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MassGIS Data: MassDEP Hydrography (1:25,000)

December 2019

MassDEP 1:25,000 Hydrologic data for Massachusetts with lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and other water features.

Table of Contents

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Overview

The MassDEP Hydrography layer is an enhanced version of the older U.S. Geological survey 1:25,000 Hydrography datalayer. It represents hydrographic (water-related) features, including surface water (lakes, ponds, and reservoirs), wetlands, bogs, flats, rivers, streams, and others (see below).

The layer is a hybrid of data based on USGS Digital Line Graphs (DLGs), scanned mylar separates obtained from the USGS, digitized hydrographic features from paper USGS 1:25,000 Topographic Quadrangle maps and data extracted from the MassDEP Wetlands datalayer. Areas within many surface water supply watersheds have been enhanced by using higher resolution streams and lakes from the MassDEP Wetlands datalayer, many areas have also been field verified. This layer is intended as an interim product that will be incorporated into the USGS’s National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) when funding and resources become available. If you are interested in providing data, funding, field work, or becoming part of an NHD working group, please contact Tara Manno Richer of the MassDEP GIS Program by email at tara.manno@mass.gov.

Available statewide, the hydrography (arc and polygon feature classes) is stored in ArcSDE as HYDRO25K_POLY and HYDRO25K_ARC.

Production

The DLG quadrangles were converted into Arc/INFO coverages and projected into the Massachusetts State Plane Coordinate System. The long list of items (MAJOR1, MINOR1, MAJOR2, MINOR2...) was then concatenated to a more simplified coding system. For each feature MINORn was truncated to three characters and linked to the other minor codes to create MINOR_TOT. For example, a submerged (612) wetland (111) is now coded MINOR_TOT = 612111. The original MAJORn, MINORn pairs are no longer part of the attribute tables.

Quadrangles covering Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard were completely digitized from the 1:25,000 USGS quadrangles. Though not as thoroughly coded as the 1:25,000 DLGs, the linework is all at 1:25,000

The scanned quadrangles were automated in-house by scanning USGS mylar separates at 500 dots per inch. The resulting images were vectorized in GRID and then edited in ARCEDIT. Features missing from the blue line separate (i.e. dams or man-made shore) were digitized from the paper quadrangles.

Four quads along the Massachusetts-Connecticut border were obtained from the Connecticut DEP and projected to the Massachusetts State Plane Coordinate System. See the table below for details on the source of each quad.

An ongoing project by the MassDEP GIS Program to redelineate surface water supply watersheds using digital terrain models is adding additional streams within the newly delineated watersheds. These streams are from the MassDEP Wetlands datalayer with some additional on screen digitizing from the 2005 Color OrthoPhotos. Streams added from this process are generally coded as intermittent unless field verification proves otherwise. In 2007 the outlines of all reservoirs were replaced with those from the MassDEP Wetlands datalayer so either dataset can be used with the SWP Zones datalayer. In 2008 field verified streams for the Wachusett Reservoir watershed were provided by DCR West Boylston GIS staff and added.

Sample of Existing USGS 1:25000 Hydrography
Existing USGS 1:25000 Hydrography
Sample of Hydrologic Connections from DEP
Wetlands
Hydrologic Connections from DEP Wetlands
Sample of MassDEP Hydrography with Local Resolution Streams
MassDEP Hydrography with Local Resolution Streams

 

All of the digitized quadrangles were checkplotted at 1:25,000. The 1:25,000 DLG quadrangles were randomly checkplotted. Each of the quadrangles was edgematched to its neighboring quads. The scanned hydrography was compared both to the source mylar and to the paper quadrangles to ensure completeness.

For the December 2003 update, the layer was extracted from the Quad library and dissolved into a single coverage, which was dissolved on all items after the SOURCE field was dropped. Most slivers, gaps, and other artifacts left over from the quad tiling scheme were removed. Some codes were also refined. Edits were preformed by MassGIS and Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) GIS Group staff.

The high resolution streams from the DEP Wetlands datalayer were field verified and edited mostly in the upper reaches of the watersheds where they crossed roads or if the natural flow wasn’t apparent.

Attributes

The layer contains both a polygon and arc feature class. The modified DLG coding scheme is extensive and includes a wide variety of features, including ponds, cranberry bogs, impoundments, wetlands, tidal flats, dams, streams, and aqueducts. Only data from the DLGs have been coded this completely. Data from other sources have been coded to include ponds and streams and in the case of data from the scanned quads, wetlands.

