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Guide Outdoor Water Conservation

In most years, Massachusetts gets enough rainfall to keep lawns healthy with no watering needed! When lawns turn a golden brown during the summer, they are dormant, not dead. It’s Nature’s way of protecting them from a dry spell. They green up again when rain returns.

Table of Contents

Simple steps to ensure enough water for all

Plant a water smart yard

Water Wisely

Limit outdoor water use

Plant a water smart yard

A water-smart yard starts with good soil that holds moisture and allows deep root growth. Dig down about 8 inches and grab a handful of soil. It should feel crumbly but not too dry and not too sticky. It should ball up but still have porous spaces for air and water to move through.  A rich, earthy smell indicates it’s teeming with nourishing micro-organisms and organic matter.

roses

To learn how well your soil drains, dig a hole about the size of a 1-gallon container (on a nice day and not immediately after a heavy rain).  Fill the hole with water, let it drain and then fill it again. Ideally, it should drain within 3-4 hours.Break up compacted soil. This will allow air, moisture, and nutrients to reach a plant’s roots.

You might also want to check your soil for nutrients, pH, and other factors. You can send a soil sample to a local agricultural cooperative or the University of Massachusetts soil testing laboratory  You can also send a soil sample to this UMass lab If you are concerned that your soil may have high levels of lead.

If your soil is either too wet or doesn’t drain well, amend it by digging in sand (if it has too much clay), organic matter and/or compost. A good soil mix is 50-60% sand, 20-30% top soil and 20-30% organic matter.

Less turf means less watering.

Turf grass (a.k.a. lawns) requires the highest percentage of water in most landscapes. Plant turf grass only where it has a practical function, for example, as a play space.  If you have more lawn area than you need, consider reducing it and planting flowers, shrubs, and rock or sculpture gardens instead.

growing native

Learn the basics for how to plant a less water-needy lawn at Greenscapes.org

Choose native plants and turf that need less water. Once established, plants native to Massachusetts and our climate require little water beyond normal rainfall. Of course, plants native to The Cape vary widely from those native to the Berkshires. When designing landscapes that are

well-suited to a particular locale, it’s helpful to know the naturally occurring plant communities that will thrive in your specific soil, moisture, and climate conditions.

  • Grass height. Maintain your turf grass height at 2.5 to 3 inches. This will help shade your soil so it retains more moisture. Taller grass also grows deeper roots that help to maintain soil health during dry spells.
     
  • Use mulch. Mulching around shrubs and garden plants helps reduce water loss, inhibits weed growth, moderates soil temperature, and prevents erosion.  Leaving lawn clippings on the grass will also help soil retain moisture while recycling their nutrients.

 

planting a water smart garden

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Water Wisely

Healthy Lawn Happy Summer Toolkit
Download this Flier

Avoid Evaporation:  Water before 9am or after 5pm while the sun is less strong.

Water less frequently but deeply: Your soil will stay moist longer and the water will get down to the roots of your lawn; spurring deeper root growth and a healthier, more drought-tolerant lawn.

Have an irrigation system? Use a WaterSense-labelled controller to water only when plants need it.  And be sure not to water the driveway or paved areas.

 

 

 

 

Comply with seasonal water restrictions:

Boy watering

Many Massachusetts towns implement restrictions in the spring and maintain them through the dry summer months to ensure there is enough clean water when needed.  Typical measures include limiting the days, or hours per day and time of day, for operating automatic sprinklers; and requiring hand-watering only of gardens. Visit your town or city’s website to review your local water conservation regulations and activities.

For other smart lawn watering practices, check out Greenscapes’ lawn watering tips at http://greenscapes.org/your-yard/watering/.

Install a rain barrel:  

install a rain barrell

Rain barrels store rain water that runs off your roof. You can use this “free” water when your plants are thirsty. Rain barrels are not expensive and are relatively easy to install.

Many Massachusetts communities and watershed organizations offer discounts or rebates for purchasing rain barrels. Check with your local water department or watershed organization.
Rain barrel resources:
The pros at This Old House show you how to connect a rain barrel. You can also learn more about why and how to use them at www.mass.gov/guides/rain-barrels-and-other-water-conservation-tools

Additional Outdoor Water Conservation Tips:

swimming pool

Do you have a pool? If so, cover it when you’re not using it to minimize evaporation and the need to add water.

Wash vehicles with a bucket and sponge, using a hose with a shut-off nozzle for rinse only.  Better yet, go to a commercial car wash that recycles water (most do).

Use a broom instead of a hose or power washer to clean walkways and patios.

 

 

All Supporting Tools & Resources:

Outdoor Water Conservation, Massachusetts Water Conservation Standards 
Tips for Saving Water
More Than Just A Yard: Ecological Landscaping Tools
AWE’s Home Water Works irrigation
Acton Water Wise Garden
Greenscapes.org
Water-Smart Landscapes Start with WaterSense (EPA WaterSense/outdoors)
Water-Wise Landscaping & Watering Guide (from WaterUseItWisely

Indoor and Outdoor Water Use

Indoor

Outdoor

Outdoor water use

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