal your Massachusetts previously taxed contributions. If you're a Massachusetts resident but also a beneficiary of a non-Massachusetts IRA, the entire IRA distribution is taxable since no Massachusetts tax was ever paid on the contributed income.

      Excluded from your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

      • Income you earned on the contributions while in the IRA account
      • Similarly, for federal purposes, distributions are excluded from gross income to the extent that they represent contributions for which no deduction was allowed due to federal laws pertaining to deductibility of contributions.
      • Distributions from traditional and Roth IRAs to qualified charities. This applies to:
        • Distributions made on behalf of taxpayers at least 70 and a half on the distribution date in 2014
        • Distributions made up to $100,000 per year

      If you have a traditional IRA, keep a record of all contributions you made that you included in Massachusetts gross income. Records include:

      • Statements from banks or other financial institutions verifying contributions and distributions to date, including any rollover sources
      • Copies of U.S. Form 1099-R - Distributions from Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts
      • Federal Forms 8606 - Nondeductible IRAs

      To see if you're taxed on your traditional IRA distributions:

      • Residents - Complete the Schedule X, Line 2 Worksheet - Taxable IRA/Keogh Plan and Roth IRA Distributions
      • Part-year residents taxed on IRA distributions received as a Massachusetts resident - Complete Schedule X, Line 2 Worksheet - Taxable IRA/Keogh Plan and Roth IRA Distributions
      • Nonresidents - You're not taxed on IRA distributions or previously taxed contributions.

      If you're married filing a joint return and both spouses received IRA/Keogh plans and/or Roth IRA distributions, complete separate worksheets. Massachusetts allows a tax deduction for IRA distributions up to the total amount of already-taxed contributions, to prevent double taxation.

      See an example of the Traditional IRA, Keogh Plan, Qualified Charitable IRA and Roth IRA Conversion Distributions worksheet here.

      Traditional IRA vs. Roth IRA - Massachusetts vs. federal treatment

      Federal treatment

      Transaction Traditional IRA Roth IRA
      Contributions Deductible but has certain limitations Nondeductible
      Income earned in the account Not taxable until distributed Not taxable
      Rollover from traditional IRA to Roth IRA Not taxable until distributed Taxable if more than federal previously-taxed contributions
      Distributions Taxable if more than federal previously taxed contributions Not taxable if conditions met

      Massachusetts treatment

      Transaction Traditional IRA Roth IRA
      Contributions Nondeductible Nondeductible
      Income earned in the account Not taxable until distributed Not taxable
      Rollover from traditional IRA to Roth IRA Not taxable until distributed Taxable if more than Massachusetts previously taxed contributions
      Distributions Taxable if more than Massachusetts previously taxed contributions Not taxable if conditions are met

      Converting a traditional IRA into a Roth IRA 

      For federal purposes:

      Generally, you can partially or completely convert (also known as rollover) a traditional IRA (deductible or nondeductible) to a Roth IRA. There are no filing status or income level restrictions on rolling over.

      The amount treated as a distribution and included in federal gross income in the year of a qualified rollover is the amount of previously deductible contributions plus the amount related to growth (e.g. interest, dividends, and appreciation).

      If you only made deductible contributions to a traditional IRA, then all distributions from the IRA are fully taxable to the owner or beneficiary as ordinary income. However, if you made nondeductible contributions, you have a cost basis in the IRA. The cost basis in distributions made from a traditional IRA is the sum of nondeductible contributions you made to the IRA minus any tax-free withdrawals or distributions you've taken.

      For Roth IRA conversions completed after 2010, amounts converted from a traditional IRA into a Roth IRA must be included in gross income for the tax year the amount was distributed or transferred, as long as they weren't taxed before.

      For Massachusetts purposes:

      Any taxable parts of rollovers included in federal gross income is also included in Massachusetts gross income, except for Massachusetts previously taxed contributions. If you're a nonresident moving to Massachusetts, there is no adjustment for previously taxed contributions, since the contributions were never taxed by Massachusetts.

      To see if you're taxed on your conversion distribution:

      • Residents - Complete the Schedule X, Line 2 Worksheet - Taxable IRA/Keogh Plan and Roth IRA Distributions
      • Part-year residents taxed on Roth IRA conversion distributions received as a Massachusetts resident - Complete Schedule X, Line 2 Worksheet - Taxable IRA/Keogh Plan and Roth IRA Distributions.
      • Nonresidents - You're not taxed on Roth IRA conversion distributions.