Pond and Lake Inventory System (PALIS) IDs are unique codes which were added to ponds and lakes by  DEP GIS in conjunction with the DEP Division of Watershed Management using identification codes developed by the Pond and Lakes Inventory System. For historical reasons, some wetland polygons have PALIS IDs. PALIS IDs were also given to impoundment areas along rivers and when necessary closure lines were added.

Since the data now comes from different sources, the attribute SOURCE was added to differentiate which program/entity provided the feature. An attribute for the approximate NHD resolution was added to aid in future input into NHD.

The fields in the polygon attribute table are:

MINOR_TOT Text (15) Concatenated feature code
POLY_CODE Number (10)
 
Generalized code based on MINOR_TOT simplified to these 9 codes:
 0 - LAND/ISLAND/DAM/AQUEDUCT
 1 - RESERVOIR (with PWSID)
 2 - WETLAND, MARSH, SWAMP, BOG
 3 - SUBMERGED WETLANDS
 4 - CRANBERRY BOG
 5 - SALT WETLANDS
 6 - LAKE, POND, WIDE RIVER, IMPOUNDMENT
 7 - TIDAL FLATS, SHOALS
 8 - BAY, OCEAN
 9 - INUNDATED AREA
PWSID Text (11) DEP public water supply identification number
PALIS_ID Number (6) A unique ID from the Ponds and Lakes Inventory System
SOURCE Text (12)
 
Program Source for the feature:
 USGS/MGIS – Original 1:25,000 Hydrography
 DEPGIS – Added from DEP Wetlands by DEP GIS staff
 DCRGIS – From DEP Wetlands and edits/verified by DCR staff
MINOR_NUM Number (15) Same as MINOR_TOT, as integer
RESOLUTION Text (12)
 
NHD corresponding resolution:
 HIGH - Nominally > 1:25,000
 LOCAL - < 1:25,000, nominally 1:12,000, some at 1:5,000
NAME Text (50) Feature name, from PALIS and USGS quads

The fields in the arc attribute table are:

MINOR_TOT Text (12) Concatenated feature code
ARC_CODE Number (10) Generalized code based on MINOR_TOT simplified to these codes:
   1 - SHORELINE
   2 - CLOSURE LINE
   3 - APPARENT WETLAND LIMIT
   4 - STREAM
   5 - INTERMITTENT STREAM
   6 - DITCH, CANAL
   7 - AQUEDUCT
   8 - DAM
   9 - INTERMITTENT/INDEFINITE SHORELINE
 10 - MAN-MADE SHORELINE
 11 - CHANNEL IN WATER
 99 - TRANSPORT ARC
   0 - UNKNOWN
PWSID Text (11) DEP public water supply identification number
SOURCE Text (12)
 
Program Source for the feature:
 USGS/MGIS – Original 1:25,000 Hydrography
 DEPGIS – Added from DEP Wetlands by DEP GIS staff
 DCRGIS – From DEP Wetlands and edits/verified by DCR staff
MINOR_NUM Double Same as MINOR_TOT, as integer
RESOLUTION Text (12) NHD corresponding resolution:
 HIGH - Nominally > 1:25,000
 LOCAL - < 1:25,000, nominally 1:12,000, some at 1:5,000
NAME Text (100) Feature name, from SARIS (where SARISCODE is populated) and USGS quads
LEN Double Feature length in meters
SARISNAME Text (30) Feature name from SARIS, where SARISCODE is populated
SARISCODE Text (10) SARIS code from MassDEP's Stream and River Inventory System table

The following table lists all the possible MINOR_TOT/MINOR_NUM codes for a POLYGON FEATURE.

These codes have been extracted and concatenated from the USGS DLG major/minor pairs.

