Massachusetts regulations and policies
Federal laws and regulations
Selected Massachusetts case law
College-Town, Division of Interco Inc. v. Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination, 400 Mass. 156 (1987)
The court established a strict liability rule whereby the employer is liable for acts of its supervisory personnel.
Cuddyer v. Stop & Shop Supermarket Co., 434 Mass. 521 (2001)
Based on the continuing violation doctrine, claim was not barred by the 6 month statute of limitation period under M.G.L. chap. 151B.
Green v. Wyman-Gordon Co., 422 Mass. 551 (1996)
The remedies and procedures under M.G.L. chap. 151B are exclusive and bar the plaintiff's claim under M.G.L. chap. 214 sec. 1C.
Lowery v. Klemm, 446 Mass. 572 (2006)
The court held that MGL c. 214 s. 1C "does not apply to volunteers, although volunteers retain their common-law rights regarding sexual harassment."
Melnychenko v. 84 Lumber Co., 424 Mass. 285 (1997)
The court concluded that neither the gender or sexual orientation of perpetrators or victims are an element of a sexual harassment claim under M.G.L. chap. 151B.
O'Connell v. Chasdi, 400 Mass. 686 (1987)
The court held that "sexual harassment accomplished by threats, intimidation or coercion constitutes precisely the kind of conduct" prohibited by the Massachusetts Civil Rights Act.
Selected federal case law
Burlington Industries v. Ellerth, 524 US 742 (1998)
"An employer is subject to vicarious liability to a victimized employee for an actionable hostile environment created by a supervisor with immediate (or successively higher) authority over the employee. When no tangible employment action is taken, a defending employer may raise an affirmative defense to liability or damages, subject to proof by a preponderance of the evidence"
Burns v. Johnson, 829 F.3d 1 (2016)
A plaintiff need not provide direct evidence, but only sufficient circumstantial evidence to show conduct was severe and pervasive under Title VII for sexual discrimination and harassment.
Faragher v. City of Boca Raton, 524 US 775 (1998)
A companion case to Burlington, above. "We hold that an employer is vicariously liable for actionable discrimination caused by a supervisor, but subject to an affirmative defense looking to the reasonableness of the employer's conduct as well as that of a plaintiff victim."
Harris v. Forklift Systems Inc., 510 US 17 (1993)
The court held that if conduct in the workplace is so discriminatorily hostile or abusive, Title VII is violated regardless of whether the plaintiff suffered psychological harm. All of the circumstances must be examined to determine whether an environment is hostile or abusive.
Meritor Savings Bank, FSB v. Vinson, 477 US 57 (1986)
Sexual harassment leading to non-economic injury is a violation of Title VII.
Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, 523 US 75 (1998)
Sex discrimination consisting of same-sex sexual harassment is actionable under Title VII.
Enforcement Guidance: Vicarious Employer Liability for Unlawful Harassment by Supervisors, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Individual Liability of Supervisors for Sexual Harassment Under Title VII, Scott J. Connolly, BC Law Review, v.42, no. 2, 2001.
Questions and Answers for Small Employers on Employer Liability for Harassment by Supervisors, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
About Sexual Harassment in the Workplace, Mass. Commission Against Discrimination
Your rights in the workplace , Nolo, 2018.
Chapter 8: Sexual harassment "provides information about sexual harassment in the workplace such as the effects of sexual harassment on employees, which include penalties for retaliation as well as personal injuries, and sexual and illegal harassment under state and federal laws." Requires library card for access.
Drafting employment documents in Massachusetts, MCLE, updated Feb. 2019.
Investigating sexual harassment complaints (ch. 15) and Resolving sexual harassment complaints (ch. 16)
Employment discrimination, by Lex Larson, Matthew Bender, loose-leaf, chap. 46.
Handling sexual harassment claims, MCLE, 2003.
"Joseph Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc.: Redefining Workplace Sexual Harassment to Include Same-Sex Sexual Harassment and the Effect on Employers," 34 New England Law Review 941 (2000).
Massachusetts employment law, MCLE, loose-leaf.
Volume 1, Chapters 8 and 9.
Massachusetts practice, vol. 45 (Employment law) Thomson Reuters, with supplement, sec. 12.1 through 12.3.
"When is Supervisor's or Coemployee's Hostile Environment Sexual Harassment Imputable to Employer Under State Law," 94 ALR5th 1.
|Last updated:||February 15, 2019|