      If you roll over an IRA from one bank to another, the bank will give you a Form 1099 showing the entire distribution. Rely on your own records to properly adjust for previously taxed contributions.

      See an example of the Traditional IRA, Keogh Plan, Qualified Charitable IRA and Roth IRA Conversion Distributions worksheet here.

      Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE) plans

      SIMPLEs are salary reduction retirement plans that qualifying small employers can offer their employees. Only employers who, last year, had 100 employees or less with compensation of at least $5,000 may set up these plans.

      Employers may not maintain any other employer-sponsored retirement plans, except for collectively bargained employees. SIMPLE plans can be set up as either an IRA or a 401(k). All contributions, including elective contributions, are treated as employer contributions.

      Excluded from your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

      • Elective employer contributions to a SIMPLE. As an eligible employee, you can contribute by electing to have your employer contribute a percentage of your salary on your behalf.
      • Employer matching contributions to a SIMPLE. Employer must match the above contributions or make non-elective contributions as described below.
      • Employer non-elective contributions. The employer may make "non-elective" contributions on behalf of all eligible employees equaling a percentage of those employees' salaries.
      • Income you earned on the contributions while in the SIMPLE account
      • Distributions made to the retiree from the SIMPLE are excluded from gross income if these distributions equal your Massachusetts previously taxed contributions. Distributions exceeding Massachusetts previously taxed contributions before January 1, 1998 are taxable. See the "Current year exclusion amounts" table below for elective deferrals, including "catch-up" contributions.

      If you established a SIMPLE plan before 1998, keep a record of all contributions you made before January 1, 1998 that you included in Massachusetts gross income.

      Special "catch-up" provision

      A limited "catch-up" provision allows those in their last 3 years before reaching normal retirement age to hold over larger amounts, as long as the full amount has not been used in previous years.

      Partnerships, S corporations, and sole proprietorships

      For federal income tax purposes:

      Contributions to a SIMPLE plan on behalf of self-employed individuals are not excludable from federal gross income. Instead, claim them as adjustments to federal gross income. Self-employed individuals include partners in a partnership and owner-employees.

      The partnership or sole proprietorship can deduct these matching contributions as long as they're within annual limits:

        For Massachusetts income tax purposes:

        For calculating adjusted gross income, Massachusetts allows deductions available under I.R.C. § 404. However, deductions for contributions on behalf of partners and owners of sole proprietorships are not allowed. Make sure your Massachusetts Schedule 3K-1 reflects the add back (adjustment to net income) of the disallowed deduction.

        The above applies to sole proprietors and partners, but not to shareholders of an S corporation. Shareholder-employees of an S corporation can deduct employer contributions made to a qualified retirement plan on their behalf for Massachusetts tax purposes.

          For owners of sole proprietorships (Schedule C employers), see the following on how to deduct contributions to a SIMPLE plan:

            Contributing to SIMPLE on behalf of 2 of your employees counts as:

            • Elective employer contributions, and
            • Employer matching contributions

            Contributing to SIMPLE on your own behalf counts as:

            • Elective employer contributions, and
            • Employer matching contributions

            Federal and Massachusetts tax treatment to employees:

            • Exclude the elective employer contributions from the employee's gross income in the year contributed
            • Exclude the employer matching contributions from the employee's gross income in the year contributed

            Federal income tax treatment:

            Massachusetts income tax treatment:

            • Deduct elective employer contributions from gross income on Schedule C
            • Deduct employer matching contributions made on employees' behalf from gross income on Schedule C
            • Do not deduct elective employer contributions and employer matching contributions made on the employer's behalf

              Additional Resources for Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE) plans

              Simplified Employee Pension (SEP or SEP IRA) plan

              Simplified employee pension plans (SEPs) are IRA-type plans employers set up so they can contribute to IRAs on their employees' behalf. These plans let employees contribute more money to their IRAs than allowed under traditional IRA rules. These plans are usually separate accounts in a group IRA. If you have an SEP you established before 1988, keep records of all the contributions you made to it before January 1, 1988 that you included in Massachusetts gross income.