MINOR_TOT/NUM DESCRIPTION    MINOR_TOT/NUM DESCRIPTION
101 RESERVOIR   115422 FLATS/CORAL REEF
102 COVERED RESERVOIR   115616 FLATS-NAVIGABLE
105 INUNDATION AREA   406618 DAM-EARTHEN
106 FISH HATCHERY/FARM   410115 ROCKS/FLATS
107 INDUST WATER IMPOUND   412111 STREAM/MARSH
109 SEWAGE DISP POND   412115 STREAM FLATS
111 MARSH/WETLAND   412612 STREAM-SUNKEN
114 CRANBERRY BOG   415604 AQUEDUCT IN TUNNEL
115 FLATS   419616 CHANNEL-NAVIGABLE
116 BAY/ESTUARY/GULF   421007 LAKE OR POND
124 FILTRATION POND   421101 POND/RESERVOIR
400 RAPIDS   421111 POND WETLAND
401 FALLS   421609 UNSURVEYED POND
402 GRAVEL PIT W/WATER   421610 POND-INTERMITTENT
404 PUMPING STATION   421612 POND-SUNKEN
406 DAM/WEIR   421618 POND-EARTHEN
408 SPILLWAY   421619 LAKE OR POND
410 ROCK   421625 LAKE OR POND
412 STREAM   421628 LAKE OR POND
414 DITCH/CANAL   422115 CORAL REEFS/FLATS
415 AQUEDUCT   610402 INTERMIT PIT W/WATER
416 FLUME   610421 INTERMITENT POND
419 CHANNEL IN WATER   612111 SUBMERGED MARSH
421 LAKE OR POND   618101 RESERVOIR
422 CORAL REEF   619412 STREAM
999 LAND/ISLAND   619421 LAKE OR POND
7105 INUNDATION AREA   101111612 SUBMERGED RES MARSH
7111 MARSH/WETLAND   101619625 RESERVOIR
101619 RESERVOIR   10500711 INUN AREA/MARSH
102111 COV RESERVOIR/MARSH   105111007 INUN AREA/MARSH
105007 INUNDATION AREA   111007105 MARSH/INUN AREA
105111 INUN AREA/MARSH   111007612 MARSH-SUBMERGED
109421 SEWAGE POND/POND   111007625 MARSH/WETLAND
109611 SEWAGE POND-ABAND   111105007 MARSH/INUN AREA
109619 SEWAGE POND   111114007 MARSH/CRANBERRY BOG
111007 MARSH/WETLAND   111612007 MARSH-SUBMERGED
111105 MARSH/INUN AREA   111612421 POND MARSH-SUBMERGED
111114 MARSH/CRANBERRY BOG   111612619 MARSH-SUBMERGED
111608 MARSH-SALT   11461625 MARSH-SUBMERGED
111612 MARSH-SUBMERGED   114007111 CRANBERRY BOG/MARSH
114007 CRANBERRY BOG   114111007 CRANBERRY BOG/MARSH
114111 CRANBERRY BOG/MARSH   421111007 POND MARSH
115007 FLATS   421619625 LAKE OR POND
115116 FLATS   421625619 LAKE OR POND
115116 FLATS/BAY   619625415 AQUEDUCT
115410 FLATS/ROCK   619625421 LAKE OR POND
115412 FLATS/STREAM   101111612625 RES MARSH-SUBMERGED
115421 FLATS/POND

 

The following table lists all the possible MINOR_NUM/MINOR_TOT codes for an ARC FEATURE. These codes have been extracted and concatenated from the USGS DLG major/minor pairs.

MINOR TOT/NUM DESCRIPTION    MINOR TOT/NUM DESCRIPTION
109 SEWAGE DISP/FILT BED   406618 DAM/WEIR-EARTHEN
200 SHORELINE   412007 STREAM
201 MANMADE SHORELINE   412009 STREAM
202 CLOSURE LINE   412202 STREAM CLOSURE LINE
203 INDEFINITE SHORELINE   412601 STREAM-UNDERGROUND
204 APPARENT LIMIT   412604 STREAM-TUNNEL
210 TRANSPORT ARC   412609 STREAM-UNSURVEYED
300 SPRING   412610 STREAM-INTERMITTENT
401 FALLS   414009 DITCH/CANAL
405 WATER INTAKE   414017 DITCH/CANAL
406 DAM/WEIR   414610 CANAL-INTERMITTENT
407 CANAL LOCK   414611 CANAL-ABANDONED
408 SPILLWAY   415601 AQUEDUCT-UNDERGROUND
409 GATE   415604 AQUEDUCT-TUNNEL
412 STREAM   415605 AQUEDUCT RIGHT BANK
414 DITCH/CANAL   415611 AQUEDUCT-ABANDONED
415 AQUEDUCT   415612 AQUECUDT-SUBMERGED
416 FLUME   601412 UNDERGROUND STREAM
419 CHANNEL IN WATER   605009 RIGHT BANK
422 CORAL REEF   605201 RIGHT BANK-MANMADE
605 RIGHT BANK   606009 LEFT BANK
606 LEFT BANK   606201 LEFT BANK-MANMADE
999 UNKNOWN OR NEAT LINE   610200 INTERMITTENT SHORE
7204 APPARENT LIMIT   610412 INTERMITTENT STREAM
9606 LEFT BANK   610414 INTERMITTENT CANAL
200009 SHORELINE   610421 INTERMITTENT POND
200201 MANMADE SHORELINE   200618406 SHORE/EARTHEN DAM
200606 LEFT BANK/SHORE   201009020 MANMADE SHORE
200610 INTERMITTENT SHORE   201020002 MANMADE SHORE
201002 MANMADE SHORELINE   201020605 MANMADE RIGHT BANK
201009 MANMADE SHORELINE   201605020 MANMADE RIGHT BANK
201020 MANMADE SHORELINE   201606009 MANMADE LEFT BANK
201605 MANMADE RIGHT BANK   201606020 MANMADE LEFT BANK
201606 MANMADE LEFT BANK   202412617 CLOS LINE/STR UNDERP
202412 CLOSURE LINE/STREAM   406009017 DAM/WEIR
203625 INDEFINITE SHORE   406618200 DAM-EARTHEN/SHORE
204007 APPARENT LIMIT   412610009 STREAM-INTERMITTENT
204009 APPARENT LIMIT   412610202 INT STREAM CLOSURE
406009 DAM/WEIR   412610617 INT STREAM UNDERPASS
406017 DAM/WEIR  
406200 DAM/SHORE  

