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Just as hurricane season is ending in Massachusetts, it's time to watch out for northeasters (often spelled "nor'easters"). Named for their predominant winds, which blow from the northeast, these storms can cause substantial damage to the Massachusetts coastline. Although they occur throughout the year, northeaster season typically runs from October through April, when cold arctic air from the north combines with warm, moist air from the south and forms strong areas of low pressure. The resulting storms can bring hurricane force winds, major storm waves and storm surges, and precipitation of all kinds—rain, sleet, freezing rain, snow—or all of it together! Memorable storms have hit Massachusetts all northeaster season long: from October, with the "Perfect Storm" of 1991 (and the more recent Halloween Storm of 2011), all the way through April, with the April Fool's Day Storm of 1997. And let's not forget what was arguably the storm of the 20th century in Massachusetts, the Blizzard of '78. For information on how individuals and communities can plan for and deal with coastal storm damage, see the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management's (CZM) StormSmart Coasts website.
To help you stay safe and keep a close eye on approaching northeasters, the following websites provide the most relevant and up-to-the-minute prediction, tracking, and emergency management information, organized into the following categories:
What Is a Nor'easter? - This National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) web page provides general information on these powerful storms and their impacts on the coast.
Snowstorms and Extreme Cold - This web page from ready.gov explains how to put together a winter weather supply kit, develop a family preparedness plan, and prepare your home and car for a storm. It also gives tips on staying informed and defines important winter weather terms.
Winter Weather Safety - This NOAA page links to forecasts and warnings, climate predictions, and information on being prepared for the cold, ice, snow, and strong winds of severe winter storms.
Winter Storm Safety Tips - From the Massachusetts Executive Office of Public Safety and Security, this web page gives specific information on what to do before, during, and after major storms and includes tips for emergency supply kits, family communications plans, emergency car kits, and auto safety.
Nor'easter & Coastal Storm Safety Tips - Also from the Massachusetts Executive Office of Public Safety and Security, this web page focuses on northeasters and coastal storms.
Winter Weather - Not just another winter weather web page, this Centers for Disease Control and Prevention site provides extensive information about health issues in extreme cold, including frostbite, hypothermia, and carbon monoxide poisoning.
Mass.gov - During major storms, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts website provides critical information about emergency declarations, evacuations, road closures, and other safety issues.
Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency (MEMA) - This website is a hub of information—from weather and traffic updates to safety and cleanup instructions— for emergency situations in Massachusetts.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) - The FEMA website includes information on preparing for disasters such as major storms, how to get assistance after a disaster, and updates and ongoing activities.
National Weather Service: Boston, MA - This NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) page provides focused information on Southern New England forecasts, complete with a prominent weather map. When a northeaster approaches, this is the place to go for targeted and current information.
National Weather Service: Massachusetts State Information - NWS compiles all of its forecasts, warnings/advisories, and related information for Massachusetts on this web page.
Weather Prediction Center - Precipitation forecasts (short-range to 7-day forecasts) can be found at this NWS website, which also includes links to excessive rainfall and winter weather forecasts.
Winter Weather Forecasts - This NWS Weather Prediction Center web page gives winter weather forecasts with probability maps for snow and freezing rain, along with storm tracks, weather discussions, and other information.
New England Weather Page and Winter Weather Page - Privately operated by Crown Weather Services, these web pages provides an extensive compilation of information on New England and winter weather, including surface weather maps, satellite images, radar images, forecasts, and predictions.
National Snow Analyses - This NWS website provides comprehensive snow observations, analyses, data sets, and map products for the entire country, including forecasts, satellite snow cover mapping, and interactive visualization tools.
Base Reflectivity - Also from NWS, this page shows rain and snow geographically on a radar loop. The color-coded dBZ-scale can be interpreted as: >65=extreme precipitation; 46-65=heavy precipitation; 24-45=moderate precipitation; 8-23=light precipitation; and 0-8=barely anything.