              Salary-reduction contributions may be allowed to the following small employer plans:

              • Stock bonus
              • Tax deferral for you for the employer's contributions and earnings
              • Tax exemption for the fund established to provide benefits

              Excluded from your Massachusetts gross income for the year paid:

              • Contributions your employer made to your SEP. See the "Current year exclusion amounts" table below for elective deferrals, including "catch-up" contributions.
              • Income you earned on the contributions while in the SEP account
              • Distributions the SEP made to you, if these distributions equal your Massachusetts previously taxed contributions. Distributions in excess of Massachusetts previously taxed contributions before January 1, 1988 are taxable.

              Special "catch-up" provision

              A limited "catch-up" provision allows those in their last 3 years before reaching normal retirement age to hold over larger amounts, as long as the full amount has not been used in previous years.

              Partnerships, S corporations, and sole proprietorships

              For federal income tax purposes:

              Contributions to a SEP or SEP IRA plan on behalf of self-employed individuals are not excludable from federal gross income. Instead, claim them as adjustments to federal gross income. Self-employed individuals include partners in a partnership and owner-employees.

              The partnership or sole proprietorship can deduct these matching contributions as long as they're within annual limits:

              For Massachusetts income tax purposes:

              For calculating adjusted gross income, Massachusetts allows deductions available under I.R.C. § 404. However, deductions for contributions on behalf of partners and owners of sole proprietorships are not allowed. Make sure your Massachusetts Schedule 3K-1 reflects the add back (adjustment to net income) of the disallowed deduction.

              The above applies to sole proprietors and partners, but not to shareholders of an S corporation. Shareholder-employees of an S corporation can deduct employer contributions made to a qualified retirement plan on their behalf for Massachusetts tax purposes.

              Additional Resources for Simplified Employee Pension (SEP or SEP IRA) plan

              Reporting on your original tax return

              For Keogh plans, traditional IRAs, and Roth IRA conversions

              For ineligible one-time rollover

              • Attach a copy of the IRS letter informing you that you were ineligible for the rollover, and
              • Attach documentation from the financial institution that the contributions to the Roth IRA have been converted back to traditional IRA contributions

              Documents to submit with abatement/amended tax return

              • Copy of U.S. Form(s) W-2 - Wage and Tax Statement for exclusions of contributions;
              • Copy of U.S. Form 1099-R - Distributions From Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts
              • Statement from bank or other financial institution to verify contributions and distributions to date, including any rollover sources
              • Federal Form 8606 - Nondeductible IRAs
              • Massachusetts Form 1 or 1-NR/PY, Schedule X, Line 2 Worksheet - Taxable IRA/Keogh Plan and Roth IRA Distributions

                Current year exclusion amounts for elective deferrals, including "catch-up" contributions

                All retirement plan contributions and distributions excluded from federal gross income are also excluded from Massachusetts income for the plans listed below:

                • § 401(k) plans - Qualified Cash or Deferred Arrangements (CODA)
                • § 403(b) plans - Tax-Sheltered Annuity plans (TSA) and Teacher's Insurance and Annuity Association and College Retirement Equities Funds (TIAA-CREF)
                • § 457 plans - Massachusetts government employees deferred compensation plans
                • § 408(k) plans - SEPs (Simplified Employee Pensions)
                • § 408(p) plans - SIMPLE IRAs (Savings Incentive Match Plans for Employees)

                SIMPLE IRAs - Maximum exclusion amounts and additional exclusion amounts allowed for age 50 catch-up contributions

                Tax year(s) Maximum exclusion Additional exclusion for catch-up
                2013 and 2014 $12,000 $2,500

                Maximum exclusion amounts (or other amounts determined by federal law) and additional exclusion amounts allowed for age 50 catch-up contributions for:

                • § 401(k) plans - Qualified Cash or Deferred Arrangements (CODA)
                • § 403(b) plans - Tax-Sheltered Annuity plans (TSA) and Teacher's Insurance and Annuity Association and College Retirement Equities Funds (TIAA-CREF)
                • § 457 plans - Massachusetts government employees deferred compensation plans
                • § 408(k) plans - SEPs (Simplified Employee Pensions)
                Tax year(s) Maximum exclusion Additional exclusion for catch-up
                2013 and 2014 $17,500 $5,500

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