Source of 1:25,000 Hydrography from USGS

Source is for features coded as "USGS/MGIS" in the SOURCE field. Some of these features may have been modified by on-screen digitizing and/or enhanced with data from the MassDEP Wetlands (1:12,000) layer. See the SOURCE fields in the polygon and arc layers for specific sources. Also see the status map for the pre-MassDEP-enhanced hydrography data.

(USGS QUAD# - SOURCE)
Source Key:
  DLG = USGS Digital Line Graph
  SCN = Scanned USGS mylar
  DIG = Digitized from 1:25,000 USGS topographic maps
  CNR = Data from Connecticut modified by MassGIS

1 - DLG
2 - SCN
3 - SCN
4 - DLG
5 - DLG
6 - DLG
7 - DLG
8 - SCN
9 - SCN
10 - DLG
11 - SCN
12 - SCN
13 - SCN
14 - SCN
15 - SCN
16 - DLG
17 - SCN
18 - SCN
19 - SCN
20 - SCN
21 - SCN
22 - DLG
23 - SCN
24 - SCN
25 - SCN
26 - SCN
27 - SCN
28 - DLG
29 - SCN
30 - SCN
31 - SCN
32 - SCN
33 - SCN
34 - DLG
35 - SCN
36 - SCN
37 - SCN
38 - SCN
39 - SCN
40 - CNR
41 - SCN
42 - SCN
43 - SCN
44 - SCN
45 - SCN
46 - CNR
47 - DLG
48 - SCN
49 - SCN
50 - SCN
51 - SCN
52 - CNR
53 - DLG
54 - SCN
55 - SCN
56 - SCN
57 - SCN
58 - CNR
59 - DLG
60 - SCN
61 - SCN
62 - SCN
63 - SCN
64 - DLG
65 - DLG
66 - SCN
67 - SCN
68 - SCN
69 - SCN
70 - DLG
71 - DLG
72 - DLG
73 - DLG
74 - DLG
75 - DLG
76 - DLG
77 - DLG
78 - DLG
79 - DLG
80 - DLG
81 - DLG
82 - DLG
83 - DLG
84 - DLG
85 - DLG
86 - DLG
87 - DLG
88 - SCN
89 - DLG
90 - DLG
91 - DLG
92 - DLG
93 - DLG
94 - SCN
95 - DLG
96 - DLG
97 - SCN
98 - SCN
99 - SCN
100 - SCN
101 - SCN
102 - DLG
103 - DLG
104 - SCN
105 - SCN
106 - SCN
107 - SCN
108 - SCN
109 - DLG
110 - DLG
111 - DLG
112 - DLG
113 - DLG
114 - SCN
115 - SCN
116 - SCN
117 - SCN
118 - SCN
119 - DLG
120 - DLG
121 - DLG
121-S - DLG
122 - DLG
123 - DLG
124 - DLG
125 - SCN
126 - SCN
127 - SCN
128 - SCN
129 - SCN
130 - DLG
131 - DLG
132 - DLG
132-S - DLG
133 - DLG
134 - DLG
135 - DLG
136 - DLG
137 - DLG
138 - DLG
139 - DLG
140 - DLG
141 - SCN
142 - SCN
143 - SCN
144 - DLG
145 - DIG
146 - DLG
147 - DLG
148 - DLG
149 - DLG
150 - DLG
151 - DLG
152 - DLG
153 - SCN
154 - SCN
155 - SCN
156 - DLG
157 - DIG
158 - DIG
158-S - DIG
159-E - DLG
159-W - DLG
160 - DLG
161 - DLG
161-E - DLG
162 - DLG
163 - DLG
164 - DLG
165 - DLG
166 - DIG
167 - DIG
168-E - DLG
168-W - DLG
169 - DLG
170 - DLG
171 - DLG
172 - DLG
173 - DIG
173-E - DIG
173-S - DIG
173-SE - DIG
174 - DLG
174-N - DLG
175 - DLG
176 - DLG
176-S - DLG
177 - DIG
178 - DLG
179 - DLG
179-N - DLG
180 - DIG
180-S - DIG
181 - DLG
182 - DLG
182-E - DLG
183 - DLG
184 - DLG
184-N - DLG
185 - DLG
186 - DLG
186-W - DLG
187 - DIG
187-E - DIG
188 - DIG
188-E - DIG
188-S - DIG
188-SE - DIG
189 - DLG