PSD Map Room - NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory Physical Sciences Division (PSD) conducts weather and climate research to observe and understand Earth's physical environment, as well as to improve predictions on global-to-local scales. Geared to those with significant technical weather training, this page links to a variety of their climate and weather maps and forecasts.
Model Analyses and Guidance - From the NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction, this page provides the graphics and discussion details on forecasts for severe storms. And while forecasting capabilities continue to improve, always remember that the further out the storm, the less accurate the prediction.
NWS Daily Briefing - Also known as NOAA's All Hazard Monitor, this website provides the current weather forecast and links to information on forecasted weather and other natural hazards.
U.S. Department of Interior's Office of Emergency Management - From the U.S. Department of Interior's Office of Emergency Management, this site provides extensive information on natural hazards throughout the world. Click on the map image for a worldwide map with links to data on current hazards, including weather watches and warnings.
National Data Buoy Center - This NOAA web page includes a map of buoys strategically positioned in coastal and ocean areas around the world to record atmospheric and oceanographic data. To keep an eye on ocean wind speeds and wave heights, click on a buoy icon to get the most recent data, which is typically updated hourly.
Surf Report - New England and Nova Scotia - Maintained by stormsurf.com, this web page provides color-coded and numerical data on forecasted wave heights, along with information on wind direction and speed. The forecast extends for 180 hours.
Sea Surface Temperature Analysis - Water temperature is an important factor in any storm. During northeasters when the wind is coming off the water, sea surface temperature affects the always-changing snow/rain boundary. This NWS page includes graphics with sea surface temperatures for the Atlantic Basin.
Northeastern Regional Association of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems - Spanning coastal waters from the Canadian Maritime Provinces to the New York Bight, this regional coastal ocean observing system provides weather and ocean condition data. This regional effort is also advancing the use of these data for coastal flooding and erosion forecasting systems.
Gulf of Maine Moored Buoy Program - Buoys deployed by government and academia throughout the Gulf of Maine measure various meteorological and oceanographic conditions in near real-time. Click on the buoy of interest to see if it has the data of interest to you.
National Ocean Service Water Level Observation Network - From the National Ocean Service (NOS), this website provides data from major tide gauges around the country and the world. Click on Massachusetts on the index map to get observed and predicted water levels, which are generated at 6-minute intervals.
Real-Time Data for Massachusetts: Streamflow - This U.S. Geological Survey web page reports current river and stream heights at 148 sites in Massachusetts with fairly close to real-time data. This information can be critical when looking at inland flooding from excessive rainfall or snowmelt.
Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service: Boston Office - This NWS page provides data on current river and stream levels, forecasted levels, and precipitation forecasts for southeastern New England. Stream and tide gauges throughout the region are color coded by hazard stage; clicking on each gauge gives a graph of the water height as well as a 2-day forecast and a discussion of the types of impact expected in relation to the water level.
Northeast River Forecast Center Briefing Page - See this NWS site for all things hydrological—from observed and forecast river conditions and precipitation forecasts to flash flood guidance and regional hazards information.
NOAA Satellites and Information - This page includes NOAA satellite imagery for the United States, with complete data for the world available. Images are available at different resolutions and custom loops can be created for up to two week's worth of imagery. All of the Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-East images depict Massachusetts and the East Coast at various scales and based on different types of sensing technology.
NASA Earth Observatory - From the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this website includes satellite images for the entire globe, featuring severe storms, flooding, and other natural hazards, as well as global maps with total rainfall amounts and sea-surface temperatures.
Environment Canada Satellite Images - The GOES-East section of this Canadian government web page presents NOAA satellite data for Canada down through the Gulf of Mexico.
Naval Oceanographic Office Special Support - This page includes highly technical information with links to a variety of images, including North Atlantic Composites (showing ocean temperatures).
Unisys Weather - Unisys is a developer of computer/information technology to forecast weather. This page provides information for the advanced hurricane enthusiast on satellite imagery, model forecasts, and the techniques and technology behind them.