Note that these hydrography layers do not have feature names (e.g., "Quabbin Reservoir" or "Connecticut River") as attributes. To label the features in these layers, use the annotation in the HYDRO subclass of the Geographic Place Names layer.

 

Maintenance

The MassDEP GIS Program maintains the MassDEP Hydrography layers.

The 2007 update includes new streams within the watersheds of active sources in Lynn, Peabody, Danvers, Middleton, Beverly, Manchester, and Ipswich.

The 2008 update includes new streams within the watersheds of active sources in Gloucester, Rockport, Ipswich, Newburyport, Amesbury, Haverhill, Andover, North Andover, Wakefield, Winchester, Woburn, Burlington, Lincoln, Concord, Leominster, Fitchburg, Worcester, Greenfield and the entire Wachusett Reservoir watershed. Please refer to the SWP Watersheds and SWP Zones datalayers for additional information on this project.

The 2009 update (released in March 2010) includes new streams within the watersheds of active and inactive sources in Ashburnham, Winchendon, Gardner, Fitchburg (North), Hudson, Marlborough, Westboro, Milford, Braintree, Hingham, Weymouth, Abington, Rockland, Brockton, Attleboro, Somerset, Fall River, Falmouth, Plymouth, Wareham, New Bedford, Taunton, and Cambridge. The code for closure lines was split into 2 different codes, where arc_code = 2 was assigned to features between tidal flats and bay/ocean, and arc_code = 12 was assigned to closure lines between different types of wetlands features. A minor_tot of 7204 was given to the tidal flat features. Some changes were made to the Quabbin Reservoir and tributaries, along with some covered reservoirs in Weston, Milton and Medford, at the request of the MWRA GIS Program. A general cleanup was also performed to address logical errors in the original dataset, like a stream inside an open water feature or a pond surrounded by a wetland line feature.

The March 2017 update added the NAME fields to both feature classes. MassGIS added these fields based on PALIS and SARIS codes. If features did not have these codes, annotation and USGS topographic quad imagery were used as sources. The LEN, SARISNAME and SARISCODE fields were also added at this time.

The April 2017 update includes MassDEP revisions to Surface Water Supply Protection (SWP) Watersheds in the MassDEP Western Region (except for the Cobble Mountain Complex and the Quabbin Reservoir) as well as the watersheds for Mill Pond (Burlington Water  Dept.), Old Oaken Bucket Pond (Scituate Water Division) and Silver Lake (Brockton Water Commission). Other MassDEP updates include linework for eleven missing stream segments, as provided by the Division of Fish and Game. These segments and related edits nearby may be found in the Chicopee, Merrimack, Millers, Nashua, SuAsCo and South Coastal basins.

The following edits were incorporated in December 2019:
- Lake Rico (PALIS 62148), Taunton: Added to HYDRO25K_POLY and ARC, replacing old polygons and linework in that area.
- Lake Ellis (PALIS 35023), Athol: Renamed from "Ellis Pond".
- Petersons Saw Mill Pond (PALIS 94111), Duxbury: Renamed from "North West Duxbury Pond".
- Nipmuc Pond (PALIS 51111), Mendon: Renamed from "Nipmuck Pond".
- Assabet River, Northborough: The word "Reservoir" was removed from the name.
- Betty Pond (PALIS 35010), Templeton: Renamed from "Brazell Pond".
- Cochituate Brook (SARIS 8248010), Framingham: Renamed from "Unnamed Trib".
These changes were based on GNIS names and other input and made in conjunction with MassDEP.

For other hydrographic features, also see the MassDEP Wetlands (1:12,000)Hydrography (1:100,000) and Major Ponds and Major Streams layers